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^_^:^^. 



ST GILES', EDINBURGH 




p A n'if,..i>d i'iHj 



o 



ST GILES', EDINBURGH 



€\m(h Cttllfgt, anlj €a<|ckal 



FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY 



J. CAMERON LEES, D.D., LL.D., F.S.A. Scot. 

MINISTER or ST GILES; THE DEAN OF THE CHAPEL BOTAL OF SCOTLAND, AND OP THE ORDER OP THE THISTLE 
AUTHOR OP "THE ABRBY OP PAISLEY PROM ITS FOUNDATION TO ITS DISSOLUTION," itC 




' Whoso knows the Past may divine the Future ; the Present binds with a perfecting bond link onto 
link of the years."— Goethe 



W. & R CHAMBERS 

EDINBURGH AND LONDON 
1889 



}in150¥.^'S 




"J M-^c^J^^ 



♦^ 



Edinbuirg^h : 
Printed by W. & R. Chambers. 



t 



TO 

JEv. C Ij. 

WHOSE INTEREST IN ST GILES 

WAS CONSTANT AND UNWEARIED, 

THIS STORY OF ITS VARYING FORTUNES, THE WRITING OF WHICH 

HAS BEEN SOME DISTRACTION FROM SORROW FOR HER LOSS, 

IN LOVING REMEMBRANCE. 



December 4, 1888. 



PREFACE. 



An attempt has been made in this book to give in narrative 
form the history of the Church of St Giles, Edinburgh. 
Various sketches of the church and its associations have 
been already published, but I have thought that there 
might be room for a fuller and more complete account 
than has yet been given of a building so interesting to 
students of Scottish history. 

Many particulars are now for the first time brought to 
light, such as the Bull of the Pope founding the Collegiate 
Church, and also that which exempted it from Episcopal 
jurisdiction. The deeds endowing the various altars are 
also noticed, and generally an endeavour has been made 
to give the reader a picture of the appearance and inner 
life of the church before the storm at the time of the 
Reformation swept down upon it. Its associations in 
later times have also been traced, and may enable the 
reader to form some idea of the strange alternations of 
Scottish ecclesiastical history. 



via PREFACE. 



In writing the book it has been necessary to traverse 
the greater part of the annals of Scotland, and the 
field of research has thus been extensive. Many charters 
have had to be examined, deeds of bequest gone through, 
and contemporary diaries and letters carefully perused 
and collated for scattered notices and side-lights upon the 
subject of my study. Possibly some errors may have 
found their way into the work, but I trust they are few, 
and I have been careful to give the authority for any 
statements that are made. I shall be amply rewarded 
for the labour undergone if I have succeeded in giving 
the reader, and especially the citizens of Edinburgh, a 
deeper interest in the venerable church of the Scottish 
capital. I may add that it has been my constant wish to 
write in an impartial and unprejudiced spirit, of events 
that even yet are apt to stir the smouldering embers of 
controversy. I cannot hope in my estimate of past 
ecclesiastical transactions to please every one, but I trust 
I shall be credited with a desire to act fairly. 

Thanks are due from me, and are heartily given, to 
many who have in various ways aided me in my work. 
To Sir W. Fettes Douglas, President of the Royal Scottish 
Academy; Sir Noel Paton, Her Majesty's Limner for 
Scotland ; and especially to George Reid, R.S. A., for the 
beautiful drawings by which the book has been enriched. 
To the librarians of the Signet and Advocates' libraries, 



PREFACE. IX 

and to their ever courteous and obliging assistants. To 
Rev. William Findlay, M.A., Saline, Fife, Lieutenant- 
colonel Alexander Fergusson, Roderick Forbes, Esq., and 
Lindsay Mackersy, Esq., W.S., for help in various ways 
cheerfully afforded me; and to Mr William Paterson, 
Publisher, Edinburgh, by whose permission I have been 
enabled to give the fiill and complete list of the ministers 
of St Giles appended to the book. I am also particularly 
grateful to Robert Adam, Esq., Chamberlain of the City 
of Edinburgh, who at great trouble furnished me with 
extracts from the Dean of Guild accounts. 

J. CAMERON LEES. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOIsrS. 



PLATES. 

PAOB 

St Giles from Princes Street, by George Reid, II.S.A Frontispiece, 

Seal of the Chapter of St Giles 38 

Crown of St Giles, by George Reid, R.S.A. 56 

Church and Paruambnt Close in 1790 254 

Plan of Interior of Church prior to 1829 262 

Nave of St Giles, looking west, by George Reid, R.S.A 270 

Plan of Interior of Church as restored 274 

WOOD ENGRAVINGS. 

Edinbuigk City Arms vi 

St Giles, the Patron Saint 7 

The Arm-bone at Bruges. 14 

North Entry to Parish Church, St Giles, removed in 1797. 16 

Albany Aisle 22 

Arms of Preston. 33 

King's Pillar 35 

Shields of Arms from the King's Pillar 36 

Shields of Arms from St Giles 47 

Emblem of St John 68 

Chepman's Arms 69 

In St Giles, after Flodden (from a Drawing by Sir Noel Paton, R.S.A.) 75 

Remains of the Altar of the Holy Blood 90 

OldBelL 96 

Plan of St Giles before the Reformation 100 

Medallion supposed to have been struck at Geneva shortly after the Death of Knox 108 

Tailpiece 117 

Two Views of St Giles in the 16th century 125 

Original Market Cross of Edinburgh 134 

From a Brass in St Giles. 150 

Knox leaving St Giles (from a Dra\ving by Sir W. Fettes Douglas, P.RS.A.) 158 

Robert Gourlay's House 169 

Holyrood, before 1650 180 

Tailpiece 189 

View of St Giles (from Survey of Edinburgh, by James Gordon, 1647) 200 

The Jenny Geddes Tumult (from Burton's Wars in En^fland, Scotland^ atid Irelafid) 211 

Tailpiece 220 

An Independent 229 

Tailpiece 242 

North View of St Giles, before 1830 254 

Brass Plate of Moray Tomb. 263 

Old Edinburgh Tolbooth 264 

Old City Arms over Vestry Door 271 

Boss in Choir 271 

New Pulpit for the Side Chapel 274 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER L 
EARLY ANNALS- 

Position of St Giles— Early Edinburgh— St Giles' Grange— Dedication of the Church- 
Ravages of War— Meeting of Scottish Barons and French Knights in St Giles— Burnt 
by the English— The first EndowmenU ^ 1—7 

CHAPTER IL 
THE PATRON SAINT— 

St Giles or iEgidius, a Greek— His Parentage — His first Miracles — Sails for France— His 
Miracles there— Goes to Spain— Settles in Gaul— Story of the Hind— The Saint founds 
a Monastery— Is made Abbot — Tradition of his Death— His Relics— Service for St Giles* 
Day from Aberdeen Breviary 8—16 

CHAPTER III. 

BESTORATION— 

Rebuilding of Edinburgh and St Giles after English Invasion — Ancient Contract to 
build Five Chapels— Gifts from the King— The "Chamberlain Ayres "—Funeral of 
Robert II. , and Coronation of Robert III. at Scone — St Giles given to the Monks there, 
to defray their Expenses— James Lyon, Vicar — Bull of Pope Benedict — ^The Duke of 
Albany founds an Aisle — St Eloi's Chapel — Gifts to the Church by Janet Stury and 
others — Storks building on the Roof. 17—24 

CHAPTER IV. 

BENEFACTIONS— 

The Church under the Patronage of the Crown — Public Men made Vicars — John Meth> 
ven, Nicolas Otterburn, and others — Meeting between Chancellor Crichton and Sir 
William Livingston — Increasing Prosperity of the Church— Great Additions to its Wealth 
— Duties of the Chaplain at the Hij^h Altar — Sir John Forrester of Corstorphine — The 
Guilds of the City endow Altars— The Skinners— The Bakers— Preston of Gorton brings 
to St Giles the Arm-bone of the Saint — Aisle erected to his Memory — Memorial Cha[>el 
erected to King James IL— The King's Pillar— "St Geilles' Wark" 25—36 



XU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

THE COLLEGE— 

Origin of Collegiate Charches— Namerous in Scotland — The Town-council desires to 
make St Giles a College — ^Arrangements for paying the Clergy — Scheme sanctioned by 
Bishop of St Andrews and the King — Bull of the Pope ordaining the Erection — Desire 
for exempting the Church from Episcopal Authority— Bull of the Pope subjecting 
Church immediately to the Holy See 37—47 

CHAPTER VL 

THE CHAPLAINRIES— 

Impulse given to Endowment by the collegiating of the Church— Erection of Chap- 
lainries — Their Character and Object — Deeds constituting them — Their Nature — Deed 
of Andrew Mowbray, burgess — Regulations for Chaplain — Benefactions to Altar of St 
Ninian — Deed of Walter Bertram — Gifts to Altars of St Laurence and St Francis — Other 
Deeds — WiUiam Forbes, Provost of the Church, in trouble about his Stipend — ^The 
Magistrates threatened with imprisonment unless they paid him — Character of William 
Forbes — Gives his Garden to the Town for a Cemetery, and afterwards his Glebe and part 
of his House — Enlargement of the Church — Probable time of erection of the Tower — 
Rules for Regulation of the Workmen employed in the Building — Fraternities of Crafts- 
men help the Church — The Masons and Wrights found an Altar to St John the Baptist 
— The Hammermen receive grant of St Eloi's Chapel — The Blue Blanket hung there — 
Its traditional History— The Provost of the Bui^h made a Lieutenant, and the Bailies 
his Deputies, being bound to cause Mass to be said for James II. — Visits of James III. to 
the Church— Summary of Endowments during Provostship of William Forbes.... 48 — 61 

CHAPTER VI L 
BEFORE FLODDEN— 

Accession of James lY.— Visits to the Church— His Marriage— Met by the Clergy of the 
Church in Procession after his Marriage— Gawin Douglas made Provost of the Church — 
His Character and Literary Work— Translates during his Provostship the JEneid of Virgil 
— His Government of the Church — Negligence on the part of the Clergy — Careless Priests 
— Scandals dealt with by the Town— Other Irregularities— Walter Chepman, first Scot- 
tish Printer — Builds and endows Chapel to St John the Evangelist — Description of 
Chapel — The Battle of Flodden— Edinburgh filled with Mourning — Women praying in 
St Giles — Legends belonging to the Time— Walter Chepman builds Chapel of the Cruci- 
fixion for the welfare of those slain — Gawin Douglas made a Burgess — Leaves St Giles — 
Subsequent History and Death— The Endowments given during this Period by Marie 
Redchaw, Adam William, Archibald Napier, and others 62 — 76 

CHAPTER VIIL 
COMING CHANGE— 

Annals after Flodden dull— Robert Crichton, Provost of St Giles— His Rule— Made 
Bishop of Dunkeld — James Chisholme succeeds him as Provost— Various Corporations 
of the City endow Altars — ^The Suigeons and Barbers found Altar to St Mungo— The 
Cordwainers' Altar to St Crispin— Deed of the Candlemakers — Merchants found Chapel, 
also the Walkers, Shearers, Bonnet- makers, and Tailors — New Aisle built by Lauder de 
Blith— Fines for *' the Kirk Wark " — Church to be kept free from Beggars— Piece of 



CONTENTS, Xlll 

Gronnd given to the Fh>T08t of the Church— Entry to the Chnrch made at " our Ladye 
Steppis "—The " Sang Schule "— Datiea of Sacristan laid down by the Town— Stolls built 
for the Choir — The last work done for the Church — BrasB Pillara for Our Lady's Aisle — 
Signs of coming Change — A Prebendary leaves Scotland for Heresy— The Provoet of the 
Burgh guarded to and from Church — Sir John Young tried for Murder of Cardinal 
Beaton— Heretical Books burnt at the Cross — Decrease of the Offerings made at the 
Shrine of the Arm-bone — Last Bequest to the Church by William Bronne, John Patter- 
son, and others — Deed of Sir Thomas Ewlng to Altar of the Holy Blood 76—88 



CHAPTER IX. 
BEFORE THE STORM— 

Description of the Church before the Reformation— Its Plan and the Site of the various 
Chapels— Position of the different Altars— The number of Clergy— The Font— The 
Furnishings of the Church — The Candlesticks, Jewels, and Sacred Vessels and Vest- 
meuts— An Inventory of these — The Lectern, Organ, Windows, and Bells— The Exterior 
of the Building— The Stinking Stile— Festivals— " Abbot of na Bent'*— St Giles' Day 
— Manner of its celebration 89—100 



CHAPTER X. 
THE BURSTING OF THE STORM— 

The first Warning — Images stolen from the Church — The Queen and Archbishop 
endeavour to discover the guilty Parties — Image of St Giles stolen — ^The Council ordered 
to be Excommunicated — They appeal to the Pope — ^The St Giles' Day Procession— The 
Riot— The Image overturned— Description by John Knox— The Provost of the Town 
protects the Church— Men paid to keep Watch— Approach of the Lords of the Con- 
gregation—Valuables of the Church put in Safe Keeping— John Charteris, Dean of 
Guild — ^Three-score Men of War hired — Deputation sent to meet the Jjords of the Con- 
gregation—They enter Edinburgh— John Knox preaches in St Giles 101—108 



CHAPTER XL 
THE LAST MASS— 

St Giles used by the Brethren of the Congregation— John Knox appointed Minister— 
The Church puiged by Earls of Argyll and Glencaim— The Town seeks to save the 
Stalls— The Reformers refuse a Plebiscite of the Inhabitants— The ''Common Prayeris "— 
Second Book of King Edward YI.— John Knox in danger— Leaves the Town— John 
Willock takes his PLice in St Giles— Church refused to the Queen-Regent for Mass— 
Willock subjected to Annoyance— A Priest Assaulted— Willock obliged to Leave— St 
Giles "reconciled" by the Bishop of Amiens— Mass celebrated regularly during Five 
Months— For the Last Time, 3l8t March 1560. 109—117 



CHAPTER XIL 
CLEARING THE WRECK- 

The Transformation of the Building— The ** Reparrelling of the Kirk "—The Besom of 
Destruction— Placing of Seats in the Church— Petition by the Tailors— Church ordered 
to be Divided— Bell taken Down— Jewels and Vestments ordered to be Sold— Prices 



XIV CONTENTS. 

fetched for *'Kirk Graith"— The Saint cut out of the Town Standard-— Departure of 
Reverence for Old Faith — ^Various Ways in which it was Shown — Weavers work in 
Lofts of Church — South Door made a Common Closet 118—125 



CHAPTER XIIL 
THE OLD PRIESTS— 

What became of Them — Stipends still paid from Chaplainries— Town refuses to Pay 
— St Anthony's Wine — The Provost's House — ^Laymen inducted to Chaplainries — One 
of the Ministers receives Gift of Two Altars— Stipends given to Ministers — ^The Last 
of the Old Clergy— The Master of the Song School and Prebendary conforms — Is 
appointed to sing the Psalms, and receives a Pension — Hardships endured by Old 
Clergy — ^Alexander Skyne — Sir James Strachan— Chaplain of St Mungo placed in 
Pillory for saying Mass — Attempt to Assassinate one of the Ministers — ^Priests had 
considerable Following in the Town — Last Notice of Chisholm, the Provost of St 
'Giles. .....126—134 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE NEW ORDER— 

John Knox returns to Edinburgh — Willock departs— Public Thank|^iving in Church 
— Queen Mary's Coming to Scotland — Mass in Holyrood Chapel — Sermon on Subject in 
St Giles — Gaieties of the Palace denounced — John Cairnes, Reader — The New Prayer- 
book, or Book of Common Ortier— Celebration of the Lord's Supper — Making Tolbooth 
out of West Part of the Church — ^Lords of Session in Holy Blood Aisle — I^nd Treat- 
ment of John Knox by the Town — Marriage in St Giles of Regent Moray — John Knox 
Officiates 135—142 



CHAPTER XV. 

BRAVE MEN— 

John Craig made Colleague to Knox — His previous History, and singular Career- 
Strained relations between St Giles and Holyrood— Sermon by John Knox — His own 
Banns proclaimed in Church — Those of Darnley and Queen Mary proclaimed — Daruley 
comes to Sermon — Is specially Rebuked— His Wrath — Altars prepared at Holyrood 
for St Giles— Murder of Rizzio— State of the Building during this Period — ^The Priests' 
Chamber— Public Rebuke of Offenders— Paul Methven stands in the Church...l43— 160 



CHAPTER XVL 
THE QUEEN AND THE KIRK— 

Birth of James VI.— Public Thanksgiving in St Giles— Earl of Bedford attends Service 
— Murder of Darnley — Placards affixed to Door of St Giles charging Bothwell — Botliwell 
affixes a Public Cartel — Banns of Bothwell and Mary proclaimed in St Giles — Craig 
protests — Death of Regent Moray — Bitter Denunciations of Knox — ^Funeral of Regent 
in St Giles — Knox preaches the Funeral Sermon — Description of the Scene — Erection 
of Tomb — Kirkaldy denounced in St Giles— Places Soldiers and Cannon in Steeple— 
John Knox leaves for St Andrews — Returns to Edinburgh — Preaches for last Time in 
the Tolbooth— Inducts James Lawson as his Succesaor^Goes Home to Die 151—158 



CONTENTS, XV 



CHAPTER XVIL 
CLERICAL POWEIU- 

James Lawson and the other Ministers— ArrangementB by Town for their Comfort— 
Begent Morton and Lawson— Strife between Them — Clerical Power— Thomas 
M'Easlan rebuked— Troubles of Morton's Regency — The Earl of Athole buried in 
Chepman's Aisle— Arrangements for his Funeral protested against — Entry of James 
VL into Edinburgh— Comes to St GUes — Enters into Conflict with the Ministers— 
Durie summoned before the Council — Lennox Regent — Ministers denounce the Court 
— Strong Language in the Pulpit of St Giles — Dune banished — On a Change of Affairs 
returns — Is received and brought in Procession to St Giles — Wrath of Lennox — State 
of Building during this Period— Foundation of the University — The "ScoUera^ 
Loft". 169—169 



CHAPTER XVIIL 
HOLTROOD AND ST GILES— 

St Giles the Headquarters of the Church— Raid of Ruthven approved of there— Mr 
Lawson and the French Ambassador — ^Fasting in the Church and Feasting outside— 
The Ejng decreed Supreme in all Causes — All the Ministers flee from the Town — The 
Pulpit vacant — The Manses taken from the Ministers — Disturbed Times — Balcanquhal, 
one of the Ministers, comes back — Thunders against Estate of Bishops — The King 
reproves him from his Seat— Scene in Church on Minister refusing to Pray for 
Queen Maiy, then likely to be put to Death—" What Divill aills the People T'— The King 
on his return from Denmark brings his Bride to St Giles— Great Rejoicings— The 
King addresses the People— Peace between the Church and the Court— State of the 
Building during this Period — Clock of Lindores Abbey placed in the Steeple — 
'^Turblances" within the Elirk— Mr Abacuke Bisset assaulted there 170—180 



CHAPTER XIX. 
THE KING TRIUMPHANT— 

The Peace in St Giles not lasting — Mr Bruce and Mr Balcanquhal use great freedom 
of Speech — The King angry at Attacks made on Him — A Pasquil thrown into the 
Pulpit against the Ministers — Thanksgiving Service in St Giles on Birth of a Prince — 
The Tumult in the Little Kirk— The Eling afraid of His Life— Escorted to Holyrood 
by the Citizens — ^Commands the MinlBters to leave the Town — ^No Preaching on the 
Sunday— State of the Building at this Time— Description by Father Baillie — *<Mr J. 
Davidsone's Observation of God's SpecialeProvidence"— Vision of Two Sailor8.,181— 189 



CHAPTER XX. 
KPISOOPACY— 

Eclipse of the Sun — ^St Giles filled with People terror-stricken— Thought to portend 
the " Hatching of the Estait of Bischope " — The King assumes Power over the Ministers — 
The Town divided into Parishes— Ministers appointed to different Parishes — Ordered to 
give Thanks for King's Delivery from Gowrie Conspiracy— Robert Bruce banished on 
refusing — The King comes to St Giles on Accession to English Crown — Delivers " an 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Harrang to the Pepill"— Episcopacy eetabliflhed— The Pulpits made Patent to the Bishops 
—The Bishops* Loft— King on revisiting Edinburgh comes to St Giles with great 
Rejoicing—Christmas kept in St Giles— " Dogges playing on the Flure"— Easter kept- 
Sacrament received Kneeling— Black Acts— An Unfortunate Celebration— The Cups 
overturned— The King Dies— Changes in the Fabric of the Church 190—200 



CHAPTER XXL 

THE SERVICE-BOOK— 

After Death of James YI., Times peaceful— Folly of Charles L — Orders certain of the 
Ministers to receive condign Punishment — ^Visits Scotland— Comes to St Giles— Re- 
moves the Reader from his Desk — Places "two Inglishe" Chaplains there — The "Inglishe " 
Service acted— King erects Edinburgh by Charter into a Bishopric and a City — 
Orders Dividing Walls in Church to be taken down— St Giles made a Cathedral — 
Bishops Forbes and Lindsay — Book of Common Order to be replaced by an English 
Service-book — July 23, 1637 — Mr Henderson, Reader, takes Farewell — Dean Hanna 
reads the Service-book— ^A Tumult ensues — Jenny Geddes— Rioting in the Streets— 
Wide-spread effects of the Disturbance 201—211 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE COVENANT— 

The State of Edinburgh — Daily Service suspended — Neither Old nor New Book used- 
Bishop of Galloway in Danger — The Covenant signed — Dean Hanna dismissed — Pro- 
fession of Mr Thomas Abemethie, a Jesuit, in St Giles— Extraordinary Sermon there by 
a Highland Minister — Mr Row of Strowan — ^Balaam's Ass — Address to the College of 
Justice and Magistrates of Aberdeen — ^The Cup of Bon- Accord — The Bishops deposed — 
Mr Henderson, the Covenanter, comes to St Giles— Entry of the Lord High Commis- 
doner — ^Episcopacy abolished — The Dividing Wall in St Giles built up again — Changes 
in the Structure 212—220 



CHAPTER XXIIL 

THE INDEPENDENTS— 

Mr Henderson goes to England — Preaches in London — ^Chaplain to King when in 
Edinburgh— Stands behind him in St Giles— General Assembly meets in St Giles — 
Mr Marshall and Mr Nye, Commissioners from the English Parliament — A Covenant 
Drawn up— Signed in St Giles and St Margaret's, Westminster— Those who refused to 
Sign excommunicated— Sir John Gordon of Haddo imprisoned in Priests' Chamber — 
The Directory followed instead of Book of Common Onier— Oliver Cromwell enters 
Edinburgh— St Giles in hands of English Sectaries— Used for their Exercise— The 
Officers and Soldiers preach there — King's Seat taken down— Crown hung on the 
Gallows — General Assembly meets in the Church — Dispersed by two Colonels of 
English Army — The Members marched out of the Town — Quakers make their 
appearance in St Giles— Their Strange Proceedings— The Protector prayed for— Misery 
of the Presbyterians — The Church divided again — Charles IL succeeds to the Throne— 
A Solemn Thanksgiving held in St Giles— Jenny Geddes bums her Stool— Great 
Rejoicing.. •••••••••• •••...•.• « 221 — 229 



CONTENTS. XVU 



CHAPTER XXIV. 
PERSECUTION— 

Changes in the Building — The Throne restored — The Members of Parliament in the 
Church — Thej prohibit the Coyenant — Episcopacy once more EstaUlished — Lamentation 
and Prophecy of Evil in St Giles — The Remains of Montrose buried there — Account 
of the Funeral—George Wyshart, Bishop— All the Ordinary Ministers dischaiiged 
Preaching — The Service in the Church during this Period — New Ministers appointed — 
Christmas Day observed — ^Funeral Obsequies of the Archbishop of Glasgow and of the 
Bishop of Orkney— The Earl of Glencairn buried in St Giles — Persecution General — 
Prisoners taken at Bullion Green confined in Haddo's Hole — Kindness of the Bishop — 
Execution of M'Eail— The Funeral of the Duke of Rothes celebrated in St Giles- 
Christina Fyfe interrupts Mr Ramsay, one of the Ministers — Is Hanged — The Earl of 
Argyll executed— His Head placed on the Church— Death of Charles II.— King James 
gives Toleration to Presbyterians and Catholics— General Alarm — Wailin;{4 from 
Cathedral and Meeting-house- Arrival in England of William of Orange— Moodie's 
Money 230—242 



CHAPTER XXV. 
PEACEFUL TIMES— 

Change in Ecclesiastical Drama — Bishop of Edinburgh goes to London — His Reply to 
the King — Convention of Estates meets in Edinburgh — Crown offered to William and 
Mary — Ministers refuse to read Proclamation — Are ejected from St Giles — Sermon in 
St Giles by David Williamson, before Estates of Parliament — Toleration denounced — 
Episcopalians start ''Meeting-houses" — All Attempts to make Provision for them 
frustrated — St Giles once more Presbyterian — Newer a Barrel, the better Herring — A 
Black Cat in St Giles — Walks across the Lord Commissioner's Cushion — Supposed to be 
a Witch — Solemn Thanksgiving in St Giles for Union between England and Scotland 
— William Carstares comes there as Minister — Description of St Giles by Calamy — The 
Service of the Period — Prayers by Mr M'Laren — Week-day Sermons — Whitfield 
preaches in St Giles— Escape of Robertson from Tolbooth Church — Meeting of 
Inhabitants in St Giles on approach of the Highlanders in 1745 — No Sermons on 
Sunday— Musical Bells set np in Steeple — State of the Building— Description thereof 
by Defoe 243—264 



CHAPTER XXVL 
DESTRUCTION— 

Annals of St Giles after the Rebellion dull— Dr Blair in High Church— Robert 
Burns often there — Dr Johnson*8 Visit to St Giles — Dr Alexander Webster — Character 
of the various Congregations in St Giles — Changes on the Exterior of the Building — 
Destruction of the Norman Doorway — The Luckenbooths removed — Public feeling as to 
Restoration of Church— Fostered by Visit of King George IV., who attended in State- 
Sensible Suggestions made — Description of the Building by Mr Rickman — Government 
makes Grant towards Restoration — Mr Burn takes the Work in hand — Disastrous 
Consequences — Vandalism of the most dreadful kind — The Result achieved by Mr 

Bum— The Cost of the Work. 266—264 

C 



XVUl CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXVIL 

LATER DAYS— 

After Mr Burn'a work the History of St Giles uneventful — In Modern Times the Church 
dreary in the extreme — How dreadful is this Place ! — Dr William Chambers, Lord 
Provost of the City, visits the Church — His History — Resolves to do what might be 
done for St Giles^Is supported by the Public— The Work described by Himself— The 
entire Choir restored — Dr Chambers goes on at his own cost to restore another part of 
the Building called the Old Church — The fearful state thereof described — This Part also 
restored — The Congregation in the Nave bought out by Public Subscription —Dr 
Chambers restores this also, and opens up the whole Building— Dies before his Work 
is completed— The restored Cathedral opened— Ancient Remains in Church described 
— What has been done since Restoration — Resumption of Daily Service — Monuments 
erected— The Old Colours of the Scottish Regiments— Conclusion 265—274 



APPEI^TDIX 

A. Vicars of the Parish Church of St Giles, Edinburgh 275 

Provosts of the Collegiate Church 275 

Ministers of St Giles, and the Churches thereof 275 

Bishops of Edinburgh 305 

R Rental of Certain Altars in St Giles 307 

C. Abstract of the Charters of the Church of St Giles 313 

D. The Foundation of the Collegiate Church of St Giles, with the Revenues of the 

Prebendaries thereof 333 

E. Notices of St Giles in Burgh Records 335 

F. Notes on the Armorial Bearings, carried on the Shields^ in the Choir of St Giles' 

Cathedral 371 

G. Extracts from Session and Burgh Records relative to the Dispensation of the 

Communion 378 

H. Contract for the Erection of a Tomb over the Regent Moray 381 

L Description of Tumult in St Giles, 23d July 1637 383 

K Crown Charter erecting Edinburgh into a Bishopric, and the Town into a City 386 

L. Description of the Funeral of the Marquis of Montrose 393 

M. Extracts from the Accounts of the Dean of Guild of Edinburgh referring to St Giles.... 39 7 

N. Agreement appointing Managing Board of St Giles' Cathedral 403 

0. Service in St Giles Cathedral upon the Re-opening of the Church after its Restoration 

by William Chambers, LL.D. 405 

P. Tnie Measurements within the Walls of St Giles* Cathedral, by George Henderson, 

Architect 412 




CHAPTEE L 

earip flnnaltf— 854-1385. 

Thay brent all in fire, 
Baith kirk and quire. 

N the centre of the old town of Edinburgh stands the 
great church of St Giles. From whatever point of 
view the city is looked at, the picturesque crown of 
the steeple is seen sharply outlined against the sky. 
Soaring aloft unlike every other spire in its neigh- 
bourhood, it seems like the spirit of old Scottish history keeping 
watch over the city that has grown up through the long years 
beneath its shadow. Edinburgh would not be Edinburgh without 
it. The exterior of the church itself is plain and unadorned, 
and it is evident that unsympathetic hands have been laid upon 
it and modernised it ; but when one enters the building, a vast and 
venerable interior is presented to him, and every stone seems to 
speak of the past. St Giles is a church whose history is closely 
interwoven with the history of Scotland from the very earliest 
ages ; and it has been the scene of many remarkable events which 
have left their impress on our national character. Of that history, 
and of these events, it is hoped some idea may be gathered from 
the following pages. 

The history of St Giles takes us back to the far-away time 
when Edinburgh was a hamlet of Angles clustering together on the 
slope that leads down from the gate of the Castle, and the sides of 



2 EARLY ANNALS. 

the ridge that lies between it and Holyrood. They were but a handful 
of people in the early stage of civilisation — their houses thatched 
with turf and straw. In the midst of this hamlet, there is good 
reason to believe, there stood a Christian church belonging to some 
monastic house, probably in England, which had the benefit of its 
principal revenues, and supplied the duties by the service of a vicar. 
He may have been one of the brotherhood, or a paid substitute. As 
early as 854 Edinburgh possessed its parish church, which is called 
" Edwinsburch." ^ The church belonged to Lindisfarne, a monas- 
tery planted by the monks of lona, and the early home of 
northern English Christianity. In 1150 we find St Giles in the 
possession of a monastic house, a circumstance which renders it 
extremely probable that it was the early church referred to as 
attached to Lindisfarne.* At that date there were lands lying to 
the south of Edinburgh which bore the name of St Giles Grange — 
grange is the name given to a farm-house belonging to a monastic 
establishment, where lay-brothers of the convent and their serfs 
carried on the operations of husbandry, and where they gathered their 
corn and produce.* It was doubtless the lands attached to St Giles 
that they cultivated, and whose church the abbey served by a 
vicar. These lands, which still bear the name of Grange, were gifted 
by King David I. to an EngUsh abbey, that of Holm Cultram or 
Harehope in Cumberland, on the shores of Morecambe Bay.* 
Probably the church went along with the lands ; at all events, it 
evidently continued to belong to some monastery. King David 
Bruce took back the lands and gave them to a distinguished ecclesi- 
astic, Cardinal Walter de Wardlaw, formerly Bishop of Glasgow.* 
In the reign of that king, the great Benedictine abbey of Dunfermline 
fell heir to much church property that had hitherto been in English 
hands, and it is possible, as has been stated, that the patronage of 

^ Simeon of Durham, Surteee Society. 

' It is the opinion of the greatest authority on the subject, the late Dr David Laing, 
Introduction to Charters of St Giles, that Edwinsburch was the church within the burgh. 
' Maitland speaks of the farm-house of the Grange being near the Cowgate. 
* Fordun^ ii. p. 81. 
' Coldingham Abbey, Surtees Society, appendix. 



EARLY ANNALS. 3 

St Giles passed into the possession of the Scottish monastery, but 
of this we are uncertain.^ In 1393 it belonged to the crown, and 
Robert III. granted it, as we shall afterwards see, to the monastery 
of Scone. To that Perthshire house it belonged for some time, 
remaining still an humble vicarage. 

The vicar of St Giles appends his name to a charter of the abbey 
of Holyrood in 1241.* Documents belonging to the church of 
Megginch in Perthshire were then collated, and John, who styles 
himself " of the church of St Giles perpetual vicar," appends to 
them his seal. This is the first pubUc appearance of the parish 
priest of Edinburgh.* 

In 1243, on the 6th October, St Giles was dedicated by David de 
Bemham, Bishop of St Andrews. Previous to this time a Legatine 
council was held in Edinburgh, over which a Roman cardinal, Otto 
by name, presided. It would appear that there were churches in 
use in Scotland that had not been consecrated, and the cardinal 
seems to have ordered that their consecration should now be 
solemnised.* It was this order which brought the Bishop of St 
Andrews to St Gilea We ascertain this fact in a curious way. 
On the fly-leaf of his pontificale, which has come down to our time, 
and is in a Ubrary in Paris, the bishop records his having dis- 
charged his oflBce there. It was the first formal dedication of 
the church, and it is interesting to know that the very book of 
devotion used, with its solemn and impressive services, is still 
extant. The church was evidently re-consecrated subsequently, 
for we find that the day on which Bishop de Bernham oflSciated 
was not that kept in after-years as the feast of dedication.* 

Of the church that then existed there are now probably few 
vestiges. A Norman door, with beautiful carvings and quaint 
sculptured devices, long survived destruction. Possibly some of the 

^ In hifitories of Danfermline Abbey, St Giles is given as belonging to it ; also in Amot's 
History of EdinburgK The latter makes the statement on the authority of a charter in the 
city archives, but that document is not there now. 

> Holyrood Charters, p. 55. 

' Liber SanetcB Crucis, p. 55. * Ponttficale ofDe Bemham, introduction. 

» See Chap. X. 



4 EARLY ANNALS. 

pillars of the choir, and also the door at the entry to the royal pew, 
belonged to the first church of St Giles. The pillars are plain and 
unadorned, and seem to date from an early period. The church was 
doubtless small, and in keeping with the size of the town and the 
number of its inhabitants. The revenues also were small, and in a 
taxation of the ecclesiastical benefices belonging to the early part 
of the thirteenth century, the church of St Giles is rated at the 
annual value of twenty-six merks. It must have been then little 
more than a mere chapel. The inhabitants of the town were few 
and miserably housed. The parish church could not have been 
very imposing, or the vicar very highly paid. He received his 
dole from the monastery to which his church belonged,^ and it was 
not very large. 

St Giles seems to have suffered from the wars with England 
which took place during the struggle for Scottish independence. 
English armies were frequently in Edinburgh, and they always left 
their mark when they came. The citizens were so accustomed 
to being burnt out that they ceased to mind it. We have no historic 
record of St Giles' having been injured, and only learn the fact 
from a notice in the chartulary of the church which has come 
down to our day. This collection of documents begins with these 
words : 

" Because on account of the ravages of war, the mortality of men, 
and the ignorance of youth, many rents of the church of 
St Giles of Edinburgh, and the altars built in the said 
church by the gifts of the burgesses, have been abstracted 
and passed into the use of the laity, to the diminution of 
divine worship, the discrete man William Guppild, then 
alderman of the said burgh, with the consent of the following 
.... and with the consent and assent of all the other 
burgesses of the said burgh : " 

appointed John Rollo, common clerk of the community, to keep a 

' In a scheme for the taxation of Scotch benefices, published by the Surtees Society, Priory 
of Coldingham, the church of St Giles is thus stated : ** Verus valor, vji xiij* iiij«i ; decima, 
xiij* iiij'i." 



EARLT ANNALS. 5 

register and to inscribe therein the charters and deeds of gift 
belonging to the church. This was done in 1368, and we learn 
from the document that the " ravages of war " had reached St 
Giles before then, though to what extent they affected it we are 
not told. 

In 1384 there was held in St Giles a meeting of a large niunber 
of Scottish barons and Scottish knights. A body of distinguished 
Frenchmen, thirty in number, were in Edinburgh. They had come 
hither in the chivalrous spirit that then prevailed, desiring an oppor- 
tunity of exhibiting their prowess, and willing to aid the Scots 
against their ancient enemies of England ; and their expedition was 
commanded by a knight of renown. The king of Scotland received 
the foreigners with courtesy, but he wished peace, and declined 
their offers. The barons were, however, in a different mood. They 
met in the church of St Giles, and resolved, in spite of the king, 
to make a raid into England. They sent word to the Frenchmen 
to come to their counsels and to aid them in their enterprise. The 
old chronicler Froissart gives us an account of the transaction : 

" And thus whyle the king and the knightes were at difference, 
the erle Douglas and the erle Moref . . . and divers other 
knightes and squires of Scotland, desyring to be armed, helde 
a secret counsayle togyther in the churche of Edinborowe, 
and the knichtes of France ware sent for by them, as Sir 
Mychael de la Barre and Sir Gamyier, desyring thame to 
go to thair companyons and to shew thame their intent, and 
to keep thair purpose secret.'** 

The raid was made, and fifteen thousand Scots, mounted on small 
horses, broke into the northern counties of England, wasted the 
country with fire and sword, and returned with much plunder and 
many prisoners. The incursion was, however, bitterly avenged. 
In the next year an English army marched into Scotland, under 
Hichard II. He pushed on to the capital. The beautiful abbeys 
of Melrose and Dryburgh were burnt, Edinburgh was given to the 

^ Froissart, Lord Bemers, voL L fo. cocxviL 



fi EARLY ANNALS. 

flames, and nothing spared of the town but the monastery of Holy- 
rood. The chroniclers tell us of the fate of St Giles : 

Of Edinburgh the kirk brynt thai, 
And wald have dune swa that abbay ; 
But the Duke, for his curtasy 
Gert it that time sawfyd be.^ 

" The noble town of Edinburgh/' says Bower, the continuator of 
Fordun, "with its church of St Giles, they committed to the 
devouring flames." 

The church stood with blackened walls amid the ashes of the 
burgh. The pillars of the choir retained to our own day the marks 
of fire.* The houses of the inhabitants could quickly be restored. 
"What signifies a war with England?" the Scots said to the 
Frenchmen. "They burned our houses, it is true; but that was 
all, and with four or five stakes and plenty green boughs to cover 
them, they were rebuilt almost as soon as they were destroyed." 
The reparation of the church was a matter of greater diflSculty. 

The endowments of St Giles in those early years were but small, 
still we can learn from those recorded that there was a desire to 
sustain the oflBces of worship with credit, and to make the church 
worthy of the capital of Scotland. A glance at the charters shows 
us this. 

In 1344-5, Mathew, the son of Juliane, burgess of Edinburgh, 
gives to God and the Blessed Virgin Mary in the chapel of St Mary 
of Edinburgh, two shillings from the rents of his holding in the 
north part of the burgh, and " if it should happen, which God for- 
bid, that the said holding by war or by any other casualty should 
be destroyed, so that the foresaid two shillings should not be levied," 
they were to be paid as soon as the holding should be reconstructed. 
About the same time Henry Multerer gave to God and to the 
altar of St John the Baptist in the choir of the Blessed Virgin, and 
to a chaplain celebrating divine worship, his whole lands of Grothill, 

» Wynton's Chrontckles, voL ii p. 330. 

3 This was seen in the late restoration, and probably may be held to establish the ancient 
character of this part of the chnix^h. 



EARLY ANNALS. 7 

with its pertinents, lying within the constabulary of Edinburgh. 
In 1358, David, king of the Scots, gives to God, St Mary, and 
St Katherine, and to a chaplain at the altar of the latter saint, 
the whole land of Overmerchamestoun. In 1362, John de Allyn- 
crum gave all his lands of Craigcruke to found a chaplainry at the 
altar of the Blessed Virgin, giving the patronage to the alderman 
and council of Edinburgh. In 1363, William More, lord of Abeyer- 
come, endowed with his lands of Raylistoun (Eavelston) a chaplainry 
at the altar of the Blessed Virgin. About the same year WiUiam Hare, 
burgess of Edinburgh, gave to the same altar his land lying between 
the lands of Simon of Kircaldy and those of Ede. Douw, in the north 
street of the burgh. These endowments were not large at the time, 
though some of them afterwards became of considerable value ; the 
lands of Craigcrook, Grothill, and Over-Merchamston particularly 
so. We learn from the deeds conveying them that the altars then 
in the church were few — only three are mentioned. The church was 
small, and there was not acconamodation within its walls for more. 
But the interest taken in it by the burghers of Edinburgh was even 
in those early times very great ; and that interest was destined, as 
the years went on, to increase. The three altars with which the 
early church of St Giles began its history were soon to have many 
added to their number. 




St Giles. 




CHAPTER 11. 
€it Patron ^afnt. 

Faith is fresh of hue. 

Lyra Innocentium, 

EFORE proceeding with our narrative, it may not 
be out of place to give here a short sketch of the 
legendary history of the saint under whose invocation 
the church and capital of Scotland were placed by 
our forefathers. Why St Giles was chosen as their 
patron saint it is impossible to determine. Most of the churches of 
Scotland were dedicated to saints of Scottish or Irish origin, such as 
St Ninian, St Mirinus, St Columba, or St Patrick. There were 
only two churches besides that of Edinburgh which bore the name 
of "St Giles." ^ This saint, however, was very popular in other 
Catholic countries, and especially in France, and it is probably to our 
ancient connection with the latter country that we owe his trans- 
ference to Scotland, We give his history as it is set forth by his 
CathoUc biographers, and adopting their language. 

St Giles or -^gidius {Aiyidios) was of Greek origin. He was 
born at Athens during the year 640. His father's name was 
Theodore, and his mother's Pelagie. His family are supposed to 
have had royal blood in their veins ; at all events they were highly 
connected. His parents were distinguished for their piety ; and 

^ Elgin and Ormiston. Varions churches in England are called after St Giles. A most 
exhaustive history of the saint has lately been written by Abb6 Ernest Rembry (Bruges, 1881). 



THE PATRON SAINT. 9 

their son, to whom they gave an excellent education, early showed 
that he inherited in a large measure their purity of heart and life. 
He marvellously repaid their efforts in his behalf, and made 
astonishing progress in all knowledge, human and divine. God 
acknowledged the piety of the young saint by glorious miracles. On 
his way one day to the church he met a poor man labouring under 
an incurable disease, and asking alms. He was filled with pity at 
the sight of the unhappy being, and his cries pierced his heart. He 
had nothing to give him, but this he did : taking off his own cloak, 
he placed it on the sick man, who immediately on receiving it was 
restored to health. 

^gidius lost both his parents while he was still young, and 
following the counsel of his divine Master, he sold all his goods, and 
distributed them among the poor. New miracles soon attested his 
sanctity. One day returning from church he met a man mortally 
wounded by the venomous bite of a serpent. The prayer of the 
young saint neutralised the effect of the virus, and the wound was 
healed on the spot. Another miracle he accomplished under circum- 
stances even more remarkable. It happened on a Sunday that 
^gidius sought the church, where he was profoundly occupied 
with the oflSces of divine worship, when suddenly fearful shrieks 
penetrated the temple, and filled the worshippers with terror and 
dismay. A man possessed by an evil spirit was the cause of the 
disturbance. After kneeUng down and offering a short and earnest 
prayer, ^gidius, full of confidence in God, placed himself resolutely 
before the possessed, and commanded the evil spirit to relinquish 
his prey. The spirit of darkness obeyed, and abandoned the body of 
his victim without doing him the least harm, uttering as he went 
forth the most frightful cries. 

The fame of these miracles was published throughout all Greece, 
and caused jEgidius to be held in great reverence by his country- 
men. Crowds surrounded him wherever he went, celebrating his 
virtues, and imploring his aid in their distresses of body and of soul. 
The humility of the saint shrank from the fame that had suddenly 



10 THE PATRON SAINT. 

come upon him, and induced him to make an heroic resolution to 
cross the sea, and seek, far away from his native land, a place where, 
unknown and in all freedom, he might serve God. This was about 
the year 665, when ^gidius was in the twenty-fifth year of his age. 
He embarked in a ship which sailed for the southern shore of 
France, and arriving at Marseilles, went to Aries, where he resided 
for some time. Aries was at that time a Greek colony, evangelised 
by Greek bishops, and where the Greek language was spoken. 
There, lost in the crowd of his countrymen, to whom his high birth 
and brilliant education were unknown, the young saint hoped to lead 
a life obscure and unnoticed, devoid of those honours which he had 
found so distasteful to his humility. God, however, who exalts the 
humble, ordered it otherwise. 

St Giles was hospitably received by a rich widow named Theocrite, 
whose daughter had for many years suffered from a fever which 
defied all remedies. The servant of God could not refuse her 
malady the aid of his prayers. He prayed for her, and at once the 
fever departed. This miracle of heaUng did not long remain 
secret. It was noised abroad, and the saint quickly found that he 
was not likely to enjoy at Aries the quiet he longed for. He 
decided to leave the town; and crossing the Rhone, directed his 
steps to the shores of the Garonne. The hand of the Lord led him 
to a grotto in which lived a pious anchorite of the name of 
Verdime, a Greek, like St Giles, and who, Uke him, had gone into 
exile for the love of Christ. Touching and wonderful was the 
meeting of these two men, speaking the same language, and desirous 
of obtaining the same end by the contemplation of heavenly things, 
and by practising the holy austerities of the eremite life. St Giles 
obtained from Verdime, without difficulty, permission to share his 
retreat. He chose him for his master, and under his guidance he 
made wonderful progress in sanctity.^ Together the two led 
a happy and tranquil life, until the noise of the world came to 
trouble them in their solitude. The retreat of the two eremites 

1 The grotto is still pointed out in the department of Gard and arondissement of Uz^s. 



THE PATRON SAINT. 11 

was discovered, and they were troubled by multitudes whom the 
spectacle of their virtues, and still more the fame of their miracles, 
drew to the banks of the Garonne. St Giles attributed to his 
master the merit of these wonders, but by this skilful humility was 
not able long to avoid the admiration of men, and two miracles 
mentioned in The Acts tended greatly to make him famous. A severe 
drought desolated the country. The inhabitants had recourse to 
St Giles, and his prayers obtained a cessation of the scourge. One 
day when he was alone in his cave, a sick person who was a prey 
to cruel sufFerings appeared and besought the saint to heal 
him. St Giles excused himself, alleging the absence of his master, 
whose prayers were alone eflScacious, and requesting his visitors 
to return later. This answer did not satisfy the companions of 
the suppliant, and in compUance with their entreaties, the humble 
anchorite asked of Gk)d the recovery of the sick man, which 
was instantaneous and complete. The fame of this miracle was so 
echoed on every side, that the saint could not quit his cell without 
receiving marks of public veneration. His humility suffered cruelly, 
and the strong liking which he had for solitude and the con- 
templative life, made him take a resolution which went nigh to 
break his heart — namely, to tear himself away from Verdime, the 
wisest of masters and the best of friends. 

A tradition, which its high antiquity renders eminently credible, 
lets us see St Giles .crossing the Pyrenees, and taking up his abode 
as an eremite on a mountain of Nuria in Spain, where a miraculous 
image of the Virgin, said to have been made by him, is still 
venerated. From Nuria the saint returned to G«.ul, and took up 
his abode in the depths of the Gothic forest, in the neighbourhood 
of Nismes. The brave anchorite chose for his dwelling a cave near 
which issued a clear fountain. Water from this pure source served 
to quench his thirst, and wild herbs and roots afforded him susten- 
ance. But Gkni, to sweeten the austerities of his life, allowed a hind 
of the forest to share his solitude, and to nourish him with her 
milk. 



12 THE PATRON SAINT. 

While he resided there, the oflficers of Wamba, king of the 
Visigoths, organised a hunting-party in the forest. Tracked by the 
huntsmen, and threatened with certain death, the hind of St Giles 
could only save her life by taking refuge with her master, and when 
night covered the forest with its shadows, the followers of Wamba 
were not able to penetrate the retreat. Being eventually informed 
of the circumstance, and suspecting some mystery, the king himself 
came to the forest, accompanied by the Bishop of Nismes, Aregius, 
and a multitude of knights. As on the preceding day, the dogs 
would not approach the bushes in which the hind had disappeared, 
and returned baying to their masters. The hunters having sur- 
rounded the place which the bushes and the brambles rendered 
inaccessible, one of them fired an arrow into the thicket to dislodge 
the hind. This arrow, instead of reaching the hind, penetrated into 
the cavern and wounded the man of God. Becoming impatient, the 
pursuers took their swords, and cutting the cover before them, made 
their way to the grotto — a poor hermit was before them, clothed in 
religious dress, his features reduced by want, the blood flowing from 
his wound, and at his feet crouched the hind, so long the object of 
pursuit. Wamba and Aregius cast themselves at his feet, asking 
him his name and country, what had brought him to this fearful 
solitude, and what was the cause of his wound. The saint answered 
these questions. He refused the rich gifts which the king offered 
him, and the monarch and priest, full of admiration at his dis- 
interested piety, left him, after commending themselves to his 
prayers. 

Flavins Wamba returned often to the grotto of St Giles, finding 
inexpressible joy in conversing with him. The hermit then advised 
him to found in that place a monastery for a number of monks sing- 
ing night and day the praises of the Lord. A vast territory was 
given to the saint, taking after its donor the name of the Flavian 
Valley, a monastery was founded, and St Giles, much against his 
own inclination, was compelled to accept the dignity of abbot. 
Eleven years passed full of blessing and prosperity. At their close 



THB PATRON SAINT. 13 

St Giles, in order to perfect his work, resolved to visit the holy 
see and place his abbey under its direct protection. He received 
from Pope Benoit II. the boon he sought by a pontifical decree 
dated 26th April 685. 

In July 712 the Saracens invaded the plains of Xeres and the 
frontier, and in a battle Roderick, king of the Visigoths, fell. The 
invasion was not confined to Spain, but spread over the borders. 
St Giles, being warned by Heaven of the approach of the enemy, 
quitted his monastery and took refuge in Gaul, and it is believed 
took up his residence in the neighbourhood of Orleans. While 
there the fame of his virtues reached the court of France, and he 
was invited to visit it. He accepted the invitation, doing violence 
to his own wishes, and was hospitably received by Charles Martel, 
the king, at Orleans. 

Although he lived here for two years, St Giles never forgot his 
monastery, and longed to return thither. At length the time came 
when he might do so in safety, and by the munificence of the king 
he was able to rebuild his abbey, which had been destroyed. There, 
full of years and of merits, he peacefully fell asleep in the Lord on 
Sunday, the 1st September. The year of his death is uncertain, 
but it is believed to have been between 720 and 726. He had the 
supreme consolation to die in his monastery in the midst of his 
children. A revelation from heaven made known to him that the 
hour of his deliverance was near : he intimated the happy tidings to 
his disciples, and besought them to aid him by their prayers, and 
prepare him for the great passage from time to eternity. The death 
of the holy abbot was the worthy crown of his life of abnegation, 
prayer, and penitence. To show how precious his death was in His 
sight, God permitted the angels to honour with their sweet songs 
the passage of His faithful servant, and they bore his soul to heaven 
with praises. 

Such is the life of the saint, which we have given as nearly as 
possible in the language of Catholic writers, and as doubtless in 
olden times it was presented to the citizens of Edinburgh. St Giles 



14 



THE PATRON SAINT. 



was buried in the monaBtery he founded. Afterwards, in 1562, his 
body was removed to Toulouse, and deposited in the crypt of the 
church of St Servin, in that city. Relics of the saint are 

held in veneration in many places on the 
Continent. An arm-bone was long the 
cherished possession of the church of Edin- 
burgh.^ In the same year apparently that 
it was brought to Scotland by Preston of 
Gortoun, another person of similar devotion 
(WilUam de Grachant) gave an arm-bone of 
the saint to the parish church of St Giles at 
Bruges, which he brought from the church of 
Buzy, in the diocese of Rheims. It was 
possibly in this latter church Preston also 
obtained, *' by the aid of the king of France," 
the relic he carried to Edinburgh. The arm- 
bone at Bruges is still held in great veneration, 
and is enshrined, as was that of Edinburgh, 
in a case of great value and richness. St 
Giles was the patron saint of the Scottish 
capital, and an effigy of him was represented 
on its armorial bearings. After the Refor- 
mation the figure of the saint disappeared, 
though that of the hind of the Gothic 
forest still remains. 

In the Breviary, as it is called, of Aber- 
deen, the only complete and specially Scottish service-book that has 
come down to us from the Roman Church, and which was written 
by Bishop Elphinstone and published in 1550, there is a service 
for St Giles' day, the Ist September. It consists of a prayer 
and six short lections. We venture to give a translation of it in 
full, as it brings before us an office which must have been held 




The Arm-bone at Bruges. 



^ See Chaps. IV. and X. ; also S. OtUis, m Vie, by the Abb^ Ernest Rembiy, where there 
is a full description of the relic kept at Bruges. 



THE PATRON SAINT. 15 

in great veneration by the worshippers in the parish church of 
Edinburgh : 

Prater. 
O God, who on this day made the blessed Giles thy confessor and 
abbot to penetrate the halls of the heavenly kingdom, grant, we 
beseech Thee, that we who devoutly glory in his merits may be 
fostered by his suflFrages, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

At Matins. Nine Lections. 

FIRST LESSON. 

Now the holy Giles was by nation a Greek, and bom of illustrious 
parents. To the docile youth, whose knowledge in a short time 
surpassed that of the most learned doctors, the grace of God was 
not wanting to adorn his life with the beauty of fortune. At one 
time, while on his way to church, he gave away his coat to a sick 
man. The moment that he put on the coat, the sick man recovered 
his health. 

SECOND LESSON. 

A certain person was bitten by a serpent. His flesh began to 
swell, and he felt that he had absorbed the deadly virus. But the 
man of God prayed and restored him to health. He also set free 
from the devil a demoniac, who on a Sunday was disturbing the 
whole church. 

THIRD LESSON. 

When the wonderful deeds were followed by the heralding of his 
praises he left his own country and passed the sea, and came to a 
certain place near the river Rodan, where was a cave, at the entrance 
of which a fountain gushed forth with pure water. 

FOURTH LESSON. 

For three years he remained unknown to men, content with herbs 
and water only, except that the Lord provided him with a hind, 
which gave him nourishment with her milk. When the king's 
huntsmen shot at the hind with their arrows, they grievously 
wounded the man of God in the arm. The king, when he heard 
of this, begged and obtained his pardon. 



16 



THE PATRON SAINT. 



FIFTH LESSON. 

Thereafter the king frequently visited the man of God, and by 
his advice built two churches, and when a number of men were 
congregated therein for the service of God under monastic rule, 
St Giles, notwithstanding his resistance at first, was set over them 
as abbot. Not long afterwards he was honoured by the diadem of 
priesthood. 

SIXTH LESSON. 

His fame then reached the ears of the king of the Franks, who 
called him and asked for his prayers, for the king had committed a 
foul crime, which he had never dared to confess, not even to the 
saint himself. On the next Sunday, when the holy man was pray- 
ing in the mass for the said king, an angel of the Lord placed upon 
the altar a scroll on which was written what the king's sin was, and 
that by the prayers of the saint it was forgiven, if the king would 
but be penitent and desist from it. After this the holy man 
returned to his monastery, and confirming his brethren in the 
service of God, and disposing of the monastic affairs, he fell asleep 
in the Lord. 




North Entry to Parish Church, St Giles, renioveil in 1797. 




CHAPTER III. 

«eftorateon— 1385-1416. 

They dreamt not of a perishable house 

Who this could build. Be mine in hours of fear 

Or grovelling thought, to seek a refuge here. 

DINBURGH was speedily rebuilt after the fire, and 
the restoration of the blackened and ruined parish 
church was at once taken in hand by the citizens. 
The former church was probably roofed with wood, 
which rendered it a prey to the flames: that which 
was now erected was, to use the Scottish phrase, "thekyt with 
stane/' When the great cathedral of Canterbury was burnt, about 
the same time, the chronicler of the period tells us how the former 
roof of wood, decorated and painted, was replaced by one of stone, and 
how the ribbed arches were formed on a framework of timber, to 
which was attached the scaffold on which the masons stood. A 
similar arrangement was doubtless employed here, but of the par- 
ticulars of the reconstruction we can only gain hints from the 
charters of the period. 

One document has come down to us connected with the restora- 
tion which is full of interest. It is one of the oldest written 
specimens of the Scottish tongue. It refers only to a part of the 
building, but it leads us to feel sure that similar care was taken of 
the rest, and it shows how thoroughly solid and substantial the 
work done must have been. In 1387 the provost of the burgh con- 
tracted with three masons to build five chapels on the south side of 



18 RESTORATION. 

the nave of the church. These masons were Scotchmen, the names 
of two of them being John Skuyer and John Primrose, and 
the third is designated John of Scone, and perhaps was connected 
with the great monastery of that place. Instead of any plan of 
the new buildings being prepared, a model was pointed out which 
they were to imitate. In the abbey of Holyrood, on the north side 
of the altar, stood a chapel dedicated to St Stephen, and this 
chapel they were carefully instructed to make their model. The 
roofs and windows of the new buildings were specially to be con- 
structed " after the pattern they had seen." Four of the chapels 
were to have each a window, and the fifth was to have a door as 
good as the western door of the church itself They were all to be 
" thekyt " with stone, to be water-tight, and furnished with gutters 
" to cast the watir owte and to save the were fra the watir," and 
the whole was to be done in a "masonlyke" manner. The community 
were to provide them with the scaffolding, and they were to bring 
their skill to the work " truely without fraud as true men ought to 
do." They were to receive six hundred merks in payment for the 
whole, and forty pounds to account, and to lay in their place twelve 
hundred hewn stones " astlayr and coynyhe ; " on the completion of 
the buildings they were to warrant the whole water-tight, and until 
then each was to be security for the others. They were as strictly 
bound down as any workmen of our time could be, and the contract 
was duly sealed. John Skuyer appended his own seal, but his two 
friends having no seals of their own, borrowed those of two 
acquaintances whose names are duly given.* 

The work thus contracted for occupied a considerable time. 
During several subsequent years we find receipts given by the three 
masons for payment of their work, and fifteen years afterwards we 
have John Primrose, one of their number, granting a discharge ; 
but as the five chapels to which the contract refers could hardly 
have taken that time in building, this skilled workman was probably 
employed in the other constructions which succeeded those in which 

1 Charters of St Giles. 



RESTORATION. 19 

he was originally engaged. These five chapels are described as lying 
in a straight line eastward from the west gable of the church to the 
great pillar of the steeple. Two of them only now remain to testify 
to the skill of John Skuyer and his comrades. The others were 
afterwards swept away. 

The king, who was the patron of the church, helped on the work, 
as did also the citizens, who made the fabric their special care. In 
1390 King Robert III. ascended the throne of Scotland. He was a 
generous benefactor of the church, and there are many tokens of his 
goodwill to St Giles found in the accounts of the royal chamberlain. 
At this time there were regularly held in the burghs of Scotland 
what were called " Chamberlain Ayres," courts presided over by the 
Lord Chamberlain, which supervised trade, and saw that municipal 
affairs were properly conducted. They were very strict in their 
oversight. All tradesmen were called before them, and strict inquiry 
was made into the accuracy of their weights and measures, and into 
the quality of the goods they vended. The rules and procedure of 
the court have come down to us, and they are suflBcient to show that 
the inquisition was both strict and exacting. The fines imposed by 
this court, when held in Edinburgh, were gifted by the king to help 
the work of the church. They amounted in 1389 to £26 ; in 1391 
to £29 ; and in 1395 to £26, 13s. 4d. In certain years there were 
no courts held, and consequently no fines taken, but the income from 
this source was on the whole steadily kept up. It was not very 
large, but it was a substantial token of royal favour, and indicates 
one of many sources from which the revenues for the rebuilding 
of the church were derived.^ 

There took place at this time another occurrence which marks the 
connection long continued between St Giles and the royal family. 
The king ascended the throne immediately after the death of his 
father, Robert II. The funeral of the latter took place in the abbey 
of Scone, and it was followed by the coronation of his son on the 
next day. Both events were celebrated wnth much pomp and cere- 

^ Chamberlain's Accounts. 



20 RESTORATION. 

mony, and they brought to the Perthshire abbey people from all 
parts of Scotland. The hospitality of the abbot and his monks was 
severely taxed. The prelates and nobles of the land were there in 
great numbers, and their followers camped out on the fields between 
the abbey and the river Tay. It was harvest-time ; the fields were 
unreaped, and the corn of the monks was trodden down and destroyed. 
The fathers were bound by their deeds of foundation to entertain 
royalty on such occasions, and in one of their charters the abbot 
obliges himself to provide the king with all things needful for his 
refreshment and comfort. But a royal funeral and coronation within 
two days taxed the monastic resources too severely. The necessity 
of the fathers overcame their sense of hospitality, and one of them, 
the storekeeper, approached the king's chamberlain and respectfully 
made q* claim for compensation. He gained but little by his petition 
to that official, and was rudely repulsed. He then appealed in a 
curious way to the generosity of the king himself. Early in the 
morning, before the king awoke, the monk assembled the labourers 
and servants of the monastery, armed with kettle-drums, pipes, and 
other instruments of discord, and bearing before them an image 
stuffed with straw. They approached, with yells and shouts, the 
windows of the room where the king slept. The court were filled 
with consternation, and the monk was at once dragged into the 
royal presence and commanded to give explanation of his conduct. 
" Please your Majesty," was his reply, "what you have just heard are 
our rural carols in which we indulge when our crops are brought in, 
and as you and your nobles have spared us the trouble and expense 
of cutting them down this season, we thought it grateful to give you 
a specimen of our harvest jubilee." The freedom of the answer 
angered the nobles, but amused the king, who promised to inquire 
into the matter and make good the damage ^ the convent had sus- 
tained from his visit. 

One part of the compensation thus ludicrously obtained concerns 
St Giles. It was in the gift of the king at the time, and was 

1 Tytler'B History of Scotland, 



RESTORATION. 21 

bestowed with its revenues on the plundered abbey. The reason of 
the gift is fully given in the charter conveying it. " Because," so 
runs the deed, " at the time of our unction and coronation, and also 
of our predecessors, and at similar times through the many and 
frequent great gatherings of people necessary for the business of the 
kingdom, the monastery has sustained great damage in their 
buildings, and has been burdened with heavy expenses, wishing to 
relieve somewhat the said monastery and to provide for the susten- 
tation of divine worship in the future, and for the soul of our father 
who is buried there, we give to the canons of the said monastery 
the right of patronage which we have of the church of St Giles 
of Edinburgh, and all lands and possessions belonging, or which 
in the future may belong to it." ^ This gift was made three years 
after the coronation, so that the king was somewhat tardy iij fulfil- 
ling his promise to the monks. They made all haste, however, to 
make the best of the benefaction. The Bishop of St Andrews 
gave his consent to the transaction, but in his deed specifies the 
sum they were to pay, namely, forty-five merks to the vicar of 
the church, whose name was James Lyon. The canons grudged 
the modest pension they were burdened with to this oflBcial. 
They were at that time seeking from the pope the privilege 
of the mitre and ring for their abbot, and took occasion, at the 
same time, to set forth the grievances they had sustained, and 
the payment to the vicar among the rest. Pope Benedict gave a 
favourable answer to their petition, and issued from Avignon a bull 
granting them liberty, at the decease or resignation of James Lyon, 
to appoint a fit person from among their own canons to discharge the 
duties of vicar, and the bishop was ordained to give him admission 
to the charge.* How long James Lyon continued vicar we have no 
means of knowing. The monks of Scone became responsible for the 
services of the church, which does not seem to have suffered from 
the arrangement. The interest manifested in it by the citizens con- 
tinued undiminished, so that they appear to have been satisfied. 

1 Charters of St Giles, Bannatyne Club. ' Ihid, 



22 



RESTORATION. 



The times were comparatively peaceful, and such times were favour- 
able to the church and the augmentation of its revenues. 

The Duke of Albany, who, during the weakness of Robert III., 
became governor of the kingdom, and whose name figures so largely 
in Scottish history, was, like the king, a benefactor of St Giles. 
He seems to have always been careful to keep on good terms with 
the Church, and this feature of his character has been strongly dwelt 
upon by contemporary historians. 

Ye bischoppis, abbotis, and prelatis, 
Throw hym ye jonsit well youre statis. 
In kyrkis for thi at youre altaris 
Ye spend for hym devote prayeris.* 

This statement was true, at least so far as concerns St Giles. 
Various items are found in the chamberlain's records, " out of the gift 
of the Lord Governor of the Kingdom to the fabric of the parochial 

church of the Burgh of Edin- 
burgh." But he not only helped 
on the work by his donations ; 
he appears to have taken a more 
direct interest in it. To the 
north of the nave, near the 
western entrance, between it and 
where once stood the Norman 
door that had probably survived 
the first stone church, are two 
chapels still happily remaining. 
They are divided only by a single 
pillar of great elegance and 
beauty, like a stately tree carved 
in stone, supporting the richly 
groined roof These chapels 
still bear the name of the Albany 
Albany Aisle. ^isle. On the pillar are sculp- 

tured the arms of the duke, and also those of the Earl of Douglas. 

* W^ynton, I. ix. chap. 26. 




RESTORATION. 23 

The names of these nobles are often found together in the history 
of the time, and generally in ominous conjunction. They were 
accused of the murder of the Duke of Rothesay, heir to the 
throne, under circumstances of peculiar barbarity. There seems 
little doubt that they were justly accused,* and though they 
were formally acquitted of the deed, the stain continues to rest on 
their memory. It is conjectured that these chapels were built by 
them in expiation of the crime. Such acts of expiation were not 
uncommon at the period, and by gifts to the Church, offenders 
frequently sought to show their penitence, and obtain remission for 
their offences. These two Scottish nobles, however, denied their 
complicity in the murder of Rothesay, and to have built chapels 
avowedly in expiation would have only been to confess their guilt 
publicly. The probability is that it was more to get a reputation 
for piety, and to obtain the favour of the Church, than as an act 
of expiation, that they made this gift. They were great allies, and 
a deed has lately been discovered in which, at Inverkeithing, they 
enter, in 1409, into a bond for mutual support and defence. It is 
probable that it was when thus associated they jointly made this 
offering to the Church, desiring to enlist on their side the ecclesi- 
astical as well as the civil power. They do not appear to have 
endowed the chapels, and all that tells of their connection with 
them are their armorial bearings as founders, which are as distinct 
to-day as when they came from under the sculptor s chisel. 

Two other chapels were probably added to the nave about the 
same time with those founded by the Duke of Albany and his 
associate. They were on the east side of the Norman doorway, and 
between it and the transept. One of them has disappeared. The 
other, dedicated to St Elois, still remains. 

The gifts made to the church by way of endowment during the 
period to which this chapter refers were more numerous than 
valuable. A rental of the time gives them in detail. They were 

1 See article in BlachuooocTs Magazine, June 1883, which I think leaves no doubt as to their 
complicity in the munler. 



24 RESTORATION. 

small sums, sometimes not exceeding a few pence, leviable from 
houses and lands within the burgh. Each altar had its own income, 
which was payable to the chaplain who served it, and by whom 
personally, or by his deputy, it was collected from the indwellers. 
In the year in which the church was burnt, the king confirms a 
grant by a certain Janet Stury, widow of John Stury, to the altar 
of the Holy Cross, of certain lands and heritages within the burgh,^ 
the rents of which are specified. In 1392, John de Qwyltness 
ratifies and confirms a donation previously made by his father to the 
same altar ' of four pounds, three shillings, and fourpence, payable 
by certain houses in the burgh, all of which, with their tenants, are 
minutely specified, stipulating that he and his children should have 
a burying-place before the said altar. In 1395 King Robert 
confirms a donation which John de Peebles, a burgess of Edinburgh, 
makes to the altar of St John the Baptist, situated in the north 
part of the church of St Giles, and to its chaplain, of ten pounds 
annually, payable within the burgh of Edinburgh.* These endow-, 
ments do not represent large sums. The burgesses needed all their 
resources for the rebuilding of the city, but anything they could spare 
went to the restoration of the church, the reconstruction of which 
went on with great vigour. There seems to have been a cessation of 
the work for a short time about the year 1416. In that year, accord- 
ing to Bower, the continuator of Fordun, storks came and built their 
nests on the roof of the church. Living at Inchcolm, the writer 
probably saw them there in his visits to the town, and notes their 
coming as an unprecedented event. They were not likely to build 
over a church where workmen were engaged, and which resounded 
with the sounds of hammer and chisel. We conclude, therefore, that 
there was a pause in the erection of the church at this time. It was 
not of long duration, and the work was soon taken up again and 
carried on with great energy. As for the storks, they remained a 
year, and departed to return no more, and "whither they flew," 
adds the old chronicler, " no man knoweth." 

1 Appendix. » Charters of St Giles, p. 22. » Ibid,, p. 27. 




CHAPTER IV. 

«enefactCon«— X416-1460. 

They gave their best Oh, tenfold Bhaine 

On 118, their fallen progeny, 
Who sacrifice the blind and lame. 

Who will not wake or fast with Thee 1 

HE church did not probably remain long in possession 
of the abbey of Scone. During the period to which 
this chapter refers there are many indications that it 
had returned into the patronage of the king of 
Scotland. We find men appointed as vicars who had 
taken a prominent part in public affairs, and who held offices attached 
to the court. Some of the chief benefactors of the church, also, were 
closely connected with the throne. It seems to have acquired new 
honour and dignity as the principal church of the capital of Scotland. 
It was the seat of the consistorial court of the metropolitan, where 
decrees of divorce were pronounced.^ It was a place, also, where 
secular transactions were solemnly ratified, and payments of money 
were ordained to be made.* Here a solemn mass was publicly 
celebrated for the soul of James I., who had been murdered at 
Perth. To defray the expenses of this function, fifty shillings were 
given from the public treasury " to furnish candles of white wax." * 
In the story of the troubles that succeeded the death of the ill-fated 

^ Proceedings in divorce case in St James's Chapel (Hist. MSS. Report, p. 507). 
* Earl of Caithness ordained to pay money on the altar (Great Seal Charters). 
' Exchequer Rolls, vol. v. 



26 BENEFACTIONS. 

king, we find more than one incidental notice of St Giles ; and it 
was within its w^alls that Chancellor Crichton and Sir William 
Livingston, between whom a feud existed as to the custody of the 
young king James II., came to a mutual understanding. When 
their rivalry was at its height, and was likely to be attended by 
most disastrous effects to the kingdom, two of the bishops, Leighton, 
Bishop of Aberdeen, and Winchester, Bishop of Moray, induced the 
disputants to meet for conference. Unarmed and slenderly attended, 
they repaired to the church of St Giles,^ where they debated their 
differences, and a reconciliation took place, the charge of the youth- 
ful monarch being intrusted to Livingston, whilst the chancellor was 
rewarded by an increase of his individual authority. 

Three of the vicars of St Giles, who occupied that post in 
succession, were well-known ecclesiastics, who had taken a leading 
part in affairs of the state. John Methven was secretary to the 
king, and provost of the collegiate church of Lincluden, near 
Dumfries ; he was also Master of the Rolls, and Clerk Registrar of 
Scotland. He was educated at St Andrews, where he graduated as 
Master of Arts in 1431, and he is always termed Doctor of Decrees, 
or Decretals, a title which indicates high proficiency in canon law. 
He seems to have frequently acted as envoy to the courts of 
England and of France, as we learn from the safe-conducts ^ which 
were granted him. In one of these, dated 5th July 1451, he is 
called vicar of Edinburgh, but he probably held the appointment 
before that date. Two years previously he had been specially 
despatched by the king as ambassador to the court of England.* 
From the last we hear of him, he was still employed in the same 
kind of service. In 1454 he is named in a safe-conduct as proceed- 
ing through England to France. Whether he returned or not, we 
have no means of knowing. His successor, Nicolas Otterburn, 
Master of Arts, occupied much the same position as Methven in the 
public service. He was a Licentiate of Decrees, canon of Glasgow, 

1 Tytler's HiBtory, vol. iv. p. 21. 

^ See Rymer's Foedera and Hotuli for the various safe-conducts. > Tytler. 



BENEFACTIONS. 27 

and official of Lothian. He is also called at diflferent times Clerk 
Registrar, Clerk of the Rolls, counsellor and secretary to the king.^ 
He is first styled vicar of St Giles in 1455, in a safe-conduct given 
him and other dignitaries to negotiate a truce with England at 
Newcastle ; and in order to carry himself with dignity, he received 
from the public treasurer a fee and a robe.* There are various 
notices of Nicolas Otterbum in the public records, all indicating his 
activity in state transactions. In 1448 he was specially chosen with 
two others to go to France in order to renew the ancient league 
between that kingdom and Scotland. A more delicate oflSce was 
also imposed upon him and his companions. They were instructed 
to choose at the French court a suitable bride for the king. They 
discharged their duty with much acceptance. Their choice fell upon 
Mary of Gueldres, daughter of the duke of that name. It was 
probably as a sequel to the part he acted in this negotiation that in 
the following year he was appointed to " seek, exact, and receive 
from Philip, Duke of Burgundy, 20,000 scuti, or part of the same, 
in French money, in payment of the dowry promised with the 
queen.' It may have been for his success in these and other similar 
transactions that he was rewarded with the benefice of St Giles. 
He does not appear to have enjoyed his appointment long, as he 
died on the 31st January 1461;* and a few years afterward masses 
were founded for the repose of his soul in the two churches with 
which he was connected — ^the cathedral of Glasgow and the parish 
church of Edinburgh.* 

The year before the death of Otterbum, Thomas Bully is men- 
tioned as vicar. He does not appear to have been so distinguished 
in pubhc affairs as his predecessors, though he held an appoint- 
ment which connected him with the court. All we know of him is 
that he was rector of Crieff in 1450, canon of Glasgow in 1458, 
bailie of lands belonging to the king within the county of Stirling in 
1459, and chamberlain of the king and vicar of Edinburgh in 1460.^ 

^ Great Seal Charters. • Exchequer Rolls. • Great Seal Charters. 

* Begistmm Glasguen. • Great Seal Charters. « Infra. 



28 BENEFACTIONS. 

This last, and the other appointments which we have noticed, seem to 
indicate beyond doubt that St Giles was in the royal gift, and that 
it was no longer a dependency of the distant abbey of Scone. 

Under the rule of the powerful and able ecclesiastics we have 
named, the church steadily increased in prosperity, and received 
many very substantial additions to its wealth and permanent endow- 
ments. Of the charters conferring these, with the conditions attached 
to them, it would be too tedious to give more than an abstract : ^ 

In 1425 Sir John Fostare, or Forrester, founded a chaplainry at 
the altar to St Ninian, which he endowed with an annual stipend of 
six pounds thirteen shillings and fourpence. 

In 1426 John de Alncrum, burgess of Edinburgh, gives six 
shilKngs and eightpence annually to the altar of the B. Virgin. 

In 1428 Thomas de Fayrle gives to the altar of St Cross, immedi- 
ately to the north of the great altar, twelve marks annually. 

In 1437-38 Thomas de Cranstoun, Marietta de Cranstoun, his 
wife, and William Cranstoun, their son, give to a chaplain oflBciating 
at the altar of St Duthac various annual rents from houses in 
Edinburgh. 

In 1439 Alan de Farinle endows the altar of St Ninian, in the 
south part of the church, with forty merks seven shillings and 
fourpence. 

In 1439 John de Tours of Innerleith, and lord of Dairy, gives 
from the lands of Hieriggis twelve merks to the support of a chaplain 
at the altar of the Trinity, situated in the aisle of St Katherine.* 

In 1443 Thomas de Cranstoun adds to his former bequest a 
further annual payment of ten merks eleven shillings. 

In 1449-55 Thomas de Lauder, canon of Aberdeen, and master of 
the hospital of Soltra, founds and endows a chaplainry in the aisle 
of the Holy Cross at the pillar west of the altar, to St Thomas and 
St Martin. 

In 1451 William Cameron gives to the altar of St Katherine 
twelve merks. 

1 Charters of St Giles. * Great SeaL 



BENEFACTIONS. 29 

In 1454 John Gray, Master of Arts and Medicine, rector of 
Kirkliston, founds and endows an altar to St Kentigem. 

In 1454 Patrick Lesouris founds and endows an altar to St 
Michael the Archangel. 

All these endowments were the gift of men who were closely 
connected with the city. Most of them had become wealthy 
through trade. Their benefactions are conferred for the benefit of 
their own souls and those of their family and relations, in some cases 
for their fellow-citizens. Some of them make their gifts under 
certain conditions, such as that they are to have a burying-place 
before the altar they founded, that the patronage shall belong to 
themselves and their descendants, and that the priest, before com- 
mencing divine service, is to exhort the people present to pray for 
their souls. In most of the deeds it is stipulated that the priest 
shall hold no other preferment, and in one that he shall retain no 
concubine in his house, a practice which was by no means uncommon 
among the clergy at that time. We have among the deeds of the 
period an obligation by a certain Alexander Hundby, who was 
chaplain at the High Altar, which illustrates the duties of the clergy 
of the church. He had been presented to his oflSce by the provost 
and council of the city,* and before inducting him they receive from 
him a written promise that he will perform his duties faithfully, and 
take care of the revenues of his benefice. The obligation of the 
chaplain is somewhat antiquated in its language, and we give it 
in more modem phraseology : 

*' Forasmuch as they (the provost, dean, council, and community 
of Edinburgh) have granted three pounds fifteen shillings and eight- 
pence, in augmentation of the chaplainry of Saint Giles altar, given 
by them to me, that I shall therefore be obliged daily to say mass at 
the said altar, for the prosperity of our sovereign lord the king, for 
the souls of his predecessors and successors, and for the prosperity of 
the said provost, dean, baihes, council, and community, and for their 

^ 1447 (Charters of St GUes). 



30 BENEFACTIONS. 

predecessors and successors, and for the souk of them that have given 
any annual rents to the upholding of the said service. Also I oblige 
me to fulfil (undergang) daily the observance of the college^ of 
the said kirk, and to keep the statutes as well made, or to be made, 
and to submit (underly) to the penalties of the statutes ; and that I 
shall be with surplice on feriable days at high mass and evensong, 
and on festival days at matins, high mass, and evensong, and for 
the fulfilling of the said things I shall ask no reward from the com- 
munity or no others. Also I shall not promise the said chaplainry 
nor lease of it in favour of any person, nor purchase any lordship to 
make request therefor, nor shall substitute any to serve in it, but 
when the provost, council, and community make request therefor. 
And I oblige me to renew these my letters under my seal, and to 
make them in stricter form, after the advice of the council at any 
time I am charged to do so. And to all this I oblige me by the 
faith of my body, and the word of a priest {in verba sacerdocii)^ and 
for the greater security thereto, I have set my seal at Edinburgh, 
the 17 Oct. A.D. 1447." 

From this somewhat curious document some idea may be got of 
the duties performed daily by those serving the various altars of the 
church. 

In the list of benefactors which we have given, there is but one 
that deserves more than a passing notice. This is Sir John Forrester 
of Corstorphine, who is often mentioned in the history of the period, 
and who was the son of a distinguished citizen of Edinburgh. His 
father, Adam Forrester, was a well-known merchant, who had a 
license to bring grain from England without payment of duty, and 
who in this and in other ways received many marks of royal favour. 
He was lord of Nether Liberton, and is mentioned, along with the 
provost and others, as one of the parties to the agreement with the 
masons for building the two chapels to the south of the church 

^ The church was not yet collegiate, but probably the clergy had formed themselves into a 
society, and made rules as between themselves. 



BENEFACTIONS. 31 

which we have given. It is not improbable that it was partly at 
his expense they were erected.* He was twice provost of Edin- 
burgh,* and was afterwards sheriff of Lothian,' and keeper of the 
Great Seal of Scotland.* His son was knighted, and occupied an 
important place in public affairs. He held the office of Lord Privy 
Seal during the regency of the Duke of Albany. He was a com- 
missioner for the redemption of King James I. from captivity. On 
the king's return to Scotland, he became master of the royal house- 
hold, and subsequently Lord High Chamberlain. It was when he 
was high in royal favour that he founded the altar to St Ninian, for 
the welfare of the king and queen, and for the souls of his father 
and mother. About the same time he got the church of Corstor- 
phine, which he formerly had liberally endowed, erected into a 
collegiate church. This generous benefactor was buried there in 
1440, and his sculptured effigy, which has come down to our time, 
awakens recollections of a family once distinguished in the annals of 
Scotland, and who were kind friends in their day to the church of 
St Giles.* 

A new source of wealth to the church began at this period, and 
continued during many subsequent years. The various tradesmen 
of the city had formed themselves into corporations or guilds, for 
the protection of their common interests. These guilds occupied an 
important place in municipal life, and in course of time became 
wealthy and powerful. They possessed special privileges. No one 
could exercise any trade, or be apprenticed to any trade, without 
their permission, and paying to them certain dues ; and they 
imposed fines upon those of their body who did not comply with 
the regulations laid down. They had their own insignia and 
common seal, and they made provision for impoverished mem- 
bers of their body, and for their families when in want. These 
corporations founded successively and endowed altars in St Giles. 

» Infra, Charters of St GUes, p. 24. 

» 1373-1378. » 1382. * 1389. 

* In the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. xi., a very interesting 
account is given of the Forresters of Corstorphine. 
G 



32 BENEFACTIONS. 

The first to do so were the Skinners or Tanners, and the Bakers. 
In 1450-51, the former founded and bound themselves to support 
an altar to their patron saint St Christopher, and they executed 
an instrument which has come down to us in the council records, in 
which they make statutes for its maintenance.^ ** Each member of 
the craft, for the period of his life, and according to his means," was 
'* to put helping hands " to the support of a chaplain, and to the 
repair and ornamentation of the altar. Every member of the craft 
receiving an apprentice was to pay five shillings for the same pur- 
pose, and " no apprentice shall be received by any one of them to 
the said craft of skinners, unless he has been taken in like manner 
bound, that after the expiry of the years of his apprenticeship, he 
shall put helping hands in like manner to the reparation of the said 
altar — the apprentice also, before he shall be admitted to the craft, 
shall swear and become bound, so soon as he shall come to the 
freedom of his apprenticeship, not to receive any apprentice unless 
he shall pay five shillings to the said altar." The bakers seem to 
have formed similar statutes in reference to their altar of St Ubert, 
and a member of the craft, Patrick Donald, who had a burying-place 
before the altar, promises the town, in 1456,* to pay eleven marks 
annually, from his house in Toddrick's Wynd, for the privilege of 
sepulture in that sacred place. It is evident that the interest thus 
taken in the church by the various corporations of the citizens, must 
have added greatly to its wealth and importance. 

It was during the period covered by this chapter that two addi- 
tions were made to the church, which rendered it in some degree 
conamensurate to the wants of the increasing population around it, 
and worthy of the position it occupied as the parish church of the 
capital of Scotland. The first of these additions was made by the 
town, and their motive in the erection casts a gleam of romance over 
the formal and precise charter in which it is set forth.* A certain 
William Preston of Gorton,* in the parish of Liberton, near the 

> Town Council Records ; Charters of St Giles, Appendix. * Town CooncU Records. 

' Charters of St Giles, p. 106. ^ The name Gorton was afterwards changed to Craigmillar. 



BENEFACTIONS. 



33 



city, appears to have gone to France, and with the aid of the king ^ 
and others, to have obtained a precious relic — the arm-bone of 
St Giles. Returning to Scotland he soon afterwards died, bequeath- 
ing the relic to the church of Edinburgh, and was buried in the 
Lady Chapel of St Giles. Whether there were any relics of the 
saint in possession of the church before, we do not know, but the 
gift of Preston was received with all honour by the city. It was 
inclosed in a richly-chased shrine of gold, and a diamond ring was 
placed upon one of its bony fingers, and in the subsequent history of 
the church we hear much of this its most precious possession. In 
gratitude for the bequest of Preston, the town council obliged them- 
selves to his son, to build that aisle to his memory which still bears 
his name, and on which his arms are yet to be seen 
engraved. " Forsameikle," * so runs the deed of 
obhgation, " as William of Preston, the father, whom 
God assoile, made diligent labour, and great means 
by a High and Mighty prince, the king of France, 
and many other Lords of France, for the getting of 
the arm-bone of Sant Gele, the which bone he left 
to our mother kirk of Sant Gele of Edinburgh, 
without making any condition, we, considering the 
great labours and costs that he had made for the getting thereof, 
promise as said is, that within six or seven years, in all the possible 
and goodly haste we may, that we shall build an aisle forth from our 
Lady Aisle, where the said William lies, the said aisle to be begun 
within a year, in which there shall be made a brass for his lair, in 
embossed work, and above the brass a table of brass, with a writ 
specifying the bringing of that relic by him to Scotland, with his 
arms, and his arms to be put in hewn work in other three parts of 
the aisle ; also an altar to be made in the said aisle, with book and 
chalice of silver, and all other grath belonging thereto ; also that we 
shall appoint the chaplain of the foiiner Sir William of Preston to 
sing at the altar from that time forth, and if any other friends like 

^ Charles VIL ' The old language is slightly modified. 




Arms of Preston. 



34 BENEFACTIONS. 

to endow any more chaplains, they shall be thankfully received to 
sing at the altar ; also that as often as the said relic is borne in the 
year, that the surname and nearest of blood to the said William 
Preston shall bear the said relic before all others ; also that from 
the death of the said William s father there shall be founded a 
chaplain, for the term of five years, to sing for him ; also we promise 
that there shall be an obit yearly done for him, such as belongs to 
the time of the year of his decease. In witness of which things we 
have set to our common seal at Edinburgh, the eleventh day of the 
month of Jan. a.d. 1454 years." The interest attaching to this 
curious charter may perhaps be suflScient excuse for giving it in full. 
The embossed tomb, the engraved brass, the altar, the book, and the 
silver chalice that it mentions, have long disappeared, but the 
spacious chapel itself remains; and as we stand under the richly 
groined roof, and see the three unicorns' heads, the arms of Preston 
of Gorton, this bit of old-world history comes back upon us all the 
more vividly, that it contrasts so strangely with the religious 
surroundings of the present day. 

Another addition was made to the church probably about the year 
1460. This consisted in heightening the roof and adding the 
clerestory windows, and in lengthening the choir east from the high 
altar, which stood near the eastmost of the old octagonal pillars. 
The addition made may easily be noted from the striking change in 
the style of architecture, from the plain to the ornate. It was in 
the year we have mentioned, that King James II. was killed at 
Roxburgh, by the bursting of a cannon, and his widow, Mary of 
Gueldres,^ seems to have taken part in the building of this portion of 
St Giles, probably as a tribute to her husband s memory. Nicolas 
Otterburn, the vicar, was, as we have seen, one of those who had 
chosen her as the bride of the king, and it may have been through 
him that she was led to take part in the pious work of enlarging 
the church. One of the pillars on the north side of the church, still 
called the King's Pillar, bears on its foliated capital four coats of 

^ Immediately after the king's death she was engaged in extensive building. 



BENEFACTIONS. 



35 



armorial bearings — ^those of the king, of Mary of Gueldres, a 

shield denoting an heir or prince, and one with the fleur-de-lis of 

France, the land whence the queen had come. In the first two 

shields, what is called the tressure is incomplete, 

a want which is believed to denote the death of 

the king and the widowhood of Mary. The 

pillar is a touching memorial of her bereavement 

and of the death of the young king, an event 

which at the time moved greatly the hearts 

of the Scottish people. The other pillars of 

this addition to the building bear the arms of 

men who were much attached to the late king, 

and who appear to have joined with his widow 

in paying this tribute to his memory; while 

the arms of the town of Edinburgh indicate 

the interest which the citizens took in what 

may be called the erection of a memorial 

chapel to their king. On the pillar opposite i-k 

to the King's Pillar, along with the arms of 

the town, are sculptured those of Kennedy, 

Otterbum, and Preston. The first is the name of the patriotic bishop 

of St Andrews, and of his brother, also a distinguished statesman of 

King James 11.^ Otterburn was the vicar of the church, and 

Preston one of its greatest benefactors. On one of the two demi- 

pillars are the arms of Sir Alexander Napier of Merchiston, who 

was comptroller of the king's household at the time of his death. 

On the other demi-pillar are what are supposed to be the armorial 

bearings of Thomas de Cranstoun, a man who was frequently provost 

of Edinburgh, and was, as we have seen, a benefactor of the church, 

and who at the king's death held the royal appointment of bailie of 

Ettrick Forest. The whole work is of great historic interest, and 

is executed in a manner in every way worthy of its object. 




King's Pillar. 



1 A more minuto account of these shields is given in the Appendix. Probably both 
Kennedys united in the work. 



36 



BENEFACTIONS. 



It must have been some years before the additions we have 
mentioned were completed, and the share which the town had in 
them must have taxed its resources severely. Various methods 
were taken for raising funds for the building, and for several years 
we find in the records of the burgh mention of fines for breach of 
contract, and other ofiences, which were ordained to be paid "to 
SanctGeilles' Wark."^ 

* Charters, Appendix, ciii ; Burgh Records. 





France. 




James III. Marj' of Gueldres. 

Shields of Amis from the King's Pillar. 



CHAPTER V. 
Cjbe CoUese— 1460-1470- 




A life of prayer and faBting well may see 

Deeper into the mysteries of heaven than thon« good brother. 

TENirrsoN*s Harold. 

ILLIAM FORBES, canon of Aberdeen, succeeded 
ThomaB Bully as vicar of Edinburgh. He seems to 
have been known more for his scholarship than his 
activity in public affairs. Unlike his immediate pre- 
decessors, he appears to have taken no part in the 
state transactions of the time, and the little we learn of him is from 
the records of the university of St Andrews, where he was reared.^ 
He was a licentiate of the university in 1451, and in 1464 was 
elected rector, as a mark probably of the distinction he had attained 
during his career. His incumbency of St Giles was notable by the 
change that took place in the church, which was elevated from the 
position of a simple parish church to that of a collegiate establish- 
ment, an institution answering in some respects, such as ritual and 
government, to that of a cathedral. Collegiate churches had in 
Scotland their origin in the rivalry between the secular and the 
regular clergy, which, though it went on over the whole of Europe, 
was more pronounced here than elsewhere. The old Church of 
Scotland was to a large extent monastic. Abbeys and priories were 
to be met with everywhere. They were wealthy and powerful 

^ Acta Rectorum Univ. S. Andree. 



38 THE COLLEGE. 

institutions. The greater number of the parish churches belonged 
to them, and as in most cases they were exempt from episcopal 
jurisdiction, the influence of the bishops was greatly curtailed, and 
the position of the secular clergy diminished. This led to an 
endeavour on the part of the latter to obtain some of the advantages 
enjoyed by their monastic brethren, and collegiate institutions began 
to be founded, which were clerical corporations untrammelled by 
religious vows, and yet sharing in some measure the wealth and social 
importance that had hitherto belonged solely to the monasteries. 
Most of these collegiate churches date from the fifteenth century, a 
time when the power of the religious orders was at its height in 
Scotland. At the Reformation there were thirty-eight such churches 
situated at intervals over the whole country, from Tain in the north 
to Lyncloudan, near Dumfries, in the south. These Prsepositurae, 
as they were called, were instituted for secular priests and choristers. 
They were under the jurisdiction of a dean or provost, and their 
service was regulated very much as in a cathedral. Their clergy 
consisted of a number of prebendaries or canons, who with the dean 
or provost made up the chapter. They had their stalls in the choir, 
their common seal, and their insignia, and they possessed lands and 
endowments of their own. Most of these establishments had 
existed previously as parish churches before they were thus 
enlarged and endowed by the generous proprietors in their 
neighbourhood.^ 

It was through the exertions of the town council of the burgh 
that St Giles was erected into one of these foundations. It was 
now a large and spacious building, and numerous chaplains 
oflSciated within its walls. It was worthy of being something more 
than a mere parish church, and the town authorities entered with 
great zeal into the scheme for giving to it a higher status than it 
had hitherto enjoyed. They proposed to make the vicar the first 
provost, and they allocated an annual pension of two hundred and 
twenty merks to enable him to support his new position with 

^ Collegiate Churches of Midlothian (Baxmatyne). 



n 



THE COLLEOE. 39 

dignity. Under him, and to be appointed by him, there was to be 
a curate having care of souk, a minister of the choir, a sacristan, 
fourteen canons or prebendaries, and four chorister boys. These 
oflScials were to be paid chiefly from the revenues already belonging 
to the church, and these were rearranged and allocated anew. The 
provost was to receive in addition to his pension certain fruits, rents, 
and profits from the church of Dunbarnie, Perthshire, together 
with the adjacent manse or parsonage and glebe belonging to 
the church, with the right of choosing a curate, to whom he 
was to allow twenty-five merks annually, with a house beside 
the church. The prebendaries were supported by the revenues 
belonging up to this time to certain chaplainries, the duties 
pertaining to which they probably still discharged in addition to 
those devolving on them as canons.^ The provost, and in his 
absence the curate, was to preside over the chapter. The former 
was to have great power over his subordinates, and could impose 
fines as well as ecclesiastical censures for neglect of duty. 

The Bishop of St Andrews gave his sanction to the scheme 
proposed by the town, and the king readily confirmed it by a charter 
granted at Stirling, October 21, 1466.* He retained, however, the 
patronage of the provostry and vicarage of the church, which was 
still to remain with the crown. The appointment to the prebend- 
aries seems to have vested in the town, to which the patronage 
of most of the chaplainries belonged. Having obtained royal and 
episcopal sanction to their purpose, the authorities next sought the 
sanction of the pope, without which, according to ecclesiastical law, no 
such change as they wished for could be made. The consent of the 
pope was probably obtained by Patrick Grahame, afterwards Bishop 
of St Andrews, who was on a visit to Rome seeking his own 
confirmation to that see.* The bull granting the request of the 

1 In Maitland*8 History of Edinburgh (p. 275) there is an account of the stipend of each of 
the prebendaries. He, however, makes them number sixteen, whereas the pope's bull only 
sanctioned fourteen. Probably his scheme of allocation is one that had not been fully carried 
out. It is given in the Appendix. 

« Great Sea] Charters. « Tytler, vol. iv. 

H 



40 THE COLLEGE. 

town, and erecting St Giles into a collegiate church, was issued in 
1467, the year after the king's authority had been obtained. It 
specifies very minutely the nature of the new institution, and as it 
has never been published before, we give it at length in Uteral 
translation.^ It is interesting notwithstanding its verbosity. 

" To the Judges that they may by apostolic authority confirm the 
erection of the church of St Giles, in the town of Edinburgh, 
into a collegiate church, made by the Magistrates of the said 
town. 

" Paul, Bishop, &c., to our venerable brother, the Bishop of Whit- 
horn, and our beloved son, the abbot of Holyrood, without the walls 
of Edinburgh, of the diocese of St Andrew, greeting : Set upon the 
high tower of the church militant, the Roman pontiff, successor of 
Saint Peter the celestial Key-bearer, in the manner of a most 
watchful shepherd, surveying with the eyes of his wisdom the whole 
world of lands and nations, and with paternal consideration diligently 
examining the quahties of those dwelling therein, and in virtue of 
the pastoral office enjoined upon him from above, earnestly desirous of 
the felicity of the churches, and searching as to which of them he 
may exalt and succour, and raise to a title of greater dignity, that by 
this means a place already famous and remarkable for populousness 
and other things necessary to the advantage of human life, may 
appear to be deservedly made illustrious ; and by the ministry of 
erection a title of higher excellency and comeliness may be added to 
the churches themselves. The pious and profitable vows of the 
faithfiil may also chance from which the increase of divine worship 
may be hoped for, and the welfare of souls advanced, so that the 
wished-for effect is accompanied with the affection of a pious father, 
and nourished with paternal favours, and help is imparted more 
willingly, and labour more devotedly. Seeing, therefore, that a 
petition lately presented to us on behalf of our beloved sons the 
provost, bailies, and councillors, laics and university (or community) 
of the town of Edinburgh, of the diocese of St Andrew, purported 
that they, prudently considering that the aforesaid town, in which 
the present King of Scots, and many bishops, abbots, and other 

1 Theiner, Vet Mon., p. 455. 



THE COLLEGE. 41 

nobles of the kingdom of Scotland have been accustomed chiefly 
to reside, is famous and remarkable among the other towns of 
that kingdom for its populousness, and that the multitude of the 
people of the realm gather together thereto ; and that the parish 
church of St Giles of that town, which exists by right of the 
patronage of the said king, is suflSciently enriched in its fruits, 
rents, and prevents; and that the number of ecclesiastical persons 
attending therein on the divine praises, might, the Lord approv- 
ing, be increased in it, they, with consent of the said king, to the 
praise, glory, and honour of Almighty Grod, and of his mother 
Mary, and of all the other saints, pre-eminently of the said St 
Giles, and for the felicity and adornment of the said town, and 
the welfare of the souls of the king, his progenitors, the Bishops of 
St Andrew for the time being, particularly James, of good memory, 
formerly Bishop of St Andrew, and of many others of the nobles 
of the said kingdom, and others of the faithful dead, have founded 
and erected, albeit de facto, the aforesaid church into a collegiate 
church, with collegiate rights and ensigns, and therein one provostry 
for one provost, and two offices — namely, the sacristy and the 
ministry of the choir — ^and fourteen district prebends for so many 
canons ; also, among the rest, that the said provostry should be the 
principal dignity therein ; and that the provost of the said church 
for the time being should be bound to keep a perpetual vicar, having 
the cure of the souls of the parishioners of that church. The 
sacristan, also, should be bound to keep at his own expense a 
secular clerk to serve the church and the vicar aforesaid ; and the 
minister of the choir likewise to keep a beadle to perform all things 
belonging to the said office, which, on account of the sacerdotal 
dignity, are not congruous to the minister of the choir for the time 
being ; also that he should undertake some, and the provost the rest, 
of the other burdens daily incumbent on the church; and the 
sacristan, on his own charges, to provide that the organs and bells of 
the church be plaj'^ed, and to dp all other things by law or custom 
belonging, to the office of sacristan ; and that he and the rest of the 
canons should, at the charges of them and the provost and the 
minister of the choir, sustain four boys, to be taught by the best 
quahfied canon for the time being. And they have willed and 
ordained in like manner, de facto, that the vicar, sacristan, and 



42 THE COLLEGE. 

minister of the choir be removable, as their faults and demerits may 
require, at the will of the provost and chapter of the said church ; 
and they have deputed and assigned rents suitable and sufficient for 
the sustentation of the provost, sacristan, canons, and others afore- 
said, and for their daily distributions certain possessions or annual 
rents ; and they have also, de facto^ caused the erection, foundation, 
will, ordination, and deputation aforesaid to be confirmed and 
approved by our venerable brother, Patrick, Bishop oif St Andrew, 
the ordinary authority, as in the instruments and letters of the said 
bishop made thereupon is said to be more fully contained. Since, 
however, the premises do not subsist with powers, it has been humbly 
craved of us on behalf of the foresaid provost, bailies, councillors, 
and commimity, that we, cherishing them in so pious and wholesome 
a purpose, would deign, with apostolic benignity, opportunely to 
provide for them with regard to these things ; we, therefore, who do 
everywhere with intense affection seek the increase of His worship, 
much commending in the Lord such a pious purpose, and hoping 
great profit might arise from the premises to these faithful men, and 
yielding to the said supplications, do by apostolic writings commit to 
your discretion, that ye or either of you do forthwith diligently 
inform yourselves of the aforesaid all and sundry, and if by such 
information ye should find these things to be true, that ye of new 
erect and found the aforesaid church into a collegiate church with 
collegiate rights and ensigns, and a provostry and offices and pre- 
bends there as beforesaid, and so many canons therein; and that 
the said provostry be the principal dignity therein ; and the provost 
to keep a vicar, the sacristan a clerk, and the minister of the choir a 
beadle as is premised ; and he and the said provost to undertake 
respectively the burdens aforesaid; and the sacristan to cause the 
organs and bells to be played, and to perform other things belonging 
to the office of sacristan as beforesaid ; and they and the other 
canons shall be bound to celebrate daily in the said church, and at 
the expense of them, the provost, and the minister of the choir, to 
sustain four boys to be instructed as aforesaid; and of new to 
statute and ordain that the vicar, sacristan, and minister of the choir 
be removable, as their faults and demerits may require, at the will 
of the provost and chapter ; also of new to confirm and approve, and 
by the force of this present writing to make sure the deputation and 



THE COLLEGE. 43 

assignation of rents, and of the distributions thereof made as is pre- 
mised, and so far as concerns them, all and sundry, the things 
contained m the instrument and letters aforesaid, and whatsoever 
has followed thereon as to this only ; and that ye be careful by our 
authority to supply all and sundry defects, if perchance any have 
intervened, notwithstanding apostolic constitutions and ordinances, 
and others to the contrary whatsoever. Given at Home, at St 
Mark's, in the year one thousand four hundred sixty-seven, the 8th 
Kalend of March, and fourth year of our pontificate." 

The bull of the pope was apparently received by the town and the 
king with great gratification, and the church was henceforth styled 
" The Collegiate Church of St Giles of Edinburgh," a title which it 
retained until the Reformation. There was, however, another 
honour yet in store for it. This was its independence of episcopal 
jurisdiction, a privilege hitherto chiefly enjoyed by some of the 
larger monasteries, which were subject only to the pope himself 
This freed them from all intrusion on the part of the bishop and his 
o£5cers, and from ecclesiastical taxation. An amusing instance 
of the value they set on this privilege is given in the history 
of the monastery of Paisley, where one of the dignitaries of 
the church was kept a long time waiting outside the gate 
of the abbey, on a cold winter evening, and only admitted 
within the walls under protest that he was simply to receive 
hospitality, and that his entertainment was not to be held as 
forming a precedent for the visitation of the bishop or his sub- 
ordinates.^ 

Patrick Grahame, who was Bishop of St Andrews when the 
church was raised to the dignity of a collegiate foundation, was 
in disfavour with the Scottish court. The king's mind was poisoned 
against him, and a conspiracy was formed by Shevez, a royal 
favourite, which led in the end to his imprisonment in the castle of 
Lochleven, where he died.* It was probably to inflict a slight upon 
him that the king set himself to exempt St Giles from his episcopal 

1 My History of Paisley Abbey, > Tytler, vol. iv. p. 201. 



44 THE COLLEGE. 

jurisdiction. A petition was presented by his majesty to the pope, 
and concurred in by the town, which dwelt upon the importance of the 
church of the capital of Scotland having every possible honour given 
to it. It was " famous and honourable amongst the other parochial 
churches of these parts," and it was not desirable that its privileges 
and immunities should be infringed by the Bishops of St Andrews 
or their successors : whether they had been infringed we do not 
know. Possibly, during the complicated arrangements for the dis- 
tribution of the revenues and offices, there may have been some 
vexatious interference on the part of the bishop or his officers. If 
so, they could not recur again. The pope granted, in 1470, the 
royal wish, and issued a bull in which he subjected the church to 
himself alone, and the provost of St Giles had henceforth no 
ecclesiastical supervision over him in Scotland, a circumstance which 
enhanced his personal dignity, and probably conferred substantial 
benefits on the institution over which he presided. The bull of the 
pope which bestowed this honour, and which sets forth the reason 
why it was given, is as follows : 

** The Collegiate Church of St Giles, in the town of Edinburgh, at 
the request of the King of Scots, together with the clergy, is 
exempted from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of St Andrews, 
and subjected immediately to the Holy See. 

"Paul, Bishop, &c., for a perpetual memorial of the thing. 
Although the whole churches of the world, and persons employed in 
them in divine services, are known to be subject to the apostolic see, 
which by divine institution obtains the principality of ordinary 
power over them. Nevertheless the said see sometimes, of the 
plenitude of her authority, subjects certain churches in a more 
special manner to herself, so withdrawing them and their possessions 
and goods entirely from the jurisdiction of any other whatever, that 
they recognise no one save the Roman pontiff, and him whom the 
foresaid see shall think fit specially to be deputed thereto, as their 
superior and lord, decerning them by a certain particular privilege to 
be altogether free and exempt from thenceforth. Forasmuch as it 
has lately been represented to us on the part of our dearest son in 



THE COLLEGE. 45 

Christ, James, illustrious King of Scots, and our well-beloved sons, 
the provost, bailies, councillors, and whole body of the town of 
Edinburgh, of the diocese of St Andrews, that the said town, com- 
pared with other towns of the kingdom of Scotland, was distinguished 
and populous, and that very frequently prelates and other chief men 
and magnates of those parts resided, like as they do at present 
reside therein ; also that to the said town a copious multitude of 
diverse nations from sundry parts of the world has flowed in, and 
that the parochial church of St Giles of the foresaid town was 
famous and honourable amongst the other parochial churches of these 
parts : we have lately erected and created the said church into a 
collegiate church, and in it one provostry, that should be the prin- 
cipal dignity therein, and as many more canonries and prebends as 
may be, and offices and other ecclesiastical benefits, as in our letters 
thereupon made is more fully contained. Since, also, as the petition 
lately presented to us on behalf of the king, provost, bailies, coun- 
cillors, and whole community thereof contained, the said king, who 
for the most part resides in the beforesaid town, bears a singular 
feeling of devotion towards the said church, as being notably 
distinguished in his consideration, and means to distinguish it and 
the persons engaged in the divine praises therein, with several 
immunities and privileges : on behalf of the king, bailies, provost, 
councillors, and whole community aforesaid, it was humbly suppli- 
cated unto us, that for the elegance and beauty of the said church, 
lest the immunities and privileges foresaid should happen here and 
there to be infringed by our venerable brother Patrick, and his 
successors for the time being, Bishops of St Andrews, of our apostolical 
benignity, we should deign to exempt and free it from all superiority 
and lordship of the said bishops, in like manner as several other 
collegiate churches of the foresaid kingdom, and to consent to their 
desire, and opportunely otherwise provide upon these matters. We 
therefore, who, without the perturbation of any agitation, desire the 
state of churches and persons thereof to rejoice in the pleasantness 
of peace and quiet, and with intense longing affect their profit and 
well-being, being well inclined to the said supplications, do wholly 
exempt and totally for ever free, as well the foresaid church, as our 
well-beloved sons, the present and for the time being the provost, 
and every one the canons, chaplains, vicars, choristers, priests, and other 



46 THE COLLEGE. 

clerics whomsoever, also dignities, parsonages, administrations, or 
offices, or other ecclesiastical benefices obtaining in the said church, 
together with their continual familiar servants, commensals, serving 
them and the said church, present and to come, and other goods and 
possessions whatsoever of the foresaids and church aforesaid, wherever 
they exist, even outside the said church, from all jurisdiction, lordship, 
power, superiority, and visitation of the foresaid and his successors, 
for the time being Bishops of St Andrews, and of their vicars, 
officials, commissaries, and others whomsoever, having power to 
exercise ordinary jurisdiction in the church, and others aforesaid, of 
right or custom, and do take them under the protection of St Peter 
and ours and of the said see, so that the bishops, vicars, officials, 
commissaries, and others aforesaid, or any other person secular, 
regular, ecclesiastical, or mundane, with whatever dignity he shine 
pre-eminent, shall have power in no manner of way to exercise any 
jurisdiction, power, visitation, exaction, or superiority upon them, 
all and sundry and their possessions and goods aforesaid, by reason 
of contract, or delict or question that is in dispute, or to molest the 
foresaids all and sundry in any manner of way, but they shall be 
held bound to answer in justice, before the said see and its legates 
and sub-delegates only : Decerning henceforth all and sundry pro- 
cesses and sentences of excommunication, suspension, and interdict, 
and other sentences, censures, and penalties, peradventure passed and 
promulgated against the said church or aforesaids, or any of them, 
by the bishops, vicars, officials, commissaries, and others foresaid, or 
any of them, to be irrite and void, and of no strength or moment : 
Moreover we grant by these presents to the said provost that he 
may freely and lawfully have power to compel the canons, chaplains, 
and others aforesaid, to reside in the said church, and to serve in 
divine services with becoming and respectable habits, as well in the 
choir as elsewhere, as shall be appointed to them, even by the 
subtraction or retention of the fruits, rents, and provents of the 
canonries and prebends, and of the dignities, parsonages, administra- 
tions, and offices, and other ecclesiastical benefices which obtain 
therein, and to correct and mulct wanderers, unhonest, dissolute, and 
rebels, and disobedient thereto, by opportune sentences, censures, and 
ecclesiastical penalties, notwithstanding constitutions and apostolical 
ordinances, and others in the contrary whatsoever : It is our will^ 



THE COLLEGE. 



47 



nevertheless, that the provost, canons, and chapter of the said 
church shall be bound to pay yearly to the apostolic chamber on the 
vigils of St Peter and Paul, the apostles, one ounce of pure gold for 
a recognition of this exemption : Let no one, therefore, &c., to 
infringe our exemption, freedom, taking under protection, constitu- 
tion, grant, and will, &c. But if any, &c. Given at Rome, at St 
Peter's, anno, &c., 1470, 30th April, and of our pontificate the sixth 
year." 





Thomas Cranston. 



Kicolas de Otterbom. 




City Arms. 





Lord James Kennedy. Napier of Merchiston. 

Shields of Arms from St Giles. 




CHAPTER VI. 

CJe tfjapla(nr£e*— 1470-1492. 

Who loved the church so well, and gave so largely to it ; 
They thought it should have canopied their bones 
Till doomsday ; but all things have an end. 

HE erection of St Giles into a collegiate church seems 
to have been followed by a great accession to its 
wealth and endowments. Several new chaplainries 
were erected, and many bequests were made to those 
^ already existing. A chaplainry or chantry was a 
small chapel or inclosure within a church, in which an altar was erected 
and consecrated, and a priest appointed to chant prescribed services 
for the welfare of individuals specified by name, whilst they were Hving, 
and also for the repose of their souls when dead. The chapel was 
regarded as the house of the priest: in some cases he lived in a 
chamber built above it,^ and communicating with it by a winding 
stair. In the case of St Giles this latter accommodation was not 
provided. 

The chaplains seem to have lived in the neighbourhood of the 
church, in the Cowgate, or in some of the wynds opening from the 
High Street. As the sanctus bell tolled daily, and often twice a 
day, for mass at the same altar, they must have been close at hand 
for the discharge of their duties. They were poor men, outside of 
the fat things of the church, their stipend probably not averaging 
more than £5, 6s. 8d. a year, and they were generally men whose 

1 A good example of a chantry priest's chamber is above the chapel of St Mirin at Paisley. 



THE OHAPLAINRIES. 49 

education and acquirements were but slight. Few or none of tliem 
seem to have possessed the degree of Master of Arts, that title 
being borne only by some of those who were prebendaries or chap- 
lains, as they were called, of the choir. The chantry priest was a 
very humble individual. His ordinary dress was a long frieze 
cassock, with a leathern girdle round his waist ; and his daily food 
consisted of a mess of vegetables ^ or porridge. In several charters 
the members of the trades' corporations are held bound to give the 
chaplain his ''meat." The number of such men connected with St 
Giles must have been very great, even on the supposition that only 
one priest was attached to each altar. It would appear, however, 
that in some cases several priests officiated in the same chapel, each 
paid by some special endowment. There could scarcely be less than 
one hundred connected at one time with the building. 

After St Giles entered on its new career as a college, the character 
of the bequests seems to have considerably altered. Previously the 
charters conveying these merely founded a chaplainry, and gave the 
right of presentation to a special person, or to the town. They now 
become much more minute in prescribing the duties to be performed 
by the priest, and especially the offices to be said by him on the 
anniversary of the founder's death, and some of these documents 
prescribe with great exactness the ceremonial to be performed, 
and the payment to be made to those assisting in carrying it out. 
Generally there is contained in these deeds a provision for distribu- 
tion to the poor of money or provisions in connection with the 
celebration, and the amount of charity so distributed must have been 
very considerable. The bells of the church were rung, and a man 
with a hand-bell perambulated the town, calling the people to church 
to pray for the soul of the benefactor, and to receive, if they needed 
it, their dole of charity. We give some specimens of these bequests, 
which are most minute in their directions, and which bring before us, 
as we read them, in a very vivid manner, functions often witnessed 
\vithin the old walls. 

^ Lancashire Chantries (Surtees Society). 



50 THE CHAPLAINRIBS. 

Andrew Mowbray, burgess of Edinburgh, leaves to the altar of 
St Ninian/ in the south part of the church, near the altar of St 
Laurence, also for distribution to other presbyters and paupers, 
and other necessary expenses, his land and the double house lately 
erected by him, and six merks annually, payable from his land, and 
also his garden ; and further wishes that a certain chaplain should 
receive for his support from the rents of said lands twenty merks, 
and that anything exceeding forty-four merks from said lands and 
houses should be placed in safe keeping in an iron safe with two 
keys, of which one shall be in the custody of the chaplain foresaid, 
and the second in the custody of another chaplain, and another key 
in the keeping of the dean of the church. That these three persons 
shall receive in every third year the money contained in the said safe, 
of which one part shall be given in alms, chiefly to the successors 
and relations of the said Andrew Mowbray, and according to the 
discretion of the three persons foresaid, and another portion shall be 
expended in the reparation of the said houses as they may need, 
and in support of the vestments for celebrating low mass, and in 
ornaments for the altar, and also of Hghts for the support of the said 
service. He wishes also that on the anniversary of his death this 
charter, or a copy thereof, shall be read in the church at the said 
altar after mass, before the people, and in presence of the dean of the 
church. He likewise gives to the said altar a silk cope of jacynth 
colour, with ornaments of gold, also five chasubles of four diflferent 
silks of diverse colours, and a fifth of birdealexander,^ with their 
albs and amices complete, also a golden chalice weighing nineteen 
ounces, with two golden vials weighing thirteen ounces, also a 
missal for the altar with a pointed breviary, for celebrating canonical 
hours at the chapel of that altar, and " if it should happen that the 
chaplains, or any of them, should sell, alienate, or pledge the foresaid 
possessions, he shall vacate his chaplaincy ; also the chaplain at the 
altar of St Ninian is held bound to celebrate on the anniversary of 

1 Great Seal Charters, Janaary 1492-93. 

' I have not been able to discover what this means. 



THE CHAPLAINRIES. 51 

my death Placebo and Dirige, with notes, by himself and other 
sixteen chaplains of the choir, who ought to celebrate the mass, De 
requie, in the private manner, and the great mass, De requie, at the 
said altar, and to pray the people at the beginning of the mass to 
pour forth prayers for the dead, by saying a paternoster with the 
angeUc salutation, and at the washing of hands in the offertory, the 
Psalm de Profundis for the dead ; to each of these chaplains I give 
twelvepence. Also, to each of twenty other chaplains celebrating 
mass on that day, without the choir, in the private way, sixpence ; 
also I order four candles of wax weighing two pounds, two of which 
shall be Ut on the said altar, and the other two on the catafalque ; 
and to the sacrist or cleric ringing the bells I give three shillings, 
that besides ringing the bells at Dirige and mass, as is the custom, 
he is to ring the great bell at noon before Dirige in vespers, and 
after Dirige at six o'clock, and also that which is vulgarly called 
fe monyng, and at the last ringing he is to ring three times with 
intervals to excite the people to pray for all the dead in Christ * 

also to the dean of the church, for seeing that these things 

are done, two shillings, and to the servant of the church, for repairing 
and arranging the said altar and catafalque, and for carrying the 
cross and candlesticks, twelvepence, also to four choir boys, twelve- 
pence ; also, for providing bread and wine for the celebration of the 
masses, three shiUings and twopence, also for providing light in the 
lamp hanging at the said altar, five shillings ; usual money of annual 
rent from the house of John Bruce. I wish, lastly, that the chaplains 
and others of them in the last mass should turn themselves to the 
catafalque, after the beginning of the gospel, and should say the 
commemoration of the souls of Andrew Mowbra and Elizabeth his 
wife, and should then say : May they rest in peace, amen ; Lord, 
hear my prayer, and let my cry come to thee. Let us pray. Absolve, 
we beseech thee, Lord, the sotds of thy servants from the chain of their 
sins, that being raised in the glory of the resurrection, they may live 
among the saints and thine elect, and so, sprinkling the catafalque 

1 Here are entered directions as to food for the poor, as in the other charters, inJrcL 



52 THE 0HAPLAINRIE8. 

with holy water, he shall say this verse : Wask me, Loi^d, dc. In 
testimony of which I have appended my seal." ^ 

Another benefactor equally specific in his directions was Walter 
Bertram, who left to the altar of St Laurence and St Francis, for 
the support of a chaplain^ various small sums payable from houses 
belonging to him in the burgh,* under the following, among other 
conditions : " The said chaplain, on the anniversary of the death of 
the said Walter, by himself and other sixteen chaplains of the choir, 
to each of whom he gives twelvepence, also with twenty-one chap- 
lains celebrating mass on the same day, without the choir, in the 
private way," to each of whom he gives sixpence, is to say mass for 
his soul. He orders likewise six shillings for wax candles weighing 
two pounds, two to be lighted on the altar, and other two above his 
catafalque ; also to the sacrist or cleric ringing the bells thirtypence 
from the said rents, and to the bellman ringing the handbell through 
the town fourpence. He gives also to each of four young men of 
the choir singing versicles, threepence ; and to the cleric keeping the 
cross and candelabra and mortuary ornaments, sixpence. He wishes 
also the said chaplain to distribute fifty portions of meat and drink 
to the poor in each year, on the anniversary of his death, and that 
each portion should contain threepence in bread, threepence in veni- 
son, and fourpence in flesh, fish, cheese, or butter, according to the 
season ; ' of which portions eight are to be given to the brethren of 
the Observance of Edinburgh, three portions to the lepers, three to 
the house of the hospital in St Mary's Vennelle — the other portions 
to the poor, as their age, poverty, and weakness may demand.' " 

The following provisions of a charter of the same time illustrate, 
in a similar manner with those which we have given, the solemn 
observances constantly performed within the walls of the church: 
*' Because by the pious prayers which the son shall ofier for the sins 
of his father, we do firmly believe that sins are remitted, the suffer- 
ings of pulsatory are softened, and the souls of the dead are 

^ Great Seal Charters, 14th March 1494-95. 

' Charters of St Giles, p. 136. * Low Mass. 



THE OHAPLAJNRIES. 53 

frequently freed from them and gathered to the joys of paradise, I 
therefore found a new chaplainry at the altar of St Ninian in the 
collegiate church of St Giles of Edinburgh, and I dispone to it 
certain rents within the said burgh And as it is borne wit- 
ness to in sacred writ that as water extinguishes fire, so almsgiving 
extinguishes sin, I give to the said altar, to presbyters, and to poor, 
for the salvation of the souls before mentioned, first in the order of 
their names, an annual rent .... to be distributed by the chaplain 
of the said altar in the mode and form to be prescribed — namely, to 
ten chaplains of the choir of the said church who on the night 
preceding the anniversary of my death shall say the Placebo and 
Dirige, and on that day, with deacon and subdeacon decently vested, 
shall solemnly sing and celebrate at the same time ten masses of 
requiem — ^to each of the said chaplains tenpence ; and if they should 
refuse, I will that the chaplain shall choose sixteen persons as chap- 
lains who shall celebrate these obsequies with low voice at night, and 
the masses of requiem next day ; and there shall be given to each of 
them sixpence. Also for four candles of ordinary wax four shillings, 
two of which shall be lit on the altar, and two upon the catafalque 
{epitaphium) in the obsequies ; also to the cleric ringing the bells 
and repairing honestly the catafalque, tenpence; also to the bellman 
ringing through the town fourpence ; also twelve shillings to be dis- 
tributed to the poor in the following manner^ .... and that the 
portions shall be placed on a table in the church during the whole of 
the principal mass previous to their distribution ; also to the dean of 
the fabric of the said church {decano fahrice) eighteenpence, to see 
that the foregoing instructions are carried out by the chaplain, as he 
shall answer to the highest Judge. And I wish that all the above 
shall observe this my bequest, as they shall answer in the examina- 
tion of the last day before the highest Judge. In witness thereof 
I have placed my seal." 

Commemorations such as these must have been frequent. We 
should think of them in all charity, while we feel bound to repudiate 

* As in the previous charter. 



64 THE CHAPLAIKRIES. 

the doctrine on which they were based. Those who wished to pay 
a tribute to the memory of the dead had an opportunity of gratifying 
their feelings on the anniversary and commemoration of their 
removal, and sometimes daily throughout the year. Thus names of 
celebrity were long remembered and enshrined in grateful hearts, and 
handed down to posterity as if embalmed in the page of history. 
The memorial pillar with the founder's arms engraven on it, the 
richly-chased tablet of brass, the window of glowing colours, were not 
unknown in former days ; and whilst many then, as now, chose these 
forms as an embodiment of their earnest and devout feelings, and 
their desire to be remembered after death by the living, others 
selected the chapel and the priest. Let us not harshly blame them, 
or look with disdain on the truly pathetic records of their longing 
to Hve on in the hearts and prayers of the living after they had 
passed away from this earthly scene. Bather let us apply to them 
the charitable verdict of Sir Walter Scott : ^ " Why not class these 
acts of remembrance with other honours, with which affection in all 
sects pursues the memory of the dead ?" 

Notwithstanding the stream of wealth that seems to have poured 
into the coffers of the church, and its consequent prosperity, the 
provost appears to have had some difficulty in getting from the town 
the stipend which had been promised him. Whether the munici- 
pality thought that he could get on very well without it, or whether 
their funds were not able to bear the disbursement, we do not know, 
but they appear to have given the dignitary of the church consider- 
able trouble, and he had finally to bring them into court before he 
obtained payment of his dues. First the king issued a charter under 
the Great Seal to secure to him his pension, and gave him security 
over the rents, profits, and multures of the Mill of the Dene.* This 
did not appear to have been sufficient, and the priest was compelled 
to bring his case before the Judges or Lords of Court. From them 
he obtained decree against the town in the fullest form." 

1 Waverley. ' Great Seal Charters, October 2, 1478. 

> Acta Dominorum, 19th December 1482. 



THE OHAPLAINRIES. 55 

" Anent the complaint," so runs their sentence, " made by Master 
William Forbes, provost of the College Kirk of Sanct Geil, against 
the provost and bailies of the burgh of Edinburgh, for his yearly 
pension, both the said petitioners being present^ the obligation of the 
said burgh of Edinburgh, together with the King's confirmation 
thereon, being shown, seen, and considered, the Lords decreed that 
the said provost and bailies be ordained to pay the last Martinmas 
term of the said pension, which is five score and ten merks, to the 
said William within eight days next thereafter, under pain of the 
warding of their persons in the Blackness, and that they pay him in 
time to come after the form of the said obligation, certifying that 
if he be not thankftdly paid his said pension at the times stated in 
the said obligation, that they shall be ordered to pay his costs and 
expenses which he may happen to sustain therethrough." The 
churchman was triumphant, and the penalty of being imprisoned in 
the castle of Blackness, a formidable and unwholesome fortress on 
the Firth of Forth, seems to have produced the requisite effect on 
the provost and magistrates of the town. 

It does not appear that the priest deserved this niggardly treat- 
ment at their hands, for, as far as one can learn, he was a man of 
public spirit and desirous of promoting the welfare of the inhabitants. 
In 1477, with consent of his chapter, he gave, apparently without 
compensation, his garden to the town to be used as a cemetery, 
assigning as a reason that his parishioners had so increased that it 
was impossible to find suflScient burying-ground within the church. 
The garden is described as lying to the south of the church and 
contiguous to the manse of its provost. It extended along the slope 
between it and the Cowgate, and the loss of the ground must have 
considerably diminished the amenity of the residence.^ Nineteen 
years after, the provost gave also, to increase the cemetery,^ the 
north part of his mansion and glebe immediately adjoining the land 
and house of the curate, and below the school. He held the town, 
however, bound to build a new house for the curate, and a suitable 

> Charters of St Giles, p. 122. » Ibid,, p. 179, 1496. 

J 



56 THE CHAPLAINRIBS. 

school for the scholars ; also to erect a latrine " in the house, which 
is now vulgarly called fe galryJ' For himself he only stipulates that 
an obit of Placebo and Dirige and a mass of Requiem for his own 
soul and the souls of his successors in office should be performed 
before the high altar on the anniversary of his death, at the expense 
of the town of Edinburgh. This is the last notice that we have of 
this official, though in all probability his long incumbency extended 
till the beginning of the sixteenth century. His term of office was 
the most prosperous period in the history of the church ; while he 
was at its head its dignity was increased, its wealth augmented, and 
its structure enlarged and beautified. 

It was in all probability during his rule that the tower of the 
church, with which all citizens of Edinburgh are familiar, was erected. 
We would be disposed to place the period of its erection well on to the 
close of the fifteenth century. At that time large additions were 
evidently in progress— expedients of all kinds were adopted by the 
town to raise money for what was called the " kirk wark." In 1485 
no citizen was permitted to have in his service any person dwelling in 
Leith under penalty of £10 to the kirk wark, and the loss of his 
freedom for a year and a day.^ In 1497-9 ships leaving Leith were 
bound to pay certain dues for the same purpose.* In 1498 merchants 
and craftsmen, for the purpose of assisting the authorities to keep 
order in the streets, were ordained to have in their booths " defensabil 
geir, sik as jak, sellet, burgandynis, gluifis of plait, and ane hand axe 
or sword under the penalty of £20 for the kirk wark." ' These are 
a few examples of the means taken to raise sufficient funds for 
carrying on the additions to the church that were then in progress. 
But more express confirmation to the extensive character of the 
building operations, comes from the rules laid down by the town in 
1491 for the regulation of the workmen employed, and which imply 
the presence of a large body of craftsmen. These rules are of so 
interesting a character that we give them in full. 

^ Burgh Records. ^ Ibid, , Laing's Charters, Appendix, cir. 

8 Ibid. 




^1^ 



U^^yHM-^^' 



THE GHAPLAINRIES. 57 

"Statutum Penes regimen Magistri Latimi Ecclesie Collegiate 
Beati Egedii Burgi de Edinburgh. 

" The quhilk day the Provest, Dene of Gild, Bailies and Counsale 
of the burgh of Edinburgh thinkis expedient and als ordanis that 
thair maister masonis and the laif of his servandis of thair kirk 
wark that now ar and sal happin to be for the tyme, shall diligentlie 
ftdfiU and keep thair service at all tymes and houris as after followis, 
that is to say — ^the said maister and his servandis sail begyn thair 
wark ilk day in somer at the straik of v houris in the morning, and 
to continue besylie into thair laubour quhill viii houris thairafter, and 
then pass to their disione, and to remain thereat half ane hour, and 
till enter agane to thair laubouris at half hour to ix houris before 
none, and swa to work thereat quhill that xi houris be strikkin, and 
aftemone to forgather agane to thair wark at the hour gane, and 
than to remayne quhill iiii houris aftemone, and than to gett a 
recreation in the common luge be the space of half ane hour, and fra 
thinefurth to abyde at thair laubour continually quhill the hour of vii 
be strikkin ; and in winter to begyn with daylicht in the morning, 
kepand the houris above written, and to haif their noneschaks allanerly 
affcernone, and to remayne quhill day licht be gane. And gif the 
said maister quhatsumeir, or his coUegs and servandis, faillis in ony 
points underwritten, or remains fra his service ony tyme, he to be 
correctit and punist in his wages at the plesour of the Dene of Gild, 
that sail happin to be for the tyme as the said Dene will answer to 
God and to the guid toun thairupon.*'^ 

While the corporation of the town thus showed their interest in 
the church and its enlargement, the various guilds and fiuternities of 
craftsmen were in no way behind the municipality in doing what in 
them lay to promote its prosperity. In 1475 the masons and wrights 
of the town obtained a grant from the council of the chapel of St 
John the Baptist, which was henceforth to be specially allotted to 
them, and which they became bound to maintain. It is defined as 
the " yle and chapell of Sanct John fra the aid hers of yrn inwart," 

1 Burgh Records. 



58 THE CHAPLAINRIES. 

and probably consisted of some part of the building screened off by 
an iron railing. The craftsmen were to occupy the aisle as their 
own, and on the day of St John the Baptist they were to give special 
attendance, and to " thig to the licht of the said altar as otheris does 
in the kirk yherly." They were also held bound to keep it in proper 
repair.^ In 1496 the hammermen or smiths received a grant of the 
chapel of St Elois, which had been founded shortly before.* They 
were to pay forty shillings towards upholding divine service at the 
altar of the chapel, and reparation of the ornaments thereof, " and all 
men of the craft were to pay to the uphold of divine service at the 
said altar weekly and dayly, and ane honourable chaplain thereof to 
the craft." In this chapel a banner called the Blue Blanket, which 
figures largely in municipal history, was hung up. It bore, it is said, 
upon its folds a Latin inscription from the 51st Psalm, *^ In thy good 
pleasure build thou the walls of Jerusalem.'' The history of this 
ensign is somewhat mythical. It is supposed to have been carried in 
the wars of the crusades. " Vast numbers of Scots mechanics," it is 
said, " having followed in this holy war, taking with them this banner, 
upon their returning home and glorying that they were amongst the 
fortunate who placed the Christian standard of the Cross in the place 
that Jesus Christ had consecrated with his blood, dedicated this 
banner, which they styled the Banner of the Holy Ghost, to St Elois 
altar in St Giles Church in Edinburgh, which from its colour was 
called the Blue Blanket."* Whether this flag had so romantic a 
history as tradition assigns to it is impossible now to determine. It 
is, perhaps, more in accordance with fact to assign its origin to the 
year 1482, when King James III. presented an ensign called the 
Blue Blanket to the townsmen, giving, at the same time, the chief 
magistrates the right of calling out the trained bands and armed 
citizens to fight beneath it, when the defence of the country required 
their assistance.* 

^ Burgh Records (Laing's Charters, Appendix, Ixviii). 

^ PiDkerton's History of the Blue Blanket, 

^Ihid, 

* Tytlefs History, vol. iv. p. 250. 



THE GHAPLAINRIES. 59 

The clmrch is frequently mentioned in the annals of the sovereign 
we have mentioned. When his son was betrothed to Cecilia, the 
youngest daughter of King Edward IV., the first instalment of the 
dowry promised by the English king was duly paid at the high altar 
on the 3d February 1474-5^ by certain great fiinctionaries of the 
English court. This amounted to 2000 merks, and other portions 
were subsequently paid in the same place. The marriage never took 
place, a time of war between the kingdoms broke out, and in 1482 the 
burgesses of Edinburgh, to re-establish a good understanding between 
England and Scotland, sent back the full amount of the dowry which 
had been paid in their parish church.* It was probably in order to 
recompense them for their generosity that the Scottish king conferred 
special privileges in the same year upon the town. On the 16th 
November he gave " letter to the burgesses and community of the 
burgh of Edinburgh that the provost of the said burgh, elected by 
the community, shall be lieutenant within the said burgh, and that 
the bailies shall be his perpetual deputies, for which office the 
provost, bailies, burgesses, and community, shall be bound to cause 
to be read the mass of requiem with Placeho and Dirige, with notes 
in each year on the 4th August in the College Church of St Giles 
for the soul of King James II.'" The 4th of August was the 
day on which that sovereign had been killed at Roxburgh. The 
chief magistrate and his bailies still retain the privileges thus con- 
ferred on them, though the possibility of their fulfilling the condition 
assigned has long since passed away. 

King James III., who thus piously made provision for religious 
rites being performed for the soul of his father, very shortly after- 
wards had them celebrated in the same place for his own repose 
on the 5th January 1488. We learn from the chamberlain's accounts 
that he attended St Giles frequently, and according to the custom of 
kings and other great men made oflferings during mass. *' Item, on 
Sanct Mongoys da in Edingh. to the King to ofier in Sanct Geyllis 
Kirk, xviiJ5. ; item, the same da to our Lady's licht, ixs" Subse- 

* Rymer's Fcedera^ voL v. p. 67. " Tytler, voL iv. p. 238. • Great Seal Charters, 1526. 



60 THE CHAPLAINRIES. 

quently to this visit he was murdered after the battle of Sauchie, 
the victim of a conspiracy headed by his own son, and payment 
was made to the priests of Edinburgh ^' to do dirige and saule messe 
for him." 

The following summary of the endowments that came to St Giles 
during the provostship of William Forbes, to which this chapter 
relates, will be sufficient to show how great an impetus to its 
prosperity was given by its erection into a collegiate establish- 
ment. 

1466. Alexander Curor, vicar of Dunsire, and John Colyton, 
chaplain, give to the altar of St Nicolas various annual rents.^ 

1470. Robert Auldhoch, burgess of Edinburgh, bequeaths ten 
pounds annually from land to the altar of St Elatharine.* 

1477. John DaJrymple founds an altar to St Elois, and endows 
it with ten pounds and five merks annually.* 

1477. James, Bishop of Dunkeld, founds an altar in the aisle of 
St Cross, at the column west of the altar of St Martin and St 
Thomas, dedicated to St Columba, and endows it with ten pounds 
annually, with two merks for the up-keep of three lamps, which are 
to be lighted before the altars named, at the second bell calling to 
vespers, and to be kept burning till the doors are shut.* 

1478. Patrick Baroun endows the altar of St Andrew, in the 
south part of the church, with certain rents from properties in 
Edinburgh.* 

1478. John Otterburn, ai'chdeacon of Candida Casa and canon of 
Glasgow, leaves to the provost and canons for saying mass for the 
soul of his uncle, Nicolas Otterburn, formerly vicar of the church, at 
the great altar, an annual rent of twenty shillings.* 

1478. John, Bishop of Glasgow, endows St Duthac's altar with 
five merks annually.* 

1478. Walter Bertram, burgess of Edinburgh, gives to the up- 
keep of a chaplain at the altar of St Francis, behind the great 
altar, various rents of twelve merks, thirty, and fifty shillings.* 

^ Lfting's Charteis, p. 113. * Laing's Ch&rtera. 



THE CHAPLAINRIES. 61 

1478. Andrew Mowbray, burgess of Edinburgh, founds a new 
chaplainry to St Ninian, and endows it with various rents, one of 
four merks, and others amounting to twenty-one pounds twelve 
shilHngs.^ 

1480. Thomas, Bishop of Dunkeld, founds a chaplainry in the 
aisle of St Cross, at the coliman west of the altar of St Martin 
and St Thomas, the presentation to be with the Bishop of Dunkeld, 
and endows it with a rent of six merks, and other rents amounting 
to nine pounds eight shillings.^ 

1484. James Townys, burgess of Edinburgh, endows the altar of 
our Lord of Piety, at the north door of the choir, with an annual 
revenue of fourteen merks, thirty shillings and fourpence.^ 

1484. Alan Brown, burgess, leaves an annual sum of ten 
shillings for the up-keep of a wax candle before the altar of the B. 
Virgin.* 

1486. Sir Alexander Barcare, vicar of Pitynane, gives to the 
altar of St Blase an annual endowment of nineteen merks.* 

1488. Richard Robesoun, presbyter and canon of St Giles, for 
the prosperity of James IV. and the soul of James III., lately 
deceased, and others, gives to a chaplain at the altar of St 
Dionysius twenty merks annually.^ 

1490. Isobel Bras or Williamson, widow of Thomas Williamson, 
burgess of Edinburgh, gives for the support of a chaplain officiating 
at the altar of St Laurence, on the south part of the church, near 
the middle, an annual endowment of eight merks, two pounds and 
fourpence.^ 

1491. William Fowlar, canon of Dunblane, endows a chaplain 
to officiate in honour of St Gregory Pope, at the altar of St James 
the Apostle, with forty-four merks and twenty shillings.^ 

1492. Andrew Mowbray, burgess of Edinburgh, endows two 
secular chaplains at St Ninian's altar, in the south of the church, 
with certain lands and houses in Edinburgh and all their rents.' 

^ Loing's Charters. ^ Great Seal Charters. ' Laing's Charters, ut svpra. 



CHAPTER VII. 
Before iTIolJiren— I492-X5X3. 



All without is mean and small, 
All within is vast and tall ; 
All without is harsh and shrill, 
All Avithin is hushed and stilL 




HE accession of King James IV. to the throne of 
Scotland was a fortunate occurrence for the church. 
^rji Combined with considerable laxity of life, he exhib- 
^J j ited great deference to the offices of religion. He 
seems to have regarded himself as blamable in some 
measure for the events that led to his father's death, and was 
frequent in penances and other pious rites in order to make atone- 
ment for his transgression. He was constantly making pilgrimages 
to the holy places in Scotland. He visited the shrine of St Duthac 
at Tain in the far north, Paisley in the west, and St Ninian at 
Whithorn in the south, was regular in his religious observ- 
ances, and liberal in his gifts to the church. St Giles, with many 
another church throughout Scotland, reaped material benefit from 
his piety. He was frequently a worshipper at its altars, and a 
record of his attendance is found in the books of the comptroller 
of the royal household, who disbursed money to pay for his offerings. 
It was the custom, when royal personages attended church, that 
they should make an offering during mass. Those of the king 
are thus noted : 

Sunday, 7 June, Whitsunday. 

1489. Item, To ij breddis in Sanct Gellis Kirk xviijs. 

„ To Sanct Leys licht in the saim da xiiijs. 



BEFORE FLODDEN. 63 

1492. Item, on Sonday 13 May send with the Prothonotar at 
the king's command to offer in St Gellys Eirk at 
Schir Johne of Craufordis first mess iij unicornis. 

1494. Item, to ane prestis first mess on the Sonday after Tule 

in Sanct Gellis Kirk xviija. 

1497. July 11, To the king's offerand on Sanct Qelis bred.^ 

Royalty took much interest in St Giles, and aided the work which 
was still in progress in the extension of the building. It was only 
to be expected that the provost and clergy should show gratitude 
for his benefactions. Accordingly, on his entry into Edinburgh 
with his bride in 1503, they were cordial in their welcome. In all 
their state and ecclesiastical bravery, they went in procession to 
the gate of the city. They were clad in their richest vestments, 
and bore aloft their most precious relic. Their imposing array 
seems to have specially attracted the notice of Sir John Younge, 
the Somerset herald, who accompanied the bride in her progress 
to Scotland, ajid who has given us a minute description of aU the 
proceedings connected with it.' As we read his graphic account, 
a vision of pageantry and splendour passes before us. "Ladies 
mounted on their palfreys, many squires before them." Bishops 
"well accompanied and honestly arrayed.^ It was a brave show 
as it swept onwards from Newbattle Abbey by Liberton to the 
city gate, and attracted multitudes of people, who were loud in their 
acclamations. " At the enterying in of the said toune was maid a 
yatt* of wood painted with tow tourells,* and a window in the 
mids, in the which tourells was at the windous revested angels 
syinging joyously for the comying of so noble a lady, and at the 
said windowe was in lykewyse an angele presenting the kees to the 
said queene. Within the toun, by the said yatt, came in procession 
the college of the perysche of Saint Gilles, rychly revested with the 
arme of that saint, the whiche was presented to the kynge to kisse, 
whereof he did as before, and began to synge Te Deum Laudamus.^^ 
The whole ceremonial was evidently of an impressive character, 
and not the least striking part must have been the musical perfor- 

^ Lord Treasurer's AoooimtB. * Lelland's Collection, vol. iv. p. 259. * Gate. ^ Towers. 
E 



€4 BEFORE FLODDEN. 

tnance of the king, which doubtless was heartily applauded by the 
multitude, who may be supposed to have been in excellent humour, 
as the herald lays much emphasis on the fact of there being 
provided for them " plaunte of drynke/* 

The greatest benefit which the king conferred on St Giles was 
the appointment of a new provost to the church, in succession to 
William Forbes. He called to the post from rural retirement one 
lyho is still remembered as a distinguished Scotsman, and who was 
probably the most celebrated ecclesiastic connected with the church 
during its long history. This was Gawin Douglas, who seems to 
have ascended the provost's chair in 1501. He was of noble birth, a 
son of Archibald called '* the great Earl of Angus," and who bore 
the well-known name of " Bell-the-Cat." Gawin was educated at St 
Andrews, where he graduated in arts in 1494. Entering the church 
he speedily obtained preferment, and having powerftd family patronage 
to favour him, was appointed in 1496 to Monymusk in Aberdeen- 
shire, afterwards to Glenquholm (now Glenholm) in Peeblesshire, 
and shortly after was made parson of Lyntoun and rector of Hauch 
or Prestonkirk. During the time he held the latter preferment, 
he devoted himself to literature and began to compose those works 
which rendered his name famous. It may have been his connection 
with the powerftd House of Douglas that secured for him the 
provostry of St Giles. More probably, however, it was his 
flattering reference to the king in the first of his books, the 
Police of Honour. To such attentions the monarch was always 
susceptible, and mention of himself as worthy of all the honours 
both of earth and of heaven was calculated at once to call forth a 
pleasant response. The poet certainly oflTered to the throne incense 
of a very fragrant and pronounced character : 

Maist gradoua Prince, our souerane James the Feird, 

Thy majisty mot have etemattie, 

Supreme honor, renown of chivalrie, 

FeUdtie perdurand in this eird, 

With eteme blis in hevin by fatall weird. 



BEFORE FLODDEN. 65 

The same year in which these flattering lines appeared, Gawin left 
his rural retirement and came to the church of the capital. 

It would be foreign to our purpose to enter on any detailed 
account of those literary labours which the provost carried on in 
his prebendal residence under the shadow of St Giles. The alle- 
gorical poem to which we have alluded, and which was written 
in his country parish, was the longest of his compositions. After- 
wards he composed a poem called King Hart^ an allegory of 
the progress of human life, but his great work is his translation 
of the jEndd of Virgil, which he began in 1512 and finished in 
1513, in a period of eighteen months. It is the first metrical 
translation of a classic writer published in this country, and is a 
work of which Scotland may be justly proud. It is "written 
in the language of Scottis nation." Each book of the ^neid 
is prefaced by a prologue, and in some of these prologues are 
descriptive passages of a high order. Our space will only allow 
us to give one of these, modifying the rough Doric in order to 
make it intelligible to the ordinary reader. It is a description 
of winter. The poet, from the window of his chamber in the 
provost's house, which stood to the west of the church and com- 
manded a wide view, describes the aspect of nature around — the 
trees destitute of foliage, rivers in heavy flood, and the little rills, 
so sweet and quiet in summer, turned into torrents tearing down 
their banks. The earth is barren, hard, and unlovely, and the 
decay of nature begins to remind man of "wintry age and all- 
subduing death." One can almost imagine him looking out from 
his elevated residence upon Arthur's Seat, the Pentland Hills, 
and the shores of Fife, as they still appear on a snowy December 
morning. 

Incessant rains had drenched the floated ground, 
And clouds o'ercast the firmament around, 
White shone the hills involved in silver snow, 
But brown and barren are the hills below ; 
On firm foundations of eternal stone, 
High, rugged rocks in frosty splendour shone. 



66 BEFORE FLODDEN. 

The hoary fields no vivid verdure wore, 
Frost wrapt the world, and beauty was no more; 
Wild wasting winds that chilled the dreary day, 
And seemed to threaten Nature with decay, 
Reminded man, at every baleful breath, 
Of wintry age and all-subduing death. 

From this dreary outlook the poet creeps back to his fireside, and 
finds consolation in the pages of his beloved Virgil. 

It is not, however, with the poetry of Gawin Douglas that we have 
to do,^ but with his government of St Giles, and of this we have 
scanty notice. There are traces in the records that have come down 
to us which seem to show that there was considerable negUgence on 
the part of the clergy in the performance of their duties during his 
term of oflSce. He was frequently absent from Edinburgh, in 
England, France, and Rome,* and the neglect of duty on the part of 
those under his rule may have arisen from this cause, rather than 
from any indolence on his part. He was a man of considerable 
energy, and took a leading position in the affairs of state, and 
it is difficult to believe him lax in matters more immediately under 
his control. There was, however, remissness in duty on the part 
of the clergy, so great as to call for the interference of the civil 
magistrate. On the 20th November 1501, "on the eleventh hour, 
George Tours, provost, instantly required and advised in all kind- 
ness, and commanded the prebendaries of the collegiate church of 
St Giles of Edinburgh, to observe their due service in the said 
church according to the tenor and erection of the said college, 
under the penalties which might be imposed on the said prebend- 
aries by the said provost, baiUes, and council of the burgh." * 

The example of the prebendaries was readily followed by the 
inferior clergy of the church, some of whom appear to have taken 
their fees for the performance of masses of requiem without dis- 
charging that duty, and others were persistent in gathering alms 

^ Those who wish to know the literary works of Douglas we refer to the admirable edition of 
his poems, with biography prefaced, by Mr John Small, librarian to the Edinbui^h University. 
Also to an admirable article in The Scottish Churchy March 1886, and an article by Andrew Lang 
in Ward's Anthology. * Laing*8 Charters, xxxv. • Burgh Records. 



BEFORE FLODDEN. 67 

from the people. The council of the burgh therefore made statutes 
dealing with these scandals, and with the consent of the prebendaries 
ordained '^anent the deriges, saule mass, feasts, and others, that 
absents for the tyme shall have no fee nor wages for the deriges 
and saul mess but the persons present, except the sick."^ No 
priests were allowed to gather alms but on one day of the year for 
each altar, and a special officer was appointed '' to gadder the falts 
of the prebendaries failyeand* and absent from their service."' The 
latter dignitaries seem, at length, to have carried their careless- 
ness so far as to bring themselves under ecclesiastical censure. The 
altar of the Holy Blood was regarded as one of the most sacred in 
the church, and appears to have been supported by a confraternity, 
whether clerical or lay we do not know, who were interested in its 
maintenance and the dignity of its service. It was probably a com- 
plaint on their part to the chapter that brought the matter noticed 
in the following curious minute formally before that body and the 
authorities of the town. The minute is to be found both in the 
charters of the church and in the records of the town council. 

" 1510-11. On the 27th February, in the year of our Lord 1510, 
the thirteenth indiction, the eighth year of the pontificate of Pope 
Paul the Second. Master Gawin Douglas, provost of the collegiate 
church of St Giles of Edinburgh, the official and all the prebendaries 
thereof — in respect of the failure to-day in the celebration with 
accustomed honour of the mass of the most Holy Blood of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, formally promised in ftiture to celebrate and sing the 
same on every Wednesday under the penalties for each week day, for 
each person 2d., and for a festival 4d., and if all should fail the 
prebendaries should pay one merk to the common good of the con- 
fraternity of the Holy Blood, and they should not have the privilege 
of synod in any day to excuse from the said service ; and the official 
in the name of the prebendaries protested that if it shall happen, 
upon taking account of the money which may be accumulated 
of the said confraternity, it amounts to a large sum, that they 

1 Burgh Recordfl. ' Failing. ' Burgh Records. 



68 BEFORE FLODDEN. 

shall have a little of it for their own refreshment, the service being 
first done in this manner." These things were done in the chapter, 
chapterly convened. The provost of Edinburgh, Sir Alexander 
Lauder, was present at this meeting, which had been probably 
called on his complaint, and at its conclusion he asked and obtained 
a copy of the minute. As we hear no more of irregularities in con- 
nection with the church, it is likely the measures we have noticed 
put a stop to their continuance. 

Another name of eminence in connection with literature, besides 
that of Gawin Douglas, is associated with St Giles during this 
period of its history. Walter Chepman, of Ewerland, who has 
been called *'our Scottis Caxton," took a great interest in its 
prosperity. This distinguished person was connected with the 
household of King James IV., and stood high in royal favour. 
He was first employed as a clerk at Holyrood, and was intrusted 
with the king's signet. He carried on business also as a general 
merchant, and amassed considerable wealth. In 1505 he purchased 
the freehold of Ewerland, and in 1509 acquired the estate of 
Priestfield,^ near Edinburgh. He possessed several tenements 
also within the city. It was to his enterprise that Scotland was 
indebted for the introduction of the art of printing. Under the 
auspices of the king and queen, in 1507, he in conjunction with 
Andrew Myllar set up a printing-press, and latterly, after Myllar 
had left him, he conducted a flourishing business 
as a printer at the head of the Blackfriars' Wynd 
in the High Street. At his own cost he built a 
chapel dedicated to St John the Evangelist, in the 
south part of the church off the Preston Aisle, 
and in 1513 he endowed liberally a chaplain to 
officiate at its altar.* The endowment is bestowed 
for the prosperity of the king and queen, and for 
the benefit of his own soul and the souls of others 
named. The deed confirming it is very minute in its character, and 

1 Great Seal Charters. ' Ibid. 




BBFOBS FLODDEN. 



69 




Cbepinan*s Arms. 



specifies in great detail the rites to be performed on the anniversary 

of his decease, and the conditions under which the chaplain is to 

hold office, one of them being that he should not engage in games 

of chance. This chapel, in which the 

founder was subsequently buried, still 

remains. On the roof are to be seen 

two interesting sculptures — one, that of 

an eagle, the emblem of St John, to 

whom the chapel was dedicated, with a 

scroll bearing the words "In principio," 

the initial words of his gospel. The 

other displays the arms of Chepman 

himself impaled with those of his first 

wife, Mariote Kirkettill.^ The chapel is one of considerable 

interest, and may be regarded as in itself a memorial of the 

introduction of the art of printing into Scotland, with all the happy 

consequences that have flowed therefirom.* 

Four weeks from the date of the charter which testifies to the 
munificence of Chepman, and seven from the day when the provost 
of St Giles tells us he wrote the last word of his translation of 
Virgil, the battle of Flodden took place, and all Scotland was filled 
with "mourning, lamentation, and woe." The loss to Edinburgh 
was peculiarly great. The provost of the city was among the 
slain, and of the magistrates and able-bodied men who had 
followed the town's standard but few returned. The tidings 
of the battle filled the city with consternation. Crowds of women 
filled the streets, and their loud cries resounded on every side. 
The authorities displayed in the circumstances great self-command 
and resolution. They called all the able-bodied men to rally to 
the defence of the capital, and exhorted the "good women to 
pass to the kyrk and pray whane tyme requires for our Soveraine 
Lord and his army, and neichbouris being thereat."* The aisles of 

1 Laing*s Charters, p. 205, in capdla ipsiusper me novitafundata in australi parte ecclesie 
Beati Egidii. 

* Dr William Chambers, himself a distingoished follower of Chepman's art, erected a 
tablet to his memory in the chapel. ' Town Council Records. 



70 BEFORE PLODDEN. 

the old church witnessed a sad and heart-rending sight, and around 
the altars kneeled crowds of women displaying every sign of grief, 
few of whom had not lost husband, lover, or kinsman in the fight. 

It was long before Edinburgh forgot Flodden, and it is not 
wonderful, after the first shock of the calamity, that in those 
superstitious times many omens of warning were recalled which 
had passed at the time unheeded- It was rumoured that the 
king, when in the church at Linlithgow, had been warned by a 
mysterious stranger — ^with head uncovered, his hair parted over 
his forehead, his robe blue, and tied about his loins with a white 
linen girdle^ — not to proceed with the undertaking that had 
ended so disastrously, and who, after delivering his message, had 
vanished among the crowd like a spirit from another world,^ " as he 
had been a glint of the sun or a whip of the whirlwind." Another 
equally weird story was told how a citizen, looking out in the night 
upon the High Street, heard a voice calling aloud at the Cross one 
well-known name after another, and summoning them to Pluto's 
dominions, and how, when his own name was called, he threw into 
the air a piece of silver and protested against the summons, and, 
in the Scottish manner, appealed to a higher court, and how he 
alone returned from Flodden ahve of those named. But none of 
these legends are more picturesque than the romantic story which 
has been located within the walls of St GUes. Whether it be 
founded on legend as old as the time of Flodden, or is altogether of 
more modem origin, is of little moment; it is equal in its weird 
character to either of those we have named. 

Qawin Douglas rose from a dead-troth sleep 
Teenf ul with eerie dreams. 



It is not one day, but only ten, 

Since St Giles his quire had rung. 
With the high mass and the holy sign, 
And the aisles with the tramp of stalwart men, 
That the Nunc Dimittia sung. 

1 Ty bler*8 H%st<yry of Scotland, • Pitscottie. 



BEFORE FLODDEN. 71 

When Douglas sought, nigh the noon of night, 

The altar of good St Giles, 
Up the holy quire where the glimmering light 
Of the virgin s lamp gave the darkness sight 

To fill the eerie aisles. 
Believe as the boom of the mid mirk hour 

Hang out with clang and main, 
Clang after clang from St Giles' tower. 
Where the fretted ribs like a box-tree bower. 

Make a royal crown of stane. 
Ere the sight was lost — 'fore mortal eye 

Ne'er saw such sight, I trow. 
Shimmering with light each canopy 
Pillar and ribbed arch and fretted key, 

With a wild unearthly low.* 
And Douglas was ware that the holy pile 

With a strange kent throng was filled ; 
Earls Angus, and Crawfurd, and bold Argyle, 
Huntly, and Lennox, and Home, the while, 

With many more noble styled ; 
And priests stood up in cope and stole, 

In mitre and abbot's weed ; 
And James I wist above the whole. 
Led up the kirk to win assoyl,^ 

W^here the eldritch'^ mass was said. 
" Let the mass be sung for the unshriven dead 1 

Let the dead's mass bide their ban ;" 
And grim and stalwart in mouldy^ weed. 
Priest after priest up the altar lead, 

King James his forbear* wan.* 
** Let the dead's mass sing," said Inchaffray's priest ; 
Dead threats^ not to the dead ! 

Now peace to them that take their rest. 
All smirched in blood on Flodden's breast ! 

" Christ's peace ! " priest Douglas cried. 
Gone was the throng from the glimmering aisle. 

As he groped to the kirkyard bound.^ 

One touching memorial of Flodden, now swept away, long 
remained connected with St Giles. Walter Chepman, the printer, 

1 Flame. * Absolution. ■ Ghostly. 

* Earth-stained. • Father. « Pale. 

' Contends. • The Ancient Church of Scotland, VValcott, p. 364, 

L 



72 BEFORE FLODDEN. 

erected a chapel of the crucifixion in the lower part of the church- 
yard, and endowed a chaplain to oflSciate therein, under the authority 
of the provost of the mother church. It was erected specially, so 
states the charter of endowment, for " the welfare of the soul of our 
late most powerful lord, King James IV., by the grace of Grod, 
king of Scotland, and the souls of those most noble and faithful 
followers who with him were slain in defence of the safety of their 
country, in conflict with the English at Flodoun." It was a touching 
tribute of aflfection, on the part of the old printer, to the sovereign 
whose generosity had laid the foimdation of his prosperity.^ ' 

Gawin Douglas took a leading part in the political events that 
succeeded the great national disaster. He was one of those chosen 
to advise the widowed queen, and probably in recognition of his 
activity in the aflTairs of the kingdom, received the unwonted honour, 
for a clergyman, of being made a burgess of Edinburgh. On the last 
day of September 1513 we find the following record in the council 
books : " Ane priest made burgess, Master Gawin Douglas, provost of 
the collegiate church of St Giles of this burgh, is made a burgess 
gratis for the common good of the town." Flodden, however, was 
the indirect means of his leaving Edinburgh. Many distinguished 
churchmen were among the slain, among others the youthful Bishop 
of St Andrews, who held the abbacy of Aberbrothock, and to the 
latter rich preferment Douglas was promoted. He now passed from 
the quiet precincts of St Giles into the stormy political arena of the 
time, into which we are not called to follow him in this history. It 
is sufficient to say that from this period he forsook his poetic studies, 
and plunged into those intrigues by which Scotland was distracted. 
He attached himself in the first instance to the party of the queen, 
and through her interest and that of the English court, obtained 
from the pope the bishopric of Dunkeld. It was some time before he 
was consecrated to this see, and for going to the pope without first 
obtaining the sanction of the regent of Scotland, he was condemned 
by the council to imprisonment, and passed a considerable time in 

^ Laing'B Charters, p. 227. 



BEFORE FLODDEN. 73 

what he calls "the wyndy and richt unpleasant castle and rok of 
Edinburgh." 

He was liberated at length through the influence of the pope, 
and admitted to Dunkeld. After a few years' tenancy of the see, 
during which his name appears in connection with every political dis- 
turbance of the time, he was outlawed as a traitor by King James V., 
and fled to England. He died in London of the plague in Septem- 
ber 1522, at the house of his friend Lord Dacre, in St Clement's 
parish, near London, in the forty-eighth year of his age. Agreeably 
to his own injunctions, he was buried in the Hospital Church of the 
Savoy ; and in what is now called the Chapel Royal of the Savoy, 
in the neighbourhood of the Strand, may be seen the inscription on 
his tomb, of which the following is the translation : " Here lieth 
Thomas Halsey, Bishop of Leighline. On his left is buried Gawin 
Douglas, a native of Scotland, Bishop of Dunkeld, an exile from his 
country, in the year of Christ 1522." It must always be regretted 
that he forsook his peaceful literary studies at Edinburgh, and 
wasted his great abilities in those intrigues which brought him 
nothing but sorrow. 

We may perhaps fitly close our sketch of the great provost of 
St Giles by quoting two tributes to his talents, which show the 
esteem in which he was held by those well fitted to judge 
him. The first is by Sir David Lindsay of the Mount : 

AUace ! fer ane, quhilk lamp was in this land 

Of eloquence, the flow and balmy strand. 

And in our Inglis rhetoric the rose, 

As of rubies the carbuncle bin chosa . . . 

His worthy warkis in nomber ma than five, 

And specially the treu translation 

Of Virgil quhilk bin consolation. 

To cunning men to knaw his greit ingyne 

Als Weill in natural science as diuyne. 

Better known is the notice of Douglas by Sir Walter Scott : 

A bishop by the altar stood, 
A noble lord of Douglas blood. 



74 BEFORE FLODDEN. 

With mitre sheen and socquet white, 
Yet showed his meek and thoughtful eye 
But little pride of prelacy. 
More pleased that in a barbarous age 
He gave rude Scotland Virgil's page, 
Than that beneath his rule he held 
The bishopric of fair Dunkeld. 

We subjoin a note of the endowments bestowed on the church 
in continuation of the list given in a previous chapter : 

1493. Marie Redchaw gives to a chaplain at the altar of St 
Katherine various rentals, paid annually, from house in the burgh, 
five pounds Scots, six merks, and five pounds three and eightpence.* 

1493-4. Adam William, master of arts, and chaplain of the 
chaplainry of St Columba, gives five pounds and eightpence annually 
to his successors.^ 

1494-5. Archibald Naper of Merchamestoun gives to the altar of 
St Saviour a rent of twenty merks.^ 

1494-5. Walter Bertrem, provost of Edinburgh, gives for a 
chaplainry at the altar of St Laurence, rents amounting to eleven 
merks and five pounds seven shillings.* 

1498-9. John, Bishop of Glasgow and Chancellor of Scotland, 
gives to a chaplain at the altar of St Katharine, rents of five merks, 
and two pounds nine shillings and fourpence.* 

1502. Richard Hopper, burgess, gives to the altar of the Virgin 
and St Roche, and a chaplain ofiiciating there, in the new aisle of 
St Thomas, martyr, rents of twenty-four merks and three pounds 
and fourpence.® 

1504-5. Robert Vaus, burgess, gives to a chaplain officiating at 
the High Altar, rents of seventeen merks and two pounds.^ 

1508. Jonete Elphynston gives to Sir William Lyntoun, at the 
altar of All Saints, also of St Thomas, and Appolonie, virgin, and his 
successors, her lands of Crawmond-Regis, with her share of the 
mill thereof, amounting to ten pounds annually, and seven merks 
from a rental within the burgh.® 

1 Laing's Chartera, p. 160. ' Ibid,, p. 169. " Ibid,, p. 171. * Ibid., p. 173. 
* Ibid,, p. 181. • Ibid., p. 185. ' Ibid., p. 190. « Ibid,, p. Ixxiv. 



BEFORE FLODDEN. 



75 



1512. Alexander Rynde gives to a chaplain at the altar of our 
Saviour, rentals of ten pounds four merks, thirty shillings and four- 
pence ; ^ he also gives, in the same year, to a chaplain at the same 
altar, an annual rent of ten pounds.* 

1513. Sir Alexander Lauder de Blith, provost of the burgh, to a 
chaplain at the altar founded by him, in the new aisle to the Virgin 
and Grabriel archangel, rentals of fifty-five merks.^ 

1513. Walter Chepman, to a secular chaplain at the altar of St 
John, Evangelist^ in the chapel newly founded by him, in the south 
of the church, annual rents amounting to twenty merks, and another 
annual of forty shillings.* 

1 Laing'a Charters, p. 193. " Ibid., p. 197. • Ibid., p. 199. * Ibid,, p. 203. 




In St Giles, after Flodden. (From a Drawing by Sir NoEL Paton, R.S.A.) 




CHAPTER VIIL 

Coming tfjanje— 15X3-1556. 

Ebbed far away from, prior and priest 
The life that day by day increased ; 
From kirk and choir ebbed far away, 
The thought that gathered day by day ; 

And round the altars drew 

A weak unlettered crew. 

W. C. Smith. 

FTER Flodden, and until it became at the Reforma- 
tion the scene of great events, the annals of St Giles 
are somewhat dull, and towards the later part of the 
^ period to which this chapter refers, we can distinctly 
see from the few notices of it in the public records 
that have come to us, that there hung over the church the shadow 
of impending change. Popular support grows feeble. There are 
no royal offerings made at its shrines, and its chief patrons are the 
officials of the town and the incorporated guilds. Gawin Douglas 
was succeeded in the provostry of the church by Robert Crichtoun, a 
man as undistinguished as his predecessor was famous. He was one 
of those ecclesiastics, of whom there were many in Scotland at the 
time, whose sole ambition seems to have been their own aggrandise- 
ment, and who discharged their duties in an extremely perfunctory 
manner. 

He was seldom resident at St Giles, and passed much of his time 
abroad, nominally for the purpose of study,^ but in reality pushing 
his fortunes at the papal court. At the meetings of the chapter, 

' "Nunc causa studii in remotis agentis" (Charters). 



COMING CHANGE. 77 

the curate or vicar of Edinburgh, Laurence Tod, who was second 
in rank among the clergy, presided in his place. Crichtoun was a 
son of Sir Patrick Cranstoun of Cranstoun Riddel, and nephew of 
George Crichtoun of Nauchton, abbot of Holyrood, and Bishop of 
Dunkeld, who was regarded as an especially easy-going prelate, even 
in those times. From him the young man could not learn very high 
views of his office. It is this bishop who is credited with the well- 
known reply to one of his clergy, with whom he had remonstrated 
for preaching every Sunday, and whom he had told to content him- 
self with reading to his flock any good epistle or gospel which set 
forth the liberty of the church. When the priest asked his lordship 
to point out any evil epistle or gospel, the bishop said, " Nay, brother 
Thomas, my joy that I cannot do, for I am contented with my 
breviary and pontifical, and know neither the Old Testament nor the 
New, and yet thou seest that I have come on indifferently well." 

Robert Crichtoun seems to have walked closely in his uncle's 
footsteps, and like him also to have come on indifferently well.^ 
When he was but a student at St Andrews, and before he took his 
degree, he was elected * clerk of the aisle and altar of Holyrood, and 
very soon afterwards was made provost of St Giles. There is little 
to tell of his government there. His uncle died in 1543-4, and 
is supposed to have resigned his see in favour of his nephew. 
Crichtoun retained the bishopric in virtue of a decree which he 
said he had received from the pope, and was summoned before 
parliament for endeavouring to procure the appointment without 
the sanction of the crown. A prolonged controversy ensued, but 
the matter was decided finally against him at Rome, and his 
rival competitor, John Hamilton, abbot of Paisley, the nominee of 
the crown, made Bishop of Dunkeld.' On the promotion of the 
latter to the bishopric of St Andrews, Crichtoun obtained his desire, 
and was consecrated Bishop of Dunkeld in 1550. He, however, 
managed still to retain his Edinburgh provostship, for he is for two 

^ Tytler, vol. v. * February 11, 1514-15. 

• See my History of Paisley Abbey, p. 190 ; Brady's Epis. Succession, voL L p. 131 \ Acts of 
Parliament of Scotland, yoL 11. p. 469. 



78 COMING CHANGE. 

j^ears subsequent to that date designated in charters as holding that 
office.^ It was the appointment of such as he was, ambitious and 
self-seeking priests, which, more than anything else, contributed to 
the disasters that befell the Church of Rome in Scotland. 

Crichtoun was succeeded in St Giles by James Chisholme, of 
whom, either in connection with the church or otherwise, we know 
but little.* He was the last occupant of the provosts stall, and 
what we learn of him is from his endeavours, amid the ruin that fell 
upon the church, to save some fragments of ecclesiastical property 
from the general wreck. The various guilds and incorporations of 
Edinburgh tradesmen seem, during his term of office and that of his 
predecessor, to have taken a lively interest in the church. As each 
guild was formed it claimed an altar in St Giles, and the brethren 
became bound for its upkeep and the support of its priest. The 
brethren of the Surgeons and Barbers, who upheld the altar of St 
Mungo, received from the town a deed of constitution,' by which 
every person admitted to the said craft became bound " to pay at his 
entry for his upset five pounds usual money of the realm of Scotland 
for the reparation and upholding of the altar of St Mungo, for divine 
service to be done thereat. Every master that is received freeman 
to the said craft shall pay his weekly penney, with the priest's meit, 
as he shall happen to come about, and every servant that is footman 
to the masters of the said craft, shall pay each week ane halfpenney 
to the said altar and reparation thereof, and that we have power to 
choose a chaplain to do divine service at our said altar." We quote 
these words from the deed of incorporation. 

The deeds of the other guilds are in very similar terms. The 
Cordwainers upheld the altar of St Crispin and St Crispiniane,* to 
which each apprentice was to pay six shillings and eightpence, every 
servant his weekly halfpenny ; any man of the craft not coming to 
the yearly account, two pounds of wax, and every master holding a 
booth his weekly penny, to the reparation of the ornaments of the 

^ Laing's Charters, Nob. 144, 147. ^ We have no notice of the date of hlB appointment 

' 1505 (Town Records). * This deed is dated 15th February 1509-10. 



COMING CHANGE. 79 

altar, and to "sustain the priest's meit as he comes about." The 
Candlemakers at their incorporation^ had no altar of their own, 
every possible place for an altar having probably been previously 
occupied. Any member of the craft setting up a booth became 
bound to pay half a merk to the light on any " misterful altar " which 
the deacon and craftsmen might choose, and each master and occupier 
to give ten shillings yearly to the " reparation either of licht or of 
needful graith till any altar situat within the college kirk, till they 
shall be provided with an altar of their ain.'* The penalty of not 
fulfilling these conditions was a pound of wax to our Lady altar. 
Ultimately this guild obtained an altar of its own, for in 1522 
William Bell gave them the altar to our Lady of Piety, on the north 
side of the entrance to the choir.* 

The deed conveying the gift to the guild is one of the few charters 
that have come down to us in the Scotch language : " Forasmeikle 
as thai (the candlemakers) of gude mynde, and for the honor and 
poUcy of hahkirk, and for augmentation of divine service til be done 
at the said altar of our Lady of Pietie for sujfferage and prayeris to 
be done for thame and thare successoris in tyme cuming, dessirit 
ane chaplane quhilk daily micht do mes at all tymes when he was 
desposit for the said maisteris and candilmakers of the said craft and 
thare successoris, quhilk desire I considerit was conservant to resoun 
and gid conscience, and for uphalding and loving God's service, and 
for thankis, pleseuris, and uthar gratitudis done be thame to me, I gif 
and grant, and be the tenour of the presentis giffs and grantis 
for me and myne airis till the said personis and craft of the candle- 
makeris and thair successoris above written, full fre facultie license 
and freedome till thame till haue, and put in ane chaplane at the 
said altar, at all tymes quhen he beis disposit for sufirage to be 
done for thame and thare successoris in tyme to cum as said is, and 
till remove and put furth the said chaplane at all tymes quhen thai 
think expedient." Bell, however, reserved the patronage of the 
altar to himself and his heirs as often as it should become vacant. 

1 5th September 1517 (Town Records). ' Loing's Charters, p. 238. 

M 



so COMING CHANGE. 

In 1518 the Merchants followed the example of the other guilds. 
A chapel had lately been built off the Holy Blood aisle, on the 
^outh of the church, and this they desired and obtained from the 
town, which granted their prayer and "gave them the said ile with 
the pertinence to make the Holy Blude their patrone, and to haif the 
octave of Corpus Christi to be thair procuration day."^ In 1520 
the Walkers, Shearers, and Bonnet-makers obtained the altar of 
St Mark,^ and in 1531 the Tailors had allotted to them that of 
St Anne. 

During the period covered by this chapter additions to the church 
fitill seem to have been in progress. We read of a new aisle being 
built by Lauder de Blith, provost of Edinburgh, at the west end 
of the church, towards the south,' in 1513, and we have already 
referred to the new chapel of the Holy Blood granted to the 
merchants. Donations to the "kirk wark" in the shape of fines are 
frequently mentioned in the town records. After Flodden, and when 
the town was under apprehension of an English invasion, house- 
holders were required to build up all dykes belonging to their houses, 
xmder penalty of five pounds to the kirk wark.* People hanging 
clothes in their forestairs, and apprentices playing cards during 
their work, were fined, and the penalties imposed similarly applied. 
These notices indicate that building was still going on, though it is 
impossible to say with exactness what the additions were. The 
council of the burgh continued to the last to take an interest in the 
church, and a few extracts from their records may perhaps better 
illustrate this than any continuous narrative. 

October 8, 1518. — "Ordainet for the gude rewle to be had in the 
college kirk of Sanct Gele that the servants of the guild and the 
haly blood beddral, every ilk day keep the quier of the said kirk fra 
all vile personis, the tyme of the matyns, hie mes, and evin sang, 
and that thai keep the hail kirk, and thole na manner beggares to 
cum within the said kirk, nither at matynes, hie mes, or evin sang, 

» Town Recorda ■ IhicL 

' Laing's CharteiB, p. 199. ^ Town Records. 



OOMINO CHANGE. 81 

under payne of deprivation of thame of thair offices for ever, and 
uthir is to be putt in thair stedes." 

July 5, 1530. — " Given and grantit to Maister Robert Creychtoun,. 
provost of thair college kirk, the littil piece of waist land of thair 
kirkyaird, equally decendand fra the chalmer, new biggit for the 
curate, doune throw as the said chalmer strikes to the neither end of 
the said provost's yaird, for policy to be biggit be the said provest 
thairin, because it wes ane meedding and common sege till all 
persouns." 

July 13, 1540. — "The passage to Sanct GeyUs kirk caJlit our 
Lady Steppis. The quhilk day the prouest, baillies, counsale, and 
dekynis, for the communitie thinkis expedient that the common 
buthis be foremaylit, to the eflfect that with the males thairof in sa 
far as may be gott in the land pertenying to James Prestoun at th& 
kirk end and east entres thairof, mycht be botht for the weill and 
policy of the kirk ... to mak ane entres to the kirk for the honor 
of God and the policie of the gude toun." 

October 25, 1543. — " Thomas Watson, glassin wricht, is pajrt be the 
provest, &c., to uphald the hail glass and wyndois of thair kirk of 
Sanct Gele yearhe, and to fumess glass, leid, and tyn, and the said 
dene and his successoris to fumis ime and skalfalting and support of 
leiding and convoying of ladderis." 

March 4, 1552-3. — "The prouest, baillies, and counsale ordains 
that the common bell haif ane string cumand thair fra to the nether 
end of ane piller in the kirk, and to be lokkit in almery, and that ta 
haif sex keys, ane thairof to the provest, four to the four baillies,. 
and the sext to the bellman, that the same bell may be roung at all 
tymes quhen tyme occurris." 

April 27, 1554. — "Anent the sang scule. The quhilk day th& 
baillies and counsale sittand in judgement, ordainis the Dene of Gild 
to repair and upbig the sang scule in the kirkyard as it wes of 
befoir, sua that the bemis may enter thairto and inhabit the samyn."" 

July 20, 1554. — "The prouest, &c., finds be the foundation and 
als be the consent of Sir Henry Loch, sacristane of Sanct Gelia 



82 COMING CHANGE. 

quire, that the said Sir aucht to find and serve the said kirk at all 
tymes needful, lycht and fyre and watter to serve all the chaplanes 
of the kirk, and also to find stryngis to all the bellis within the 
steeple and sick lyke, to watter and soup all the queir every week 
anis; and also anent the ringing of the bellis discerpis with the 
consent of the said Sir Henry, that in all tymes comying, the greit 
bellis be nocht rung fra ten hours at evin, quhill v houris in the 
morning, and that he haif allanerhe for the 24 hours ringing, 6/8, 
without other dutie, and that the dutie of the three bells and deid 
bell be usit of the auld v shillings. The whilk day in presence 
Johne Yonge askit instruments that Sir Henry Loch consentit to 
tyne his benefice of sacristan in St Geles kirk, in case ony dosane of 
chaplanes of Sanct Gelis kirk wald pruve the kirk wantit fyre and 
watter in his defalt." 

Jxdy 1554. — ''Andro Mansoun, wricht, to the bigging of the 
stallis of the queir, having done his utter devoir and dilligence 
thereon, had awarded him a pension of ten marks for a period of ten 
years." 

August 12, 1555. — " Jas. Caimichael, Dene of Gild, declared that 
he had divers and sundry tymes advisit thame that the eist gavil 
window of Sanct Gelis kirk wes abill to fall doun and destroy Sanct 
Diones altar. — Ordered to repair the same." 

January 22, 1556. — "The quhilk day the prouest, baillies, and 
counsale, as of befoir, thinkis expedient that the Dene of Gild 
repereU our Lady altar and mak ane ile thairof, and gif it pleis ony 
maner of personis to gif pillairs or ony uther ornamentis thairto, 
that he be permitted, and thoil thair armes to be put thairon." 

The last extract is interesting. It tells us of the last of that 
" Sanct Giles wark," which we have so often noticed in these pages. 
The Lady altar was situated in the east end of the church to the 
south, and is often noticed in the charters. The brass pillars were 
intended probably to make an inclosure of the space where the altar 
stood, as well as to add to its ornament. The work was carried out, 
and various generous men were found to give the brass pillars. 



COICING CHANGE. 83 

one of them being the Dean of Guild, James Carmichael himself 
In the accounts of that oflScial we find the following items : 

" 1556-57. I am to be chargyt with money alio wit and resuait for 
certane of the brassin piUairis. Item, ressuant fra Andro Murray 
of Blackbarrony, for onputting of his armis upon the pillar, iiijfo'&. 
Item, ressuant fra Maister Henry Foulis for onputting of his armes 
upon the pillar in money, iiijlib. Item, for my awin pillar ye whilk 
I put on my armes, iiijfo'6." 

These items close the list of benefactions made to the church by 
the faithful. Within three years the besom of destruction swept 
the church of all its ornaments, and the " brassin " pillars of Car- 
michael and his friends were ordered to be made into artillery. 

During the period comprised in this chapter, we can see indications 
of diflference of opinion and of coming changes. The endowments 
to the altars come chiefly from the clergy, rather than as before from 
the faithful laity. One at least of the priests of the church adopted 
the principles of the Reformation and disappeared. On the 27th 
August 1534, two men, Straiton and Gourlay, condemned in a court 
at Holyrood, were burnt at the cross of Greenside for heresy, and 
their execution was followed by a time of relentless persecution, 
during which many citizens of Edinburgh who held their opinions 
sought safety in flight. Andro Johnstone, one of the prebendaries 
of St Giles, and chaplain of St Andrew's altar, was among them. 
On the 26th May 1535 we have the following note in the 
council records : 

" Gevis to Sir William Cady, the prebend of St Androis altar in 
Sant Gelis kirk, as vaccand because Mr Andro Johnstone last 
prebender left the land for heresy." 

Probably owing to the troubles of the time and the spirit of 
disaffection abroad, the provost was guarded when attending the 
church during the winter nights.^ 

November 16, 1535. — " It is statute and ordained that all nichbouris 
within the toune, merchandis, and craftesmen, as thae hav power, 

* Burgh Records. 



84 COMING CHANGE. 

till fumis cortise till pas and convey the provost fra the kirk till 
his awin hous after evin sang in the haly days of Yule, New Year 
day, and uphaly day, under payne of xvij shillings to be tane of 
thame that wantis cortise, and that every deykin haif power to 
pound his craft for the samyn." 

In 1546 a chaplain. Sir John Young, probably of St Giles, though 
it is not specially stated, was ordered to be tried in the consistory 
aisle of the church as *' art and part takar of the cruel and odious 
slaughter of my Lord Cardinal."* This priest was to have been 
tried by parliament, but was repledged from their jurisdiction as an 
ecclesiastical person, and therefore not subject to civil authority. Of 
his fate we are ignorant. 

In the Dean of Guild accounts, among small disbursements on 
account of the church, we come upon the following, evidently 
referring to heretical publications then becoming widely dissem- 
inated. 

" 1555-6. — Item, imprimis, on the 12th day of October to ane 
workman and for hadder* to bum Englis buiks on the Mercat 
Cross." 

The town authorities seem to have received certain dues from 
St Giles, called *' procurations," probably oflferings made to the great 
rehc which was in their custody. These seem to have gradually 
diminished. In 1553 they amounted to £200, 14s. 8^. ; in 1555 to 
£76, 17s. ; in 1556 to £69, 2s. 11^. ; and in 1558 to £44, 12s. 

All these were indications of the spirit that was abroad. They 
are like the streaks of cloud which, flitting across the blue sky, 
portend the coming storm. 

The following is a list of the various bequests made to the church, 
in continuation of that already given : 

1517. William Broune, chaplain, rector of Mousuald, gives to a 
chaplain at the altar of St Blase, martyr, annuals of nineteen merks 
and forty shillings.' 

1 Cardinal Beaton ; Acts of Parliament, vol. iL — There was a Sir John Yonng at this time 
chaplain of St Iloche. ^ Heather. ' Laing's Charters, p. 208. 



COMING CHANGS. 85 

1523. John Patersoun, biirgess, and Jonete Patersoun, his 
daughter, give to a chaplain at the altar of St Sebastian twenty 
merks.^ 

1527. Sir Robert Hoppare, prebendary of St Giles, gives to a 
chaplain at the altar of St Koche several properties, his own house 
lately built, a cellar and two booths built above it, two other 
booths, and a chamber immediately above, at present occupied by 
himself.' 

1527. John Quhite, presbyter, prebendary of Petcokis, in the 
college church of St Baye, Dunbar, gives to a chaplain at the altar 
of the Holy Blood, in the south part of the church, various 
properties which he possesses — namely, a booth, two rooms immedi- 
ately above, with their belongings.' 

1528. Walter Chepman leaves for the support of a chaplain at the 
altar of Jesus our Saviour, within the chapel below the cemetery, 
lately built by him, his house and land, with garden and well.* 

1535-6. Adam Ottirbume of Reidhall leaves to the altar of the 
Virgin various annual rents, amounting to seven merks six shillings 
and eightpence.^ 

1537. John Chepman gives for the support of a chaplain at the 
altar of St John the Evangelist, built by his uncle, various rents, 
amounting to twenty-two merks, with four merks for charity.® 

1541-2. Sir Thomas Ewing, chaplain, gives to the altar of the 
Holy Blood rents amounting to six merks and one pound seventeen 
shillings and twopence.^ 

This is the last bequest that is recorded in the chartulary. We 
have reason to believe that there were many others besides those we 
have given, the deeds conveying which have been lost. There were 
lands belonging to the church in connection with which we have no 
charters. The churches of Dunbamey, Potty, and Moncrieff also 
belonged to St Giles,® but we have no record of the time when they 
came into its possession, or by whom they were bestowed. 

» /Wrf., IxxxL » Ibid., p. 218. » Ibid,, p. 224. * Ibid,, p. 227. 

» Ibid., p. 234. • Ibid., p. 241. ' Ibid., p. 246. » Ibid, p. 720. 



86 COMING CHANGE. 

We subjoin here a charter belonging to the period covered by 
this chapter. It is interesting as it refers to the great altar of 
the Holy Blood, one of the principal altars of the church, and also 
because it is written in the language of the time and abounds in 
quaint phraseology : 

'* Thir indentouris maid at Edinburgh, the X day of July in the 
3'heir of God 1532 yheiris, conteinis, porportis, and beris witness that 
it is appoyntit and fynalie concordit betwixt honorabile men, 
Nichole Carncors, William Symson, and Andro Baroun and Alex- 
ander Grahame, burgesses of the said burgh, kirkmaistris of the con- 
fniry and altare of the Holy Blude, within the said burgh of Edin- 
burgh, for the tyme, with the consent, assent, and avis of the hale 
brether principall of the said fraternite on that ane parte, and Schir 
Thomas Ewin, chaplane, on that uthir parte, in manner, forme, and 
effect, as effcir foUowis — that is to say : Forasmekile as the said Schir 
Thomas Ewin, movit of devotioun quhilk he has to the said altare 
situate within the college kirk of Sanct Geill of the said burgh, to 
the honour of God Almichty and the blissit Sacrament, the precious 
blude of Jhesu Crist and of the glorious Virgin Mary, and all the 
court celestiall, in augmentatioun of divine service to be done at the 
said altare, hes foundit ane chaplainry perpetualy for suffrage and 
menestratioun to be done thereat, and hes maid and ordainit, 
and be the tennour of this presentis, makis and ordainis the said 
kirkmaistris and brethir of the said fraternitie patronis of the said 
chaplainry efter his deceis, sua that quhat tyme and how sone the 
samyn happynnis to waik eftir the said Schir Thomas decis, it 
sal be lawful to the foure kirkmaistris of that yeir, with the foure 
maistris of the yheir preceidand befoir, or the maist parte of the 
saidis vii personis, and na man till hauve voce thairintill without 
any congregation of the laif of the brethir of the said fraternitie, or 
ony utheris personis quhatsomever, till cheis and impute ane suffi- 
cient chaplane of gude life and condition in the said chaplainry 
within viii days eftir the vacation theirof, as thai sail ansuer to 
Almichty God thairupon: And gif thai be negligent and chesis 
nocht the said chaplane, the said viii days being past, in that case 
it sal be lawful to the provost of the said college kirk of Sanct Geill 



COMING CHANGE. 87 

and prebendaris of the samyn that sal be fer the tyme, till cheis 
and impute ane sufficient chaplane of gude life as said is to the said 
chaplainry in continent, as thai sail answer to Grod. And gif the 
said chaplane observis and keeps nocht the said foundation of the 
said chaplainry eftir the forme of the poyntis and ordinance contenit 
thairintilly I will in that case that it sal be lawful to the said kirk- 
masteris to remove him thairfra, and put ane uther in his place at 
thair awin hand, without ony questioun to be spent at the ordinare 
or the official or ony utheris. And the said maisteris and brethir 
of the said fratemitie sal fumis to the said chaplane and his succes- 
soris breid, wyne, walx, mes-claithis, and ane almery to keip his 
supples, for the quhilk thai sail have the procuratioun that beis 
gotten apone the patrone day grantit be the toun, that is to say, 
Yconie Salutoris, quhilk fallis yheirlie, the ix day of November, 
togidder with ni^s. of annuell underwritten. And als the said 
kirkmaistris sail gar sing ane Dirigie yheirlie on the said patrone 
day eftimone as use is, and ane saul mes on the mome thairafter 
devoutlie as efferis, and sail caus be put twa wax candellis on the 
bere, twa walx candellis on the altare, with twa torcheis to pass 
before the processioun, and sail caus xxx" prestis to say dirige and 
mes on the morne, with ane daill to be maid of tre score and xvi 
portions, ilk portion to be ane quhete laif worth iiiid. and yid. in 
money apoun the heid of ilk laif quhilk sal be delt and disponit in 
this manner, that is to say, xxxvi portionis to the Gray Freiris, foure 
to the Sisteris of Sanct Mary Wynd, thre to the lipper folks of Sanct 
Ninian's chapell, and the remanent to honest pure persons that hes 
maist myster, and vi^. thairattour to be gevin to uthir pur folks 
that gets nane of the daill. For the quhilk suffirage portionis and 
expensis sua to be maid in the first, the quere sail have yheirlie 
xiii^. iiiid., the bellman iiiic?., the croce and candilstikis viiic?., the 
grete bell xvic?., the xxx** prestis by the quere xvs., to be takin up 
yheirlie be the sadis kirkmaistris, and payit be thaim of this yheirlie 
annualis eftir following, videlicit sex markis, vi^. viiid. of annuell yheirlie 
to be uplifted and tane at twa usual termes in the yheir, Whitsonday 
and Martynmes in winter, be evin portionis of all and haill the 
tenement of umquhile James Turing, befoir and behynd, under and 
above, with the pertenentis, liand within the said burgh, on the 
north syde the Kingis Strete of the samyn, betwixt the land of 

N 



88 COMING CHANGB. 

Anro Mowbray on the est parte, and the land of umquhile Archi- 
bald Napare of Marchemstoun on the west parte, and the college 
yardis on the north parte, and the Kingis Strete on the south parte. 
And twenty schillings of annuell yheirlie to be upliftit and tane 
at the said termes be evin portionis of all and haill the landis now 
perteninand till Maistir Henry Spittale, James Haw, and James 
Harlaubakis, hand within this burgh, beside the Ovirbow on the 
est syde, the transe of that ilk betwixt the land of umquhile 
Bartilmo Carnys on the southe part, the land of Sanct James altare 
on the north parte, and the land of umquhile Thomas Smyth on 
the est parte, and the Kingis Common strete on the west part. 
And als ane uthir annuel rente of xiiis. yid. yheirlie to be uplifted 
and tane of all and haill the land of umquhile Johnne Barkare 
Hand under the wall on the north side the Kingis Strete of the 
samyn, betwixt the land of Thomas Kincade on the est parte, 
and the land of James Layng on the west parte, that is to say, Yiis. 
to be tane of the est parte of the said land quhilk Andro Moncur 
hes, and yis. vid, of the west parte of the said land now pertenand 
to Robert Watsoun. . . . quhilk annuellis extendis in the hail to 
the some of nyne markis iid. yeirlie, usuale money of Scotland, and 
sua the samyn correspondis and ansueris to the expensis above 
expremit. . . . And the said chaplane and his successouris sail 
be present at the said altare cled with his surples all the Sondais, 
Thurisdais, and principal festes of the yheir, accompanyit with the 
principal chaplane of the said altare, and sail gang in processioun 
beforis the sacrament, and sal help the said principal chaplain in 
hering of confesionis, and do all uthir honour and service to the 
said altare that he may, and the said masteris to stand gude frendis 
to him eftir his gude bering. . . . And to the observing and 
keeping and fulfilling of all and sundry the poyntis above written, 
the said partis ilk ane for thair awne pairt binds and obliges thame 
uthir to uthir be the faithis in their bodyies but fraude or gile. — In 
witness whereof, thai have interchangeblie debit and subscribiut this 
indentouris, yheir, day, and place foresaid, befoir this witness, 
Maistir Adam Ottirburne, provost for the tyme, &c." 




CHAPTER IX. 
Sefore tjfte Jttorm. 

Comes a vapour from the margin, blackening over heath and holt, 
Cramming all the blast before it, in its breast a thunderbolt. 

Tennyson's Loeksley HalL 

T may perhaps be well at this point to give some 
description of St Giles as it stood on the eve of the 
storm, which swept away, as by a single blast, 
so much of what had taken centuries to build up. 
It was a fine old edifice, picturesque in appearance, 
and in every way well worthy of its position as the parish church 
of the metropolis of Scotland. 

The original plan of the church was cruciform, with a small tran- 
sept; but so many chapels had been added from time to time, jutting 
out on all sides from the main lines of the building, that the original 
design became obliterated and lost to view ; thus externally the 
church presented an extremely irregular appearance. This is 
evident from the views of the building which have come down to us, 
as it existed previous to 1825. To the south of the nave aisle, 
between the west gable and the transept, stood the first five chapels 
built in 1387 ; one of them entered by a doorway from without, 
having a spacious porch. At a late period, shortly before 1513, two 
chapels were added to the west of this porch, and connected with 
the south wall of the two westmost chapels built in 1387. The 
entry to these may have been from the porch. These aisles or 
chapels formed in part the new chapel referred to in the deed of Sir 
Alexander Lauder de Blyth, in which he founds an altarage near 
the south-west corner of the church, in honour of God, the Virgin 



90 



BEFORE THE STORM. 



Mary, and Gabriel the archangel.^ About the same period, shortly 
before 1518, an aisle similar to that now called the Albany Aisle 
was built to the east of the porch, and between it and the transept. 
This was the aisle built in honour of the Holy Blood, which was 
given to the Merchants as their special chapel.* It consisted of two 
bays separated by a single pillar.* There was thus a double row of 

chapels be- 
tween the 
west gable of 
the church 
and the south 
transept. To 
the east of the 
transept, off 
the south 
aisle, stood 
the chapel of 
three bays, 
built in honour 
of Preston in 
1454. It stood 
in a line with 




Eemains of the Altar of the Holy Blood. 



the western chapels of 1387. Off this Preston Aisle was the 
aisle of Walter Chepman, in which he endowed an altar in 1513. 

To the north of the nave aisle, at the extreme west, was the 
Albany Aisle, happily still remaining, built about 1409. Farther 
east, and opposite the doorway on the south, was the Norman door, 
with a room above it ; the entrance to the stair leading to which 
can still be traced in the structure of the church wall. Between the 
doorway and the transept stood two chapels, built probably about 
the same time as the Albany Aisle, only one of which, that dedicated 
to St Eloi, now remains. 

We are able to give, with some approach at least to accuracy, the 
position in which the different altars stood. The High Altar, 

1 Ante, * Ante, ' In the late restoration the foundation of this pillar was uncovered. 



BEFORE THE STORM. 91 

dedicated to St Giles, stood in the choir between the last two 
octagon pillars to the east. To the right of this was the altar of the 
Blessed Virgin/ which was made into a special aisle or chapel by 
the erection of brass pillars in 1556.^ To the left was the altar of 
the Holy Cross or the Rood Aisle.* Here stood a large stone cross. 
Behind the High Altar, and immediately under the east window, 
stood the altar of St Dionysius ;* also behind the High Altar, but 
the position of which we cannot exactly define, was that of St 
Francis.* In the choir of the Blessed Virgin stood the altar of St 
John the Baptist.* In the aisle of the Holy Cross, at the western 
pillar, was the altar of St Martin and St Thomas.^ In the west 
end of the church, on the south, was an altar to the Virgin and St 
Gabriel ; it is said in the deed of foundation to be in the new chapel 
founded by Sir Lauder de Blith at the west end of the church, on 
the south.® 

There was an early altar to St John the Evangelist, in his chapel 
on the north side of the church,* " fra the aid hers of yrne inwart," 
and which was assigned in 1475^^ to the corporation of the Masons and 
Wrights. There was also an altar dedicated later to the same saint 
in the aisle of Walter Chepman, off the Preston Aisle. This early 
altar probably stood in the chapel between that of St Eloi and the 
north doorway. Near this doorway, " prope ostium boriale ecclesie,'' 
was an altar to the Holy Blood," which may have occupied the 
Albany Aisle. Another altar to the Holy Blood stood in the south 
of the church. The two chapels between St Anthony's Aisle and 
the porch probably belonged to it — certainly the aisle did, which, as 
we have seen, was built off them and assigned to the Merchants as 
their chapel. This altar was regarded as one of the principal shrines 
of the church. It had more than one chaplain attached to it. It 
had its own " beddral," and was supported by a confraternity called 

' The Preston Aisle was made " furth fra our Lady Aisle." 

* See ante, • ** Ex parte boriale ecclesie," 

* Wo learn this from the report of the Dean of Guild in previous chapter. 

^ ** Eetro altare magnum,** * Laing's Charters, p. 4. 

7 *^Ad columnam occidentcUem," Ibid., p. 89. 

8 Ibid,, p. 199. » Ibid. w Ante. " Laing^s Charters, p. 91. 



92 BEFORE THE STORM. 

*' The Confraternity of the Holy Blood," which had its own kirk- 
master.^ In the south wing of the transept stood the altar of St 
Anthony.* It also was supported by a fraternity, who bought wine 
from the ships at Leith, and retailed it for their own benefit.' It 
was adorned by brazen pillars. The Preston Aisle was dedicated 
to St Thomas/ and an altar to the saint must have stood there. 
In this aisle also was placed an altar " of the visitation of the Virgin, 
and an altar to St Roche." * 

The altar of St Laurence was in the south of the church, near 
the middle ; and that of St Ninian was close to it.® The '* altar 
of St Thomas the Apostle, and of Apolonie Virgin, and All Saints," 
situated below the south door to the west, and beside the aisle lately 
built by Provost Lauder, is mentioned.^ Whether this reference 
is to one altar or to three is not clear. This altar or altars occupied 
the twin chapel to that of St Gabriel. There was an aisle and altar 
of St Catherine on the south part of the church, but the precise 
locality is uncertain. The altar of our Lady of Piety ^ stood at the 
north of the entry of the choir. The altar of St Blase was in the 
south part of the choir ;• that of St Andrew in the south of the 
church ; and that of St Saviour at the east end.^^ There was an aisle 
in the church used for ecclesiastical courts, called *'the consistory 
aisle," but we do not know its position. 

The position of these altars is described in some cases with exact- 
ness, but there occur in the charters the names of others of whose 
position we can form no idea, though, by the bequests left to some 
of them, they must have been regarded as important. In this list 
we may place the altars of St Nicolas, St Duthac, St Mungo, 
St Christopher, St Peter, St Michael the Archangel, St Ubert, 
St Columba, the Holy Trinity, St Sebastian, St Laurence and 

^ Laing's Charters, p. 216. 

^ We learn this from the Regent Murray being buried in St Anthony's Aiale. 

« Maitland*s Hifltoi7, p. 12. 

* " Sanct Thomas Aisle, called the Preston Aisle" (Burgh Records). 

* Great Seal Charters, 2685. « Laing's Charters, p. 160. 
^ Ibid., Appendix, Ixxv. 8 /j^^.^ p. 14a. 

» Ibid,, p. 266. 10 Ibid,, p. 197. 



BEFORE THE STORM. 93 

St Francis, St Cuthbert, St Severianus, St Anne, St Erasmois, 
St Fabian and St Sebastian, St Gregory, St Crispin and St Cris- 
piniane, St Vincent Martyr, St James the Apostle, and St Mark. 
All these are mentioned either in the charters of the church or 
the records of the burgh. There are some others also which, from 
the way they are mentioned, appear different from any of those above, 
but which probably were really not so. 

Every pillar of the aisles and side chapels must have had its own 
altar, and as some of the altars had more than one priest attached ^ 
to them, the number of clergy must have been very great. These 
altars were all well furnished, and in nearly all the charters there 
is special mention of their ornamentation. Above the south porch 
was the re-vestry, a spacious chamber, lit by the handsome three- 
lighted window which has been transferred to the west gable of the 
present side chapel, looking out on the Signet Library. At the 
south door stood " the font where the bairns were baptised."* In 
the north-east corner was a door called " our Ladys Steppis," from an 
image of the Virgin that was placed in a niche in the wall. After 
the Reformation the south door was closed up, and another opened 
in St Anthony's Aisle.' 

Of the furnishings of the church we find many scattered notices 
in the disbursements of the town for ecclesiastical purposes, and they 
seem to have been ample in character. At the expense of the burgh 
there were costly stalls erected in the choir for the prebendaries. 
These were probably ornate, and skilfully designed and executed. 
The architect employed in their erection was one Andro Mansioun, 
and so well pleased were the authorities with his work, that they 
granted him an annual pension of ten merks for ten years. The 
town was possessed of four golden and four silver candlesticks. 
These were let out for funeral services and masses for the dead, and 
produced for many years a considerable revenue. In many of the 
bequests made to the church, we have money specially left for their 

^ Thus the prebend of St Michael de Monte Tomba was attached to the altar of St James 
<Burgh Records, 1581 ). « Burgh Records. ' Ibid. 



94 BEFORE THE STORM. 

use at the yearly celebration of the testator's death. The town also 
seems to have had the right to draw fees for the exhibition of the 
great relic of the church, the arm-bone of St Giles. In the 
accounts of the town are mentioned sums drawn for "St Geils 
arm on relic Sonday," as well as disbursements for keeping the 
case which held the relic in repair — " Mending and polesing St 
Geils arm.** We shall afterwards have to refer to the ultimate 
disposal of the jewels and treasures of the church, but the 
following extract from an inventory taken of the valuables which 
were conmiitted for safety to the care of the Dean of Guild, by 
Sir Henry Loch, sacristan of the church, at the commencement of 
the Reformation troubles, gives us some idea of the character of 
the church fiimishings : 

" The relict and arme of Sanct Geill, with the bane and paper, 
with ane ring set with ane diamant on the lytill fingar of the said 
arme, and fourteen perle and sevintene stanes all weyand fyve pound 
thre ounce and ane half; the syluer croce by the fute, weyand six 
pound foure unce and an half. Item, the fute of this croce fiUit 
with pik and uther metall within the same to caus it to stand, weyand 
ten pund nyne ounce ; tua crowattis, weyand twenty tua unce ; 
ane challece with the patene of syluer, weyand thretty twa unce 
and ane half, whairof the spune weyis half ane unce; twa 
chandellaris of syluer, weyand sevin pund four unce; tua grettar 
chandlaris of syluer, baith weyand aucht pund threttene unce ; tua 
sensaris, weyand togidder thre pund fyffceene unce; ane ship for 
insence, sex unce. Item, the eucharist was weyit contenand of 
weycht all syluer ourgilt, with four bellis of gold hingand thairat, 
half ane stane and tua unce wecht, haif hingand abone ane hart set 
with perle, ane Uttle blew bell of gold, ane littil jasinct, ane sapheir, 
ane agat, tua perils, tua stanes, and uther tua fyne stanis, and 
hingand laich ane lytill hart of gold, ane mekill croce with three 
perle image of our Ladye, ane little croce with three perle ; whilkis 
is all contained within the said eucharist. Ane round eucharist of 



BEFORE THE STORM. 95 

silver weyand twenty thre unces. Item, the cresum stok, weyand 
xxxix unce and ane quarter." ^ 

This rough inventory tells us somewhat of the treasures of the 
church. We know, however, that it gives but a part of these. 
The Holy Blood altar and several of the other altars had their 
own jewels, that do not appear in the list we have given. An 
image of St Giles, richly vested, stood in the church, and was 
regarded with special veneration. We read in the burgh records 
of "Sanct Gelis cloke of welvotte dropped with gold, with a 
pendicle of red crammosye velvotte, calKt the vail ;" and in the 
town treasurer's accounts we find these items : '* Painting of St 
Geil," and "Mendying St Gelis coat." The robes of the priests 
were also rich and sumptuous. We read of "ane hail stand" of 
vestments for the deacon and subdeacon, " all of claith of gold ; " 
also of a vestment of green damask, and another of white, of a 
chasuble of red velvet mixt with cloth of gold ; of a " hail stand " 
of blue velvet, containing three capes, two tunics of white damask, 
a blue chasuble of velvet, and a chasuble of 'Hany velvet," a 
vestment of cloth of gold called Dame Lauder's stand. The High 
Altar was also richly vested. There were three frontals, one of 
black and another of red velvet, and a third of cloth of gold. We 
read also of the " arras wark of the altar, and a paill [pall ?] of red 
satin hanging before it." 

The church had a brass lectern, of which we have several notices 
in the town treasurer's accounts, and it possessed also a pulpit.^ On 
festivals the steeple is said to have been lit up with coloured lights.* 
Considerable attention seems to have been paid to the music of 
the church. It had an organ,* and in the adjoining churchyard 
stood a "sang school," which seems to have been supported by 
the town.* We have mention also of a license granted to James 
Lauder, prebendary of the choir,® " to leave Scotland and to study 

^ Bargh Records. ' Laing's Chartero, cviiL 

» M'Kenrie Walcott, Ancimt Church of Scotland. * Burgh Records, 1666, p. 366. 

' See ante, ^ Laing's Charters, xlii. 
O 



96 BEFORE THE STORM. 

music in England and foreign countries, to pass furth of the realme 
to the partes of England and France, there to remain for the space 
of ane year, to the effect that he may have and get better erudition 
in musik and playing than he has/' This shows that there was a 
desire that the musical service should be well maintained, as doubt- 
less it was. The windows of the chui'ch were probably filled with 
-coloured glass. One stained window remained to modem times 
in the chapel of St Eloi, which pertained to the Hammermen. 
The design consisted of an elephant, well executed, underneath 
which was a crown and hammer, the armorial bearings of the 
-craffc.^ 

Several bells belonged to the church,^ of which we have casual 
notices, such as the Great Bell, the Lady Bell, and the Moaning 
Bell, which was tolled at funerals. A bell, com- 
monly called the Vesper Bell, has come down 
to the present day, bearing this inscription : 

" MATER DEI : MEMENTO MEI : ANNO : D I M : IIII." 

The sound of the first of these bells was well 
known to the citizens of Edinburgh; it tolled 
after the disaster of Flodden to warn the citizens 
to assemble for the defence of the capital, and on 
occasions of national sorrow or rejoicing it was 
always rung.* It was made in Flanders, and bore 
on its sides the arms of Guelderland, and devices 
of the Virgin and child, with this inscription : " honorabiles viri 

BURGBNSES VlLLiE DE EDINBURGH, IN SCOTIA, HANG GAMPANAM FIERI 
FEGERUNT, ANNO DNI. M.GGCC.LVV. JOHS ET WILHELMUS HOERHEN MB 
FEGERUNT ; IPSAMQUE GAMPANAM GYELIS VOGARI VOLUERUNT. DEFUNGTOS 
PLANGO : VIVOS VOGO : FDLMINA FRANGO." * 

1 Wilson's Memorials of Edinburgh^ voL iL p. 167. 

2 See interesting paper on the bells of St Giles, in Transactions of the Scottish Society of 
Antiquaries, by Geo. Thorns, F.S.A. 3 Laing*s Charters, xix. 

* ** The honourable men, burgesses of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland, caused this bell to 
be made in the year of our Lord one thousand four hundred and sixty. John and William 
Hoerhen made me, and they willed to call me St Giles* bell. I mourn the dead : I call the 
living : I disperse the thunder. " 




BISFORE THE STORM. 97 

It is to this bell the Scottish poet Dunbar refers when he says : 

I come amang you hier to dwell: 
Fra sound of Sanct Qelis bell 
Nevir think 1 to flie. 

While the interior of the church was furnished with all that could 
make its ritual imposing and magnificent, its surroundings were of 
a mean and even squalid character. To the south lay the common 
burying-ground of the city, stretching down the slope to the 
Cowgate. In this graveyard stood the " Sang Schule." ^ The 
provost's dwelling was on the east, and houses belonging to the 
prebendaries on the west.* Close to the north side of the church, 
and parallel with it, there was a row of houses or shops called the 
"booth raw," and between them and the building a narrow lane, 
entered at the door leading to the church, called " our Lady's Steps,'^ 
at the north-east comer of the church. This lane, only a few feet 
wide, was appropriately called the " Stinkand " or " Stinking Style." 
It seems to have been filthy in the extreme, and the buildings on 
one side of it must have taken away greatly from the appeai-ance of 
the venerable building. It was from its darkness a place of danger 
to the passenger, and had been the scene of several murders. 
Dunbar's description is probably not overdrawn : 

Your stinkand style, that standis dirk, 
Haldis the lycht fra your Parroche Kirk, 
Your foirstairs makis your housis mirk^ 
Lyk na country but heir at hame. 

It was close to the entry at the east end that the ancient cross of 
the town stood,* not far from the site of the present structure. 

The usual festivals of the Catholic Church were observed as they 
occurred, and we have in the burgh accounts notices of the " dichting 
(or cleaning) of the kirk on Corpus Christi," and the exhibition of 

s I make the latter statement on the authority of Dr Laing, though I find no reference to the 
houses of the prebendaries in the charters of the church. 
' Laing's Charters, Introduction. 



98 BEFORE THE STORM. 

" St Geils arm on relic Sonday/* The festival of the dedication of 
the church was on the 3d of November,^ a different day from that of 
the first dedication by Bishop Bernham. We read of " the Abbot 
of Unreason," or as he seems to have been called " the Abbot of na 
Rent," so that probably the ancient revels so wonderfully depicted by 
Sir Walter Scott occasionally varied the routine of ecclesiastical 
life in St Giles. 

But the popular festival of the year was that of St Giles' day, 
held on the 1st of September. On this day the church was 
"graithed* or bedecked with evergreens and flowers, and a pro- 
cession carrying the effigy of the saint upon a fertor, to which 
it was bound with iron bands," issued from the building and 
wended its way through the town. It was followed by the clergy 
of the church and members of religious orders, as well as by the cor- 
poration of the town, attended by harpers and trumpeters, banners 
and bagpipes, " talbrone, trumpet, schcdme, and clarioun." In the 
disbursements of the town treasurer we read of "the minstrels 
that playit before St Gehs on his day," and of "James Drummond 
and his marrowis quha playit before Sanct Gellis on his day on the 
chammes," and of the " scouring of the brassin werk on St Gelis day, 
and wattering and souping of the kirk." We find also a curious 
item : " For tow to the bull on St Geils day," * from which it would 
appear that a bull was led in the procession through the streets. 
This was probably in imitation of a French custom. In Paris, 
during the carnival, to this day a prize ox, " The Boeuf Gras," in a 
large car, preceded by music and accompanied by a numerous 
train of butchers on horseback, fantastically dressed, is led through 
the streets. The ox is covered with embroidery, and his head 
adorned with laurels.* Probably it was in imitation of this 
ancient practice that a bull formed part of the spectacle on St Giles' 
day in Edinburgh. 

1 Burgh Records, 1607, p. 335. 

• " Graithing of the kirk on St Gilis day " (Burgh Records, 1563, p. 341 ). 

• Ibid., p. 318. * Galignaiii's Paris Guide, p. 483. 






BEFORE THE STORM. 99 

The festival has been satirised by Sir David Lindsay, and his 
description, with that of another to which we shall come in our 
next chapter, brings the manner in which St Giles' day was kept in 
Edinburgh very vividly before us : 

Of Edinbnrg the greit idolatrie ^ 
And manifest abomination, 
On thair feist day all creature may see 
They beir ane auld stok image thro the toun, 
With talbrone, trumpet, schalme and clarioun, 
Quhilk hes been usit mony ane yeir begone, 
With preistis and freirs into procession, 
Sicklyke as Bell was borne thro Babylona 

Fy on you freiris ! that usis for to preiche. 
And dois assist to sik idolatrie ; 
Quhy do ye nocht the ignorant pepill teiche 
How ane deid image carvit of ane tre, 
As it war haly, suld nocht honourit be ; 
Nor borne on burges backis, up and doun, 
Bot ye schaw planelie your hypocrisie 
Qwhen ye pas formest in processioun. 

Fy on you fosteraris of idolatrie I 
That till ane deid stok dois sik reverence, 
In presens of the pepill publicklie ; 
Feir ye nocht God to commit sik offence ? 
I counsall you do yit your diligence, 
To gar suppresse sik greit abusioun ; 
Do ye nocht sa, I dreid your recompence, 
Sal be nocht ellis bot clene confusioun.^ 

So the satirist describes the array, which he must often have 
witnessed. It is difficult in our prosaic time to realise the 
appearance which Edinburgh must have presented upon the 1st of 
September. 

By the notices of the church, which from various sources we 
have gathered together, we can perhaps form some picture in our 
mind of how it appeared during the Catholic period, and before the 

* Works of Sir D. Lindsay. 



100 



BEFORE THE STORM. 



bursting of the storm. Of the violence with which that storm swept 
down, those who ministered within its walls could have had before- 
hand little idea. The bolt descended upon them right '* out of the 
blue." On the 5th November 1557, the town granted a benefice 
in the church to Robert Craig, who "promised to be a priest 
within two years." ^ Before these two years had expired there 
was not an altar at which he could minister left standing within 
the church, 

1 Burgh ReoordB, p. 12. 




Ladg'a Steps 



lo ^ o 



50 



200 Ft. 



Plan of St Giles before Reformation. 



s/- 




CHAPTER X. 

€it l&ntitini oi tit ^torm~1556-1560. 

When to the kirk we come 

We 11 purge it ilka room 

Frae papUh relics, and all such innovation, 

That a* the warld may see 

There 's nane in the right but we 

Of the auld Scottish nation. 

v^HETHER or not any among the more thoughtful 
and far-seeing of the clergy of St Giles had some 
idea of the change that was coming, they were all 
soon to get a warning that could not be misconstrued 
to put their house in order. It must have been 
a startling thing for them to find, one morning in the summer of 
1556, that some of their most precious possessions had been stolen 
from the church. There were missing an image of the Virgin, 
another of St Francis, and another representing the Trinity. How 
these disappeared or who abstracted them we have no means of 
knowing. We only know that in the town of Edinburgh the number 
of men likely to perpetrate such a theft was at that time rapidly 
on the increase. In 1555 John Knox himself had preached in the 
town, in the house of a friend of the Reformers called Syme, and the 
effect of his exhortations caused many to absent themselves from 
mass, and the priests perceived the change in the attendance, and 
spoke of it. Ballads aimed against the clergy were privately 
circulated and sung among the people, some of them couched in 
anything but choice language. There were evidently many among 



102 THE BURSTING OF THE STORM. 

the inhabitants quite willing to carry out what, in the language of 
the Reformers, was called *' the cleansing of the kirk of idols/' 

There was apparently a great commotion in the city caused by 
the theft. The clergy appealed to the Archbishop of St Andrews, 
and the archbishop called on the town council to bring the offenders 
to punishment. Whether they had any suspicion as to who these 
were we do not know. They asked certain of the clergy and 
representatives of the archbishop to come themselves and assist 
in discovering the guilty parties. It was a curious proposal the 
authorities made "for the getting knowledge of the persons that 
took down the images of the Trinitie, our Lady, and St Francis 
laitlie ; that every baillie, with twa honest men of his quarter, and 
ane servand of my Lord of Sanct Androis, gif they please to come, 
and ane chaplane of the kirk, namely the curat, his substitute. Sir 
Henry Loch and Sir Andro Bartraham, ane to ilk baillie, pas throw 
thair haill quarteris, and tak cognition anent the said doun taking 
of the images." ^ 

Probably the archbishop was not satisfied with this proposed 
method of finding out the transgressors, for the day after this 
resolution was come to, he sent the provost of the Kirk-of-Field 
to the council again. This dignitary carried with him a letter 
from the Queen-Regent, enjoining the civil authorities to find the 
guilty parties and deliver them up to the archbishop for judgment, 
who would probably have given them but a short shrift. From 
the queen's letter we can see that the '*new opinions" were 
beginning to be openly professed in the town. 

" Prouest and baillies," the letter ran, " we greet you well forsa- 
mekle as we are informed that thair is certane odious ballats and 
rymes, laitlie set furth by som evil inclinit personis of your toun 
quha hes alsua tane down divers imagis, and contempuadlie broken 
the samyne, quhilk is ane thing very sclanderous to the people, 
and contrarious to the ordinances and statutis of haly kirk, and it 
is given us to understeind that the makars of the said disorder are 

1 Town Council Records, 22d September 1556. 



THE BURSTING OF THE STORM. 103 

all indwellars and inhabitans of your said toun ; quhairfer we 
charge you that incontinent after the sight hereof ye diligentlie 
inquire such and seik fer thair names, and deUver thame in writ 
to our cousin the Archbishop of St Androis, to be usit conforme to 
the statutis of the kirk." 

The town council, notwithstanding the pressure put upon them 
by both the civil and ecclesiastical powers, do not appear to have 
been able to apprehend the thieves, who apparently returned again to 
the church on a similar errand. This time they took away the great 
image of St Giles himself.^ It was stolen during night-time in the 
month of July 1557, and was said to have been "first drowned in 
the Nor' Loch, afterwards burnt." * The archbishop again appealed 
to the town, and as St Giles' day was approaching, when an effigy 
of the saint would be needed for the procession, he requested them 
" either," as John Knox in his History puts it, *' to get again the 
aid Saint Gile, or else on thair expenses to make a new image." 

The council apparently refused to do either, and if their answer 
be rightly given by the historian we have named, they had 
considerable sympathy with those who abstracted the image. They 
answered that this demand " to them appeared very unjust, for they 
understood that God in some places had commanded idols and 
images to be destroyed ; but where he had commanded images to be 
set up they had not read, and desired the Bischope to find a warrant 
for his commandment." Their answer was not likely to mollify the 
wrath of the prelate, and he issued an excommunication against the 
authorities, which he ordered the curate of St Giles, Laurence 
Tod, who presided over the chapter in the absence of the provost, 
to pronounce ; but before he could do so the council appealed to 
the pope for a suspension. "Because they obeyed him not, he 
caused his curate Tod to curse them as black as cole, from the 
which they appealed to his unholy Father the Pope."' The excom- 
munication, of which the authorities seemed somewhat afraid, was 

^ Works of John Knox, vol. L, Appendix ; this happened in 1557. 
« Knox's History, vol. L p. 256. > Wodrow's Miscellany, p. 64. 

P 



104 THE BURSTING OF THE STORM. 

not effected, and as the historian remarks, " greater things shortly 
following, it passed into oblivion." ^ 

When St Giles' day came round with the 1st of September, 
it was resolved that it should be kept with even more than the 
accustomed display. To show her displeasure with what had 
occurred, and her devotion to the Church, the Queen-Regent, Mary 
of Guise, signified her intention of walking in the procession. The 
Dean of Guild, James Carmichael, a faithful son of the Church, 
obtained the use for the day of an effigy of St Giles — called " young 
St Gile" by the people — from the monastery of the Greyfriars, 
pledging a sum of money for its safe return. Several heretics who 
had recanted and had been pardoned * were to do public penance, 
and march in the procession with fagots in their hands. The 
members of religious orders were present in great numbers, and it 
was evident that the festival was to be celebrated with more than 
ordinary solemnity. The procession issued from St Giles at the 
usual hour. It went down the High Street and Canongate, and 
on its return had passed the Nether Bow and was on its way to the 
West Bow. Up to this time there had been no interference, though 
such had been preconcerted. The presence of royalty evidently 
checked any violent demonstration. When the circuit of the town 
had been almost made, the queen retired from the procession, 
probably believing that any danger that might have menaced it had 
passed. She was to dine that day with *' Sandy Carpentyne," ' and 
when near his house withdrew. Her withdrawal was the signal 
for attack, and a riot ensued which is nowhere more graphically 
described than in the pages of John Knox. His description of 
the whole proceedings is so graphic that it is perhaps best to 
give it at length as it stands : 

" A marmouset idol was borrowed from the Grefrearis (a silver 
peise of James Carmichael was laid in pledge). It was fixed with 
irne nails upon a barrow, called thair fertour. Thare assembled 

^ Knox's History, vol. i. p. 254. ' Lindsay's History of Scotland. 

' We do not know who this was. 



THE BURSTING OP THE STORM. 105 

Preastis, Frearis, Chanons, and rottin Papists, with tabornes and 
trumpets, banners and bagpipes, and who was there to lead the 
ring but the Queen-Regent herself, with all her schavellings for 
honour of that feast. West goes it, and comes doun the High 
Street and doun to the Canno Croce. The Quein-Regent dined 
that day in Sandy Carpentyne's house, betwix the Bowes, and so 
when the idol returned back again, sche left it and passed in to 
her dinner. The heartis of the brethren were wondrously inflamed, 
and seeing such abomination so manifestly mantained, war decreed 
to be revenged. They were divided in several companies, wherof 
not one knew of ane another. Thare ware some temperisaris that 
day (among whom was David Forres, called the Generale), who, 
fearing the chance to be done as it fell, laboured to stay the 
brethren. But that could not be, for immediately after that the 
Queen was entered into the lodging, some that were of the 
enterprise drew near to the idol, as willing to help to bear him, 
and getting the fertour upon their shoulders began to. shudder, 
thinking that thairby the idol should have fallen. But that was 
provided and prevented by the irne nailes, as we have said, and so 
began one to cry, ' Doun with the idol, doun with it,' and so 
without delay it was pulled doun. Some wag maid the Preasts 
Patrons at first, but when they saw the feebleness of their god 
(for one took him by the heals, and dadding his head to the calsay, 
left Dagon without head or handis, and said, * Fye upon thee, thou 
young Saint Gile, thy father wold haif taryed four such'), this 
considered, we say the preastis and freirs fled faster than thai did 
at Pynckey Clewcht. Thare mycht have bein sein so suddane a 
fray as seildome hes bein sein amonges that sorte of men within this 
realme, for doun goes the cross, off goes the surplice, round caps 
comer with the crounes. The Gray Freirs gaped, the Blak Frearis 
blew, the preastis panted and fled, and happy was he that first gate 
the house ; for such ane sudden fray came never amongs the genera- 
tion of anti-Christ within this realme before. By chance thare lay 
upon a stair a meary Englishman, and seing the discomfiture to be 



lOG THE BURSTING OF THE STORM, 

without blood, thought he wold ad some mearyness to the matter, 
and so cryed over a stair and said, ' Fy upon your whorsones. Why 
have ye brokin ordour ? Doun the street ye passed in array, and 
with great myrth. Why flie ye, villanes, now without ordour? 
Tume and stryke, everie man a stroke, for the honour of his god. 
Fy, cowardis, fy 1 Ye shall never be judged worthy of your wages 
againe I' But exhortations war then unprofitable ; for after Bell 
had brokin his neck, thar was no comfort to his confused army." 

Nothing in its way could be more pictorial, notwithstanding its 
coarseness, than this description, which displays also a considerable 
sense of humour on the part of the writer. It was no matter 
of humour, however, to the clergy of St Giles, who must have 
regained the church with the feeling that terrible calamities were 
in store for them. For a time, however, no further indignity was 
offered. The provost of the town. Lord Seton, was a devoted 
Catholic, and under his protection the church ritual went on as 
usual. Appointments were made to vacant chaplainries,^ and the 
prebendaries " waited on their accustomed services." But the times 
were troublous, and every precaution needed to be taken to keep 
the services free from disturbance, and men were paid to watch in 
the church night and day.* There was evidently now a considerable 
number of people in the town who were hostile, and who were 
ready at any moment to take active proceedings. With the summer 
of 1559 there came to Edinburgh tidings of the destruction at Perth 
of the monasteries of the Black and Gray Friars, and of the still 
nobler building of the monastery of the Carthusians. The Queen- 
Regent, alarmed at the tidings, laid injunctions on the town council 
to do all in their power to prevent the repetition of these proceed- 
ings in Edinburgh, and sent them a strong letter expressing her 
desire that they should guard well "the religious places," holding 
them responsible for any outrage that might occur. 

The council certainly appears to have done its best to carry 
out the queen's wishes, and with the approach of the Lords of 

^ Town Council Records. ' Ibid., 1559, p. 42. 



THB BURSTING OF THE STORM. 107 

the Congregation, the magistrates became specially assiduous for 
the protection of St Giles and its treasures. The records of the 
burgh are full of notices of the precautions they deemed it neces- 
sary to take. The inventory of the treasures, which we have given 
in the last chapter, was made out in the re- vestry of the church/ 
and the treasures themselves were transferred from Sir Henry 
Loch, the sacristan, to the keeping of John Charteris, the Dean 
of Guild of the town. This was done at a comparatively early 
date;* afterwards, they were distributed among different inhab- 
itants of the burgh, " honest men, who promist to do thair uter 
diligence for keeping thairof." Charteris refused their custody 
when required " to receive and take in sure keeping the jewels, orna- 
ments, and silver work of the High Altar to be surely kept by him 
in this troublous time." He answered that he was "aged, sickly, 
having no body in his house but his wife and serving woman." 
He refiised to be responsible, and to do anything ftirther towards 
keeping the jewels, ornaments, and silver, than had been done by 
his predecessors — that is to say, "in lokfast lumes within the re- 
vestry, and to be reddy to serve at tymes convenient." Crosses, 
vestments, altar furnishings, censers, spoons, and candlesticks of 
silver and gold, tabernacles for holding the eucharist, were dis- 
tributed among various men throughout the town. Many of these 
men were deacons of the various crafts that had altars in the church, 
and were interested in the safe preservation of the valuables intrusted 
to them. Others were persons of well-known probity and devotion 
to the Church. 

The account of the division is very minute, too minute to be given 
here. The church was swept bare of all its ornaments, even the 
"paU before the High Altar, and the pulpit cloth," were taken 
away and intrusted to the custody of Patrick Govane, the bellman.' 
The church itself was ordered by the town to be specially guarded. 
" For keeping of Sanct Gellis kirk and uphald of the stalls of the 

^ Fall notices of the precautions taken are in the Bnrgh Records and Appendix to Laing's 
Charters. ' Jauuaiy 7, 1659. " Appendix (Burgh Records). 



108 THE BURSTING OF THE STORM. 

quere," they ordered there should be " hyrit three score men of war." 
Having now done their very best for the preservation of the church, 
the town council resolved to send a deputation to meet the " Lords 
of the Congregation " at Linlithgow, to treat with them for " up- 
holding the roofs of the religious places and churches in the town, 
and to save the stalls, backs of altars, and other timber work, and to 
desire them to keep good order at their coming." We do not know 
whether this embassy reached the approaching army. Flushed with 
success, the Lords were little likely to listen with much attention to 
the request of the Edinburgh bailies. With Scone and Cambus- 
kenneth in ruins behind them, and Linlithgow, newly " purged of its 
idols," by them, it was not probable that they would promise 
generous treatment to St Giles. On the 29th June 1559, at three 
o'clock, the army of the Congregation entered Edinburgh unopposed, 
and the same afternoon a figure, afterwards to be well known 
there, entered the pulpit of St Giles, and John Knox preached in it 
for the first time.^ 

* "The minister of God's word, John Knox, the same day that the Congregation came to 
Edinburgh, made a sermon in St Giles " ( Wodrow*s Miscellany, p. 62). 







Metlallion supposed to have been struck at Geneva, 
shortly after the death of Knox. 



CHAPTER XL 



Still in the minster mass was sung, 

With small bells ringing and censers swung ; 

Still bowed the priest before the pyx, 

The altar high and crucifix, 

And still the grand old psalm 

Pealed through the pillared calm. 

W. C. Smith. 




HE '^ Brethren of the Congregation" now began to 
use St Giles as their regular place of worship, and 
a fortnight after their arrival set to work to purge 
it thoroughly of those objects which they asso- 
ciated with the old worship. John Knox, the week 
after they came to Edinburgh, was appointed their minister^ at 
a meeting which they held in the Tolbooth on the 7th of July, and 
he immediately began his labours in the city. It was probably in 
consequence of his exhortations that a clearing out of the church was 
effected, more thorough than that which had taken place when the 
jewels and adornments had been removed for safe keeping. On the 
14th of July the edifice was "purged" completely under the super- 
intendence of the Earls of Argyll and Glencairn, and other leaders 
of the Congregation.* In an old diary which has always been 
deemed reliable in its information, we read: '* Upon the 14th day 
of July in the yeir of God abon rehersit, the Blak and Gray Freris 
of Edinburgh were demolished and casten down aluterlie, and all 

' Knox's History, vol. L p. 398. > Diumal of Occurrents, p. 269. 



110 THE LAST MASS. 

the cheppelHs and coUegis about the said burgh with thair yairds 
were in lykewise destroyit, and the images and altaris of Sanct 
Gellis kirk destroyit and brint." 

The town council probably foreseeing what was coming, resolved 
if possible to save from destruction the stalls of the choir, which 
were the work of Mansoun, who had received a pension in acknow- 
ledgment of his labours.^ The authorities seem to have been 
specially proud of these stalls, for we have several notices regarding 
their preservation, and in prospect of the operations of the "Brethren 
of the Congregation," they were ordered to be taken out of St Giles 
and placed in the Tolbooth. "The baillies and council fyndis 
necessar that the stalis of the queyr be tane and put in the Nether 
Tolbooth for the mair sure keeping of thame, and ordanis the samyn 
to be careit thair with dilligence, and John Charterhouse, Dene of 
Gild, to pay the warkmen for thair labouris in dountaking and keep- 
ing of the samyn."* It is to be hoped that the Dean of Guild was 
expeditious in removing the stalls. Two days after he received his 
orders, the iconoclasts began their work, and as we hear no more of 
the stalls, it is probable that they were destroyed with other things 
deemed " relics of popery." The clearing of the church was carried 
out as far as it was possible to do so at the time, but many of the 
altars and other erections being strongly built, resisted all attempts 
then made to overthrow them, and they were left standing for a 
future occasion. 

While the Lords of the Congregation remained in Edinburgh, as 
we have said, they used St Giles for their prayers and sermons. A 
proposal had been made to them shortly after their arrival in the 
city that the inhabitants of the town should be at liberty till the 
10th of January to choose what religion they thought proper, when 
they would be examined as to which faith they wished to accept,* 
and "that religion mantained that the greatest number consentit 
to." The E/cformers indignantly refused such an appeal to the 

' He resigned it a few months previons. * Town Council Records, 1559, p. 45. 

» Burgh Records, 1659, p. 47. 



THE LAST MASS. Ill 

wishes of the citizens, and Adam Fullerton, one of their number 
who appeared at a conference on the subject, in " name and behalf of 
the haill brethren of the Congregation within the toun," repelled 
with indignation the suggestion that the town should choose and 
recognise the faith which the majority of the people wished, 
'* knowing the reUgion which we have presently, to be of Gk)d and 
conforme to his word, and on the other part knowing the mass and 
the papis haill religion to be without the word of God, altogether 
superstitious damnable idolatrie and of the devil, we cannocht con- 
sent for our parts that God's treuth and our reHgion now establishit 
conforme to his word sail be subject to voting of men." 

The Reformers had evidently little confidence in the result of 
a plebiscite of the inhabitants of Edinburgh, which would probably 
at that time have gone against them, and they state their disbelief 
in the voice of the people with considerable distinctness : " It is 
na new thing but mair nor notoir that fra the beginning of the 
world to this day, and even now in all countrayis, touns, and 
citeis, the maist part of men has ever been againis God and his 
treuthe, at the leist hes not plainly embraced the samyn.'* They 
further set forth that as they had taken possession of St Giles, and 
had for some time used it as their place of meeting, they should not 
be interfered with. They vigorously protested against the proposal 
to suspend their exercises there, until a plebiscite of the inhab- 
itants should take place, as they ''lang of befor and continewallie 
sensyne wer in possessioun, lykas we are yet, of the hie kirk of this 
toun, callit Saunct Gellis kirk, haveand our common prayeris, preach- 
ing of the word, and the administration of the sacramentis and hail 
uthir ministrie thair intile without interruption, and thairfor aucht 
and suld be allowed to possess the same without any voting con- 
troversie and trouble." The proposal to settle the religion of the 
city by a popular vote came to nothing, and the Congregation for 
the time retained possession of the church. 

It will be noticed that in their protestation against the proposed 
plebiscite, there is mention of St Giles being used not only for 
Q 



112 THE LAST MASS. 

sermons and other exercises, but also for "common prayeris." This 
expression seems to imply the use of a liturgy in the service of the 
time, and there is little doubt that such was the case. The form of 
prayer used was the second prayer-book of King Edward VI., 
which we know was employed by the Lords of the Congregation and 
their followers. " As to parish churches," says Kirkaldy of Grange, 
writing from Edinburgh soon after their arrival, ** they cleanse them 
of images and other monuments of idolatry, and command that mass 
shall not be said in them, in place whereof the book set forth by the 
godlie King Edward is used in the same churches." Sir W. Cecil, 
writing to Sir Nicolas Throkmorton in Paris, states much the same 
thing : *' The parish churches they deliver of altars and images, and 
have received the service of the Church of England according to 
King Edward's book." This prayer-book, therefore, for a time 
supplanted the mass in St Giles, and was read on Sundays, if not 
every day for a short period, with the sanction of the leading 
Reformers. It was much more Protestant in character than the first 
prayer-book of Edward VI., and it was considerably affected in 
its doctrine by the views of several leading continental Reformers, 
such as Bucer, Peter Martyr, and Pollandus, a circumstance 
that must have rendered it all the more acceptable to the Scottish 
Reformers, who were in close harmony with those of continental 
Europe.^ 

John Knox does not appear to have preached much in St Giles 
at the time of his appointment as minister. His life was in danger, 
and at the solicitation of others he left the city on the 24th 
July.* John Willock, who next to him was regarded as the most 
prominent of the preachers, took his place in the church. '* Quhan 
it was fund dangerous that Johnne Knox quha before was eleckit 
minister to that kyrk sould continew thair, the brethren requestit 
the said John Wyllok to abide with them, least that for the lack of 
ministeris idolatrie sould be erectit agane. To the whilk he alsua 

^ The use of the second prayer-book of King Edward is referred to as an undoubted fact in 
the introduction to the prayer-book of 1637. ' Wodrow's Miscellany, p. 65. 



THE LAST MASS. 113 

gladly consentit that it mycht evidintlie appeir, that he preferit the 
comfort of his brethren to his own lyiff. . . . Our brother Johnne 
Willock the day eftir our departure precht in Sanct Gellis kirk, and 
fervently exhortit the brethren to stand constant in the trewth 
quhilk they had professit/' 

John Willock was a man of excellent education, and was well 
known and much esteemed among the Scotch Reformers. He was 
originally a Franciscan monk, but renounced the Koman Catholic 
religion, and became a zealous and successful preacher in England^ 
where he acted for some time as chaplain to the Duke of Suffolk, 
Lady Jane Grey's father." He was a close firiend of Kuox, who left 
him to hold the position in St Giles. This he could not do without 
much trouble, especially after his powerful friends had departed, and 
he seems to have suffered great annoyance. But he was a brave and 
determined man, and kept to his post, while many of the Protestant 
citizens appear to have rallied round him. They "convoyed the 
preacher to the sermon, they met likewise at the common prayer,^ 
so that the number of the faithful increased daily." ' In the month 
of August Willock administered the sacrament in St Giles accord- 
ing to the Protestant form.* This is the first time we read of 
its being done. The celebration greatly displeased the adherents of 
the old Church, and the Queen-Regent, who still " maintained the 
mass in the Palace of Holyrood, was highly offended." She had 
desired the use of the church herself for the Roman oflSce, either 
before or after sermon : this had been indignantly refused,^ and the 
vigorous but not very courteous answer returned, " That to gif place 
to the Devile (quha was the chief inventor of the mass) for the 
plesour of ony creatur they wold not. They war in possession of 
that kirk, quhilk they could not abandone ; neither could they suffer 
idolatrie to be ereckit in the same unless be violince they should be 
constrainet sa to do, and whan they were determinit to seik the next 
remedy." Willock thus held his own, though many of the inhabit- 

1 Lee, History of Church, vol. i. p. 95. ' Prohably the daily service. 

■ Wodrow'fl Miscellany, p. 67. * Ihid,, p. 67. » Ibid,, p. 390. 



114 THE LAST MASS. 

ants were not in sympathy with him. The town still continued to 
pay such priests of the church as received stipend from them as 
though they were yet in possession. 

"The baillies and counsale ordains Maister James Lindesay to 
mak thankful paymeiit to Sir Walter Haliburton, Sir James 
Crauford, Sir George Manderston, Sir John Keir, Sir William 
Johnstone, Sir James Abercromby, and the uther prebendaris of 
St Giles quier, to whom the good toun is debt bound for any 
annual or dewtie of all anualles and duties awin to thame in tymes 
bygane."^ 

Thus side by side with the Protestant preacher the Roman clergy 
were drawing their old revenues and waiting for their turn to come. 
Willock's position must have been anything but comfortable, and 
his discomfort was increased by the presence of the French soldiers, 
in the pay of the Queen- Regent, who occasionally stroUed into St 
Giles during the time of the sermon, and amused themselves by 
ridiculing and interrupting the preacher, making at times such 
disturbance that the minister could not be heard. Mr Willock 
denounced them from his pulpit with great vehemence, but with 
little effect. Being armed, the citizens could not interfere with 
their proceedings, or resent their interruptions ; but a priest of the 
town having made his appearance among them wearing insultingly 
his three-cornered cap, they at once retaliated pretty sharply. The 
description given of the conduct of these interrupters of Protestant 
service is so graphic that we quote it at length : 

" French captains and their soldours made their common deambu- 
lation in the great kirk, talking so loude that the auditours could not 
hear perfytlie. Although the minister was oftimes compelled to crie 
out against them, and to pray to God to ridde them of such locusts, 
they continued in their purpose, devised by the Queen to draw the 
professours of Edinburgh and them to some quarilling that their 
might be some colour of breach of the appointment upon thair side.* 

^ Burgh Records, August 4, 1559. 

^ Alluding to a kind of truce that had been previously made. 



THE LAST MASS. 115 

The professors brake not one jot of the appointment, except that 
a homed cap was takin off a proud preists head, and cutt in four 
quarteris, because he said he would wear it in despite of the con- 
gregation."^ 

The priests were shortly afterwards admitted again to St Giles, 
and were allowed to celebrate mass without molestation, though 
but for a very short time. The conflict with the Lords of the 
Congregation grew more and more intense, and the latter having 
retaken Edinburgh, resolved on the siege of Leith, held by the 
queen and her followers. Scaling ladders for the purpose were 
prepared in the aisles of St Giles, and this work was denounced 
by Willock and his friends with as much severity as he had 
denounced the French soldiers. It interfered with his prelec- 
tions, and he spoke of it curiously enough as sacrilegious, for he 
could have had no special reverence for the place of worship, or 
regarded it as inherently sacred. He prophesied also that a work 
so begun could only end in defeat. This was the case, and with the 
success of the royal party the last gleam of hope came to the 
Catholics. On the 24th September 1559, reinforcements arrived 
from France to the help of the Queen-Regent. With them came a 
distinguished prelate of the French Catholic Church, the Bishop of 
Amiens.' His name was Nicholas de Pelleve, and he became after- 
wards Archbishop of Sens, and cardinal. He came in the character of 
legal a latere from the pope, and was accompanied by four doctors of 
the Sorbonne. It is said by the Roman Catholic historian' "that 
these learned men, by their sermons and reasonings, had great effect in 
establishing unsettled persons in the belief of the Catholic doctrine." 
Whether that were so or not we have no means of knowing ; we only 
know that, backed by the augmented forces of the regent, the French 
bishop came to St Giles, which he consecrated anew, ''purging the 
High Church of Edinburgh from heretical pollutions with great show 
of piety and devotion."* But it was only for a very short interval 

* Calderwood, vol. i p. 602, ' Knox's History, voL i. p. 396. 

» Leslie. * Keith, vol. i. p. 228. 



116 THE LAST MASS. 

that the old worship was conducted within its walls. As it was for 
the last time, we may give the account that has come down to us of 
the consecration, the final glimpse we have of the old ritual that 
had been there so long. 

" The next day, which was the third after the departure of the 
Lords, the Bishopp of St Andrews with his Balamites came to 
St Giles kirk to hallow the same, which they alledged to be 
polluted, by reasone it had been purged of idolatrie in the month 
of July as is before declared, and that the evangell had been 
preached in it, and the sacrament rightly administered, therefore 
the said bishop with his masking goods, cross, capp, and mitre, after 
he had mumbled over some Latin words, he began to cast his 
holy water in all parts of the said kirk, and then immediately set 
up their idolatrous mass ; for there was already altars built. The 
Papist Freres ceased not to blaspheme and cry out against the truth 
that had lately been preached there." ^ 

This ceremony, in the description of which we have no mention of 
the Bishop of Amiens, though we know that he was present, took 
place on the 9th November 1559. The Catholic clergy for a time per- 
formed the old ritual. The vestments and ornaments that had been 
hid away during the presence of the Lords of the Congregation 
were drawn from their hiding-places, and mass said with somewhat 
of its old solemnity. '^ James Curll at the command of the baillies 
and counsel delyverit to thame, the preist, deykin, sub-dekin, caip, 
albas and the rest completand the hail stand of clayth of gold 
deliverit to him in keeping the 28th day of June past, and syklyk 
Robert Huntrodis, cordinar, delivuerit the vestment, dekin, sub-dekin, 
capis of bleu velvotte scarmit with gold, laid with him in keeping, 
and the baillies and counsale ordaint the said vestments to be 
imput in the charter house to be kepit there whil thai adwyse 
further."^ 

The use of these vestments was not enjoyed long. For a period 
of nearly five months, from the 9th November 1559, the old 

* Row's Miscellany, p. 73. ' Town Council Recoi-ds, p. 61. 



THE LAST MASS. 



117 



ritual continued ; on the 1st April it ceased, and has never been 
resumed. 

" The same night, some gentlemen of the Congregation came to 
St Giles kirk and broke doun the aJtaris agane, and purged the 
said kirk of idolatrie, with the rest of the kirks. And so 
continentlie the gospell was preached from the first day of 
Aprill."^ 

So the old faith disappears and a new order of things begins. 
The last day on which mass was said in St Giles was probably the 
31st of March 1560. 

' Row*8 Miscellany, p. 73. 





CHAPTER XII. 
Clearfng tje TOrecIt— X560* 

AH things have their end. 
Churches and cities, wliich have diseases like to men, 
Must have like death that we have. 

5^ HE Roman Church of Scotland was now a piteous 
wreck, outwardly broken up and dismantled. It 
only remained to clear away all traces of the old 
-j^ polity, and to build up the new. This was set about 
^ with great vigour, and certainly with no great regard 
for those — and there were not a few in Edinburgh — ^who still 
retained reverence for the things that had been. The Protestants 
were now masters of the town, and they used their power with 
unflinching hand. Accordingly we find them taking measures to 
prevent St Giles ever being occupied by the priests again, sweep- 
ing out every remnant of the old religion, and transforming the 
building almost beyond the possibiUty of recognition. John Knox 
returned to Edinburgh on the 23d April 1560^ as minister of 
the city, and his arrival gave an impetus to the Protestant 
cause. 

The accounts of the Dean of Guild are full • of the expenditure 
incurred in what was termed the '^ reparrelling of the kirk." The 
work, such as it was, was most thoroughly done. An utter clearance 
was made of all the altars, which being strongly built had hitherto 

' Burgh Records, 1560, p. 63. 



CLEARING THE WRECK. 119 

resisted attempts to take them away. For nine days workmen were 
employed at this alone, assisted by sailors from Leith, who brought 
with them a mast and pulleys to help in the dismantling. After 
the altars were removed, the place was thoroughly whitewashed and 
gutted, and all the "through stanes" or tombstones taken out. 
This work began in May or June 1560, and continued until the 
spring of 1561. The besom of destruction could not have been more 
zealously plied. The following items from the Dean of Guild's 
accounts may here be interesting : 

" The money disbursit upon the wark and workmen of the Kirk. 

Item, in primia to ten workmen quha wroucht be the space of nyne 
days for takin doun of the hail altars of the kirk, the rude loft, 
for beringof thered^ and staines thereof away xlb.xva" 

After this there follow payments to "masons, wrights, and 
spairgearis (white washers) ** who were paid weekly wages, 
and all the necessary furnishing for their, workmen provided — 
chalk for whitewashing upwards of 600 stones, a mast from 
Leith with cradle and pulleys, besoms, barrows, and pikes with 
handles. 

After the clearing out had been finished, seats were placed 
throughout the church for the use of the congregation, as we 
learn from the following extract from the burgh records : " The 
prouest, baillies, and counsale ordanis James Barroun, Dene of Gild, 
to make sattis, furmes, and stullis, of the radeast of the tymmer 
convenient thairfor, lyand within the volt under the Tolbooth, for 
the people to syt upon in tyme of the sermon and prayeris within 
the kirk, and all uther thying as sail be thoucht gude for decoring 
of the said kirk."* In connection with this seating of the 
church we come upon a curious notice in the records. The guild 
or corporation of Tailors possessed an altar in the Catholic time, 
dedicated to their patron saint, St Anne. This altar of course had 

^ Red in Scotch means rabbish, but I rather think it stands for the rude or cross of the 
Holy Cross Aisle. ' Burgh Records, 1560, p. 67. 

R 



120 CLEARING THE WRECK. 

disappeared, but the brethren of the craft seem to have thought that 
they had some right to sit in the place where it formerly stood, and 
which was probably well situated for hearing the sermon. They 
accordingly asked this favour of the town council ; but it was at 
once refused, and they were told they must sit together with the 
rest of the congregation in ''brotherlie amyte." " In respect of the 
godlie ordour now taiken in religion, all title and clame to altaris and 
sic uther superstitious pretensis ar and shuld be abolichist, and na 
further word nor clame thereof to be in times coming, hot as it is 
commanded be Goddis maist holy word that brotherlie amyte be 
amangis us joynit in his congregation, the nobilitie, prouest, baillies, 
counsal, eldars, deykinis, being first placit, the honest merchanttis 
and honest craftismen to place and set thameselves togeddir as 
loving brether and freindis in that and in all uther places of the 
kirk vaccand at all tymes neidful." ^ 

In addition to their operations in gutting and in *' decoring " the 
church, the town council proposed to limit its size by cutting off a 
portion at the east and another at the west end, and devoting them 
to secular use, the first to serve for a common school, and the second 
as a tolbooth or prison, and town oflSces. They deplore the 
insufficient accommodation afforded by their present premises, and 
come to the conclusion that the church is large enough to furnish 
them with the required space, " having more commodious place and 
sic rooms upon the west pairt of the kyrk and sycklike upon the 
east pairt of the same, ane other convenient rome for scole to thair 
baimies, besyde suflScient rowme for the preiching and ministration 
of the sacramentis." 

They therefore order the Dean of Guild to build a wall from 
the *' south door, called the kirkyard door, streichte north to the 
north kirk door at the Stynkand Style for the said Tolbooth." 
This division wall would cut off a large area of the church. The 
other part proposed to be divided off for the school was not so 
extensive. The wall was to be drawn from the *^ eist cheik of the 

^ Burgh Records, May 1560, p. 71. 



CLEARING THE WRECK. 121 

kyrk door at our Lady's Steppis/' and so across the church to the 
"south side wall." Had these alterations been carried out the 
space used for the meeting of the congregation would have been 
greatly curtailed. There is reason to believe, however, that these 
changes were not effected at this time. In none of the Dean of 
Guild accounts of that period is there any special mention of the 
building of division walls within the church, and for a number of 
years after the Reformation the church is mentioned as one.^ 

Whether these proposed divisions were carried out or not, the 
work which was actually done involved a considerable expenditure, 
and to defray this, the treasures of the church, consisting of the 
vestments, sacred vessels, and other property, were turned into 
money. The records of the burgh are full of notices of the ultimate 
disposal and sale of these articles. First one of the bells, called the 
" Mary bell," was taken down. " The prouest, baillies, and counsale 
understanding that the kyrk micht be servit be thre bells, ane rung 
to the prayeris, ane uther for serving the knok, and the third to be 
the common bell, ordanis James Barroun to take down the ferd bell 
callit the Marie bell."^ 

This bell, with the " brasyn pillaris of the kirk of Sanct Geill," 
were ordered to be made into " artillayire " for the town's use, and 
if this could not be done in Edinburgh, the Dean of Guild was 
instructed to send the metal to Flanders for that purpose.' The 
disposal of the bell was the prelude to a general scattering of what 
is called the *'kirk grayth." On the 1st August 1560 the town 
" discerns and concludes that the silver wark pertenying to the gude 
town usit in St Gilis kirk in tymes past, baith gilt and ungilt, be 
with all dilligence sauld and cunyet, and the money thairof to be 
waryt upon the common warks, and in especiall upon the reparation 
and decoring of the kyrk."* They therefore ordain all the vest- 

1 The npper and lower vestry was taken for the town-clerk's oflSce; afterwards (see infra) 
the school was transferred to the Blackfriars. 

> Burgh Records, 8th May 1560. 

« Ibid,, 26th May 1560. They were afterwards, with the other brass-work of the church, sold 
by roup to Adam Fullarton on October 20, 1560. See infra. 

^lUd,, 1st August 15G0. 



122 CLEARING THE WRECK. 

ments and " uther kirk grayth " to be sold, and call upon the inhab- 
itants who had them in keeping forthwith to render them up to the 
council. 

By the end of the month in which this order was issued, a 
great amount of property came into the hands of the authorities.^ 
The inventory is very minute, and it comprises most of the valuables 
we have already noticed as belonging to the church. The chalice, 
paten, and spoon, the relic " callit the arm of St Gell,** the *^ chrysom 
stock," two cruets of silver, the great eucharist with the golden 
work and precious stones, the four golden bells with the two crosses, 
one small and the other great — " ane lytle hart " — ^the piece of gold 
that held the bread within the eucharist, a little blue bell of gold, 
a Uttle heart with two pearls, four different stones set with gold, 
the little ring and diamond that was on the arm-bone of the saint, 
the sacrament cloth of gold, St Giles' coat and the little pendicle 
of red velvet that hung at his feet. A few days later " two silver 
censers with the ship of silver"* were also delivered up by the 
former Dean of Guild, James Carmichael ; also the great silver cross, 
and two little candlesticks of silver. 

Various other articles were recovered, though with some difficulty. 
The masters of the guilds of St Anthony and of the Holy Blood 
had jewels and furnishings of great value, which belonged to their 
respective altars. These they were ordered to give up, and it was 
some time before they were induced to comply, but finally they also 
had to do so, under threat of imprisonment. " Johne Dougall, the 
master, delivered ane siluer chalice with ane siluer croce, whilk stood 
upon the aulter, all wayit thre scoire fyftein unces, whilk belonged to 
the Hale Blud Aultar ; " he also gave up the charters and papers of the 
fraternity,* and shortly after David Corsby * produced a silver chalice, 
overgilt, weighing twenty ounces and a half, which had belonged to 
the same shrine. Other scattered property also dropped gradually in. 
A tailor had in his possession the brass pillars of St Anthony's Aisle, 

> Burgh Records, August 30, 1560. * Ihid., 6th Septemher 1560. 

» Ibid,, 17th January 1560-1. * * Ibid., February 21, 1660-1. 



CLEARING THE WRECK. 123 

and had to give them up.* Another had a piece of cloth of gold 
with St Giles' coat ; another the " vestment dekyne and sub-dekyne 
of claith of gold ;" a third the chasuble of red velvet, mixed with gold. 
There was probably not much of the ancient property of the church 
retained by any who held it in keeping. It was carefully inquired 
for and searched out, down to the bellows of the organ. From 
time to time, as it came back to the burgh treasury, it was sold. 

The prices fetched by the various articles are fully recorded. The 
silver and gold vessels and ornaments were sold by the ounce. Two 
stones six pounds and thirteen ounces of silver were sold to John 
Hart for twenty-one shillings the ounce ; * at the same price 
Michael Gilbert bought eight pounds eleven ounces of silver. John 
Hart also bought five ounces and a half of gold at ten pounds five 
shillings the ounce. The three bellows of the organ were bought 
by John Mossman for six pounds. The cross and chalice of the 
Holy Blood Altar and one of St Anthony's, for £100, 14s. Adam 
Fullarton obtained all the brass pillars and the brass lectern for 
£280, lis. 6d. The diamond stone which was on the finger of 
St Giles' arm was sold to Michael Gilbert for £9, 6s. 8d. What 
the vestments fetched when sold we do not know, but they were 
also disposed of,' and every vestige of the wreck left by the destruc- 
tion of the old polity cleared away. Probably no relic of it has 
remained to the present day. 

The operations we have detailed were appropriately closed by 
"the idole Sanct Geyll being cuttit out of the towny's standard 
and the thrisill put in place thereof." In the account of the final 
sale we have no mention of the precious relic of the church — 
the arm-bone of the saint — which Preston of Gorton "procured 
by the aid of the king of France, and at great expenses," and 
which was long regarded with such reverence. The case that 
contained it was sold with the other property ; but what became 
of the relic itself we have no means of ascertaining.* 

1 Burgh Records, February 21, 1560-1. ■ Laings Charters, xlviii. 

' Burgh Records, 6th December 1560. ^ Laing's Charters, Introduction. 



124 CLEARING THE WRECK. 

One of the most extraordinary things that strike us in pursuing 
these inquiries is the apparent suddenness with which all reverence 
for the faith in which they had been brought up, and for its 
adjuncts, ceremonies, and ritual, seems to have departed from the 
people. The things they had been taught to regard from their 
youth as holy became to them apparently at once common and 
unclean. The place of worship, where for centuries their forefathers 
prayed, where they themselves had been baptised, and whose very 
stones were redolent of holy associations, became to them seemingly 
no more than any ordinary building. The suddenness of the change 
is, however, only apparent. It had been coming on for long. From 
Catholic writers we learn how thoroughly the priests had lost the 
respect of the people by their perfunctory performance of their duties, 
and even by their immoral conduct.^ The state of the old church 
has been shown to have been scandalous even by those who would 
judge it tenderly. With this loss of respect for their teachers came 
utter irreverence for what they taught. Churches and cemeteries 
were profaned by secular business and pastimes, and the catechism 
of Archbishop Hamilton mentions those who were accustomed to 
"carreling and wanton syinging in the kirk," and rebukes people 
who "in the tyme of Gaddis word or service occupies thameself 
in vaine, evil, or any warldly lauching, scorning, or any seek like 
doings." 

Irreverence had long been common. It was not to be expected 
that with the change of religion would come any additional 
reverence for the things and places which the old religion had 
proclaimed sacred. We read without much surprise, therefore, of 
weavers being allowed to set up their looms and exercise their craft * 
" in ane volt prepared for them in the rufe of Sanct Gellis kirk," 
of the vestry of the church being turned into an office for the town- 
clerk,' and for keeping his books and papers, and of the abolition of 
the time-honoured revels of the Abbot of Unreason ; * but it does 

^ See the admirable introduction to Hamilton's Catechism by Mr Law. 

• Burgh Records, April 11, 1562. » Ibid,, April 1563. * Ibid., April 30, 1562. 



CLEARING THE WRECK. 



125 



strike one as passing strange to find that all feeling for the sanctity 
of the church had so thoroughly departed, that the authorities had 
to take steps to prevent the south kirk door from being used as a 
" common closit," ^ and were obliged finally to shut it up, and even to 
close the doors of the building itself against the public, except at 
service, to prevent the interior being employed for the same 
purpose. It is almost inconceivable that old associations should 
so thoroughly and quickly have died out. 

* Bargh Records, 25th November 1664 ; Ibid,t p. 97. 





Two Views of St Giles in the 16th century. 
(From Laing's History.) 



CHAPTER XIII. 

He who had seen his own bright order fade, 
And its devotion gradually decline, 
Had also witnessed .... 
That violent commotion which o*erthrew, 
In town and city and sequestered glen, 
Altar and cross, and church of solemn roof, 
And old religious house— pile after pile ; 
And shook their tenants out into the fields, 
Like wild beasts without home I 

Wordsworth's ExcursUnu 

T may perhaps be well at this point, and before 
resuming our story, to make some inquiry as to 
the fate of the priests and the old clergy of St 
■ ^1 Giles, and to trace, so far as we may, what became 
of them under the altered state of things. The 
building where they performed their offices was now closed against 
them, and they were for ever severed from the scene of their public 
labours, though during the rest of their life many of them continued 
to live in Edinburgh, probably hoping against hope that some 
new turn of aflfairs might restore them to their former position. 
Some went abroad ^ and took refuge in Catholic countries, as did 
many of their brethren throughout Scotland, but most of them 
appear to have remained in Edinburgh. They seem, curiously 
enough, when we consider the prejudice entertained against them, 
to have retained most of the emoluments of their diflferent benefices 
until they died. The small sums due for their chaplainries were 
still paid them, although they fulfilled no duties. Any stipend 

^ Laing's Charters, ciL 




THE OLD PBIEST& 127 

paid from the treasury of the town seems, however, to have been 
stopped soon after the final establishment of the Protestant 
worship : 

" The baillies and counsall ordanis Alexander Park, threasurer, to 
content and pay to Sir Walter HaUburton, Sir George Manderston, 
and Sir William Johneston, prebendaries of the queir, the some of 
vii merkis for the Mertynmis payment last bipast of the annual 
rentis awing to thame be the town; and syklik to Sir James 
Graufurd, chaplane of the Bude Loft, the some of xs. for the said 
terms, in payment of his annual rent, and uther xs. for Ladymes 
silver ; and dischargis the threasurer of ony mair payments to ony 
of the rest of the prebendaris, because they have not waited on 
their divine service.**^ 

The reason assigned for withholding payment seems a peculiarly 
strange one — the possibility of these prebendaries waiting on their 
divine service being at that time out of the question. At a later 
date* the town passed a resolution equally hard upon the priests 
whom they had been accustomed to pay, in which they resolve to 
take the stipend that went to them, and apply it to other uses : 

" It is thoct gude that the rentis annuals and uther emolumentis 
quhilks were payit forth of lands and tenementis within this burgh 
to papists, praists, and freiris, and uthers of that wickit sort, for 
mantayning of idolatrie and vain superstition, seeing it hes pleasit 
the Almightie to oppin the eis of all pepill, and to gyf thame the 
knaulege of sic vain abussis, thairfor that the said rentis and emoli- 
mentis be applyit to mair proffitable and godlie ussis, sic as for 
sustayning of the treu ministris of Gods word, founding and bigging 
hospitaUs for the pure, and collegais for the leirning and upbryinging 
of the youth, and sic uther godlie worlds." 

At the same time that the town confiscated these pajrments to 
the priests, and altered their destination, they also withdrew a dole 
of wine that had hitherto been paid for the sustentation of the altar 
of St Anthony, and which the fraternity of that name had been in 

* Burgh Records, 16th February 1569-60. • Ibid., 23d April 1561. 

S 



128 THE OLD PRIESTS. 

the habit of collecting at Leith as their due upon every tun landed : 
^' Ane choppin of wyne granttit and gevin for manteyning the wiked- 
ness and idolatry of Sanct Anthonys ile of the tun of wine/' This 
the town gave for the benefit of poor craftsmen and merchants. 
Though the stipends of the priests directly in the pay of the burgh 
were thus curtailed, they seem to have been otherwise unmolested 
in the enjoyment of their old revenues. They held the chaplainries 
of the various altars to which they were attached to the time of 
their death, and drew the various annuals and pittances belonging 
to them. We find abundant evidence in favour of this in the town 
records.^ Two instances may suflSce. The provost of the church 
possessed a house in virtue of his office : this dwelling he was allowed 
to retain and finally to dispose of when it became uninhabitable. 
On the 2d of July 1566 he granted a lease of it to David, Lord 
Drummond, and Lillias Ruthven his second wife, reserving to 
himself, or the provost and curate of the church, a bed when 
such should be required.* The head dignitary of the college of 
St Giles thus retained his house when Protestant ministers were 
preaching in the church hard by, and the town were under the 
necessity of lodging these ministers elsewhere. There is a still 
more striking instance of the same retention of their emoluments 
on the part of the old clergy. There were certain teinds which 
had been granted to the provost and clergy of the church, belonging 
to the parish of Dunbarney in Perthshire, with the kirklands of 
Potty and Moncriefi*, of the acquirement of which we have no notice 
in the charters. For some reason, however, they had not after the 
Reformation been paid by the then Lord Oliphant, and the provost 
of St Giles, James Chisholme, Sir James Johnstone, vicar, por- 
tioner, and eleven prebendaries, brought an action at law for their 
recovery. This was in January 1566-7, during the time when they 
were outcasts from the church, and John Knox filled the pulpit as 
the minister of the town. They succeeded in their lawsuit, and 
their dues were ordered by the Lords of Council, before whom the 

^ See also Laing's Charters, Appendix. * Laiog's Charters, p. 267. 



THE OLD PRIESTS. 129 

case was tried, to be paid them forthwith, these having been " of 
auld gevin to the prouest and prebendaris of the said college kirk of 
St Geil, as propertie to thame, and thai and thair predecessors of 
auld hes bene in continewall possessioun of uptaking of the proffits 
thairof"^ 

As the clergy died out, laymen were apparently presented and 
inducted to their benefices, in order that they might obtain a legal 
title to the revenues. Many such presentations to the various- 
altars, as if they were still in existence, occur in the records of the 
town.' One curious nomination, or rather installation, has come 
down to us written in the Scottish language. 

"18fA November 1587. — William Urie, younger, procurator, within 
specially constituted, past to the pulpit standing within Sanct 
Geills kirk at Edinburgh, and there by vertue of the gift within 
written, gave institution and possession to Andrew Dalrymple, 
personally present and acceptant of the chaplanrie of St Duthois, 
with all profits, &c. thereto belonging, by deliverance in his hands 
ofane psalm hook.'' 

At a very early period in the history of the church, Thomas de 
Cranstoun, a burgess, founded a chaplainry at the altar of St 
Duthac. After the Reformation we find his heir making a 
presentation to this oflSce in favour of his servant, who was regularly 
inducted. One of the ministers of the reformed church, Mr Walter 
Balkanquhill, was also presented to two chaplainries with as much 
formaUty as if he had been a priest, as the following extracts from 
the town council records show : 

** November 20, 1579. — The baillies and council disponis the chap- 
lainry of the altar, callit Mater Jesu, vaccand in their handis in 
defalt of the patron, nocht present and in due tyme efter the decees 
of Sir Andro Buchan, with all the duties belangand thairto, to 
Maistir Walter Bakanquhall, minister, during his lyfetime for 
terms bygane and to cum. 

^ Lfting's Charters, p. 270. 

* Burgh Records, 24th Augost 1570 ; see also Api)endix to Wilson's Memorials. 



130 THE OLD PRIESTS. 

''November 24, 1579. — Prebendary of St Gregoris altar. The 
saymn day disponis the prebendary of Sanct Gregoris altar vaccand 

be deceis of in their handis during all the dayes of Mr 

Walter Bukanquillis lyftyme, to the said Mr Walter and that of 
all termes bygane and to cum." 

It is certainly curious to think of this famous Protestant minister 
inducted as a prebendary and chaplain of an altar. 

In 1570 the stipends of the "provost, vicar, and clerk of the 
Paroch kirke" were given by the town to the ministers. In 1581 
Sir Thomas Gray appeared before the council of -his own free will, 
and demitted his prebendary, "callit Prebend of S. Michaelis de 
Monte Tomba foundit at the altare callit St James altar, somtyme 
situate within the said kyrk." He received for his lifetime a 
yearly pension of £18 Scots. Two years later. Sir Walter Hali- 
burton gave over to the town his prebendary of St Nicolas and all 
the emoluments which he had apart from his chaplainry, at the 
altar of the saint, " saule messes, diergis. Lady messis and syluer," 
for which he received an annual pension of £22, lis. 6d., and £20 
paid down. The benefices thus came one by one into secular hands. 
The last mention we have of any of the old clergy is of Mr George 
Manderston, "prebendar of St Giles kirk," who died 18th March 
1590-1.^ He was probably the last of the old clergy who survived, 
and his life was so prolonged that he must have witnessed many 
changes. 

One of his brethren. Sir Edward Henderson or Henrysoun, had 
been master of the Song School during the later days of the 
Catholic period, and he had held also one of the prebends of the 
church. This dignitary seems to have become not only a Protestant 
but actually the precentor of the church, and exercised his musical 
gifts in leading the psalmody. For a time also he was employed by 
the town as an overseer of works. He too lived to an advanced age, 
and two years before his death was voted a pension by the town in 
acknowledgment of his services.* 

* Edinburgh Commissaiiat Register. ■ Henderaon died on 15th August 1579. 



THE OLD PRIESTS. 131 

** November 1, 1577. — The provost, baillies, and counsale, ratifies 
and appreuvis the ouklie pension of ten schillings appoyntit to 
Edward alias Sir Edward Henderson, for all the days of his lyfe, for 
taikin up of the spalmes, and ordains the thesaurer to make payment 
to him thairof " 

Though the clergy were, as we have seen, tolerably well treated 
so far as their revenues were concerned, they were determinately 
shut out from the performance of all their priestly duties. The 
strictest provision was taken against them, and they were rigidly 
proscribed. Such a thing as toleration seems to have been at that 
time unknown. Adherents of the Church of Bome, or idolaters as 
they were termed, were classed by the town, in a proclamation^ which 
the council issued, with •* whoremasters and harlottis," and they 
were condemned to sit upon the Market Cross for six hours for their 
first fault, to be burnt on the cheek and banished the town for the 
second, and to " be punischit to the deid for the third." At a later 
date than this proclamation the authorities made another of equal 
severity ^ against those *^ of the papis kirk that stubbumlie perseuris 
in thair idolatrie, sayand messis and baptis and conform to the papis 
kirk, profaind thairthrow the sacramentis foresaid in quyett and 
secret places." These terrible edicts probably produced the effect 
intended. 

We know, however, there were some who suffered persecution 
for disobedience, and probably there were many more whose names 
have not come down to us. There remained a large number 
of Catholics in Edinburgh, notwithstanding the establishment of 
Protestantism,' and among them there were doubtless those who 
practised their religious rites in secret, and in defiance of the 
authorities in church and state. A certain Alexander Skyne, 
advocate, who acted in legal matters for the provost and prebend- 
aries of St Giles,* "being callit and accusit for taking and re- 

1 Burgh Records, 10th June 1660. • Ihid., September 20, 1660. 

« Aooording to Keith, when they had opportunity and dared venture, there were as many 
going to mass as to sermon. 

^ He represented them in the law case mentioned, in 1664-66. 



132 THE OLD PRIESTS. 

ssauving of the diabolical idol, callit the prestis sacrament, at Pache 
last,"^ was cast into prison, where he remained for more than a 
fortnight, but was finally liberated on giving his promise that he 
would behave himself '* honestlie and godlie within the burgh, keep 
the sermonttis and prayeris and communicat with the minister and 
uther godlie lemyt men for resolving of his doubts in religion and 
in speciall tuiching his opinoun of the idoU, the prestis sacrament." 
If his interview with the minister, who at that time was John 
Knox, should lead to his conversion within ten days, he was ordered 
to come to the church and, with penitence, confess his former 
iniquity. Should he remain still unconvinced, he and his whole 
family were to remove out of the town and not to return so long 
"as they remane wikit." As we find Mr Skyne acting for the 
provost of St Giles and the prebendaries at a later date than 
that on which this sentence was pronounced, it is probable 
that he, outwardly at least, conformed to the wishes of the 
authorities. 

One of the priests of the town. Sir James Strachan, was more 
sharply dealt with, and was ordered within twelve hours to leave 
the town, and not to return " until they be surely certifiet of his 
public repentance of his papistrie and former iniquity." Still more 
severely handled was Sir James Tarbat, who had been chaplain at 
the altar of St Mungo in St Giles. He, like many of his bretliren, 
had a lodging in the Cowgate,* and there he had ventured at Easter 
to say mass. He was apprehended and subjected to very rough 
treatment. This treatment has been graphically portrayed by 
John Knox himself, and it never seems • to occur to the narrator 
that it was anything but what was in all respects proper and 
fitting.* 

" Now the communion was administred in Edinburgh the 1st day 
of April 1565 ; at which time, because it was near Easter, the 
papists used to meet at their masse ; and as some of the brethren 

» Burgh Records, 30th May 1561. • Ibid,, April 30, 1565. 

» Knox's Histoiy, vol. ii., p. 476. 



THE OLD PRIESXa 133 

were dilligent to search such things, they having one of the bayliffs 
with them, took one Sir James Carvet, riding hard as he had now 
ended the saying of the masse, and conveyed him, together with the 
master of the house and one or two more of the assistants, to the 
Tolbooth, and inmiediately revested him with his garments upon 
him and so carried him to the Market Cross, where he tarried the 
space of one hour, during which the boys served him with his Easter 
eggs. The next day following, the said Carvet with his assistants 
were accused and convinced by an assize, according to the Act of 
Parliament, and albeit for the same offence he deserved death, yet 
for all punishment he was set upon the Market Cross for three or 
four hours, the hangman standing by and keeping him, the boyes 
and others were busie with egg ^ting, and some papists there were 
that stopped as far as they could, and as the presse of people 
increased about the Crosse there appeared to have been some 
tumult. The provost, Archibald Douglas, came with some 
halberdiers and carried the priest safe to the Tolbooth." 

The venerable priest, of whose treatment the Reformer speaks so 
lightly, did not survive long, and his death was generally thought 
to have been hastened by the treatment he received. A year after- 
wards the chaplainry vacant by his death was given to Edward 
Henderson,^ the old prebendary who had become the psalm singer 
of the kirk. 

That the ministers were not in favour with the whole population, 
and needed the civil authority, with which they were in close alli- 
ance, to keep them free from molestation, there is abundant evidence. 
People, from time to time, are punished for " sclandering the mini- 
ster,"* and a certain Euphame Dundas was especially notorious in 
this respect. An attempt was made to assassinate John Craig, the 
colleague of John Knox, in the church.' A man, named George 
Couthet, was imprisoned in the thieves' hole " for his contempt done 
to Master John Craig," and was afterwards taken to Leith and 

1 Burgh Records, May 8, 1566. » Ibid,, 20th October 1560. 

* Introduction to Craig's Catechism by Mr Law. 



134 



THE OLD PRIESTS. 



**boittit" — i.e. transported;^ and we have on record the trial* of a 
"Maister William Balfour, indweller at Leyth," who on 31st Decem- 
ber 1561, caused in St Giles what is called a riot. He interrupted 
the reader while catechising the people, and addressed him in any- 
thing but choice language : " Thou art a verry knave and thie doc- 
trine is verray false, as all your doctrine and teaching is. Is that 
your communion ? The devil burst me whenever it cums into my 
belly.'' As it was the last day of the year, when he thus expressed 
himself, Maister Balfour was probably affected by the festivities of 
the season. But it is evident that there were many in town who 
remained friendly to the old religion, and by whom the old clergy 
would probably be kindly received in their retirement. They no 
doubt passed through a time of great trial and persecution, even 
though they were suffered to retain sufficient to at least keep them 
from starvation. We may mention here that the final notice of 
Chisholm, the last provost of the church, is in the law proceedings 
we have given above. 

* Town Council Records, 20th June 1565. 

* Pitcaim's Criminal Trials^ voL L p. 416. 




Original Market Cross of Edinburgh. 




CHAPTER XIV. 
CJe fitb} <©rter— 1560-1562. 

The old order changeth, yielding place to new, 

And God fulfils himself in many ways, 

Lest one good custom should corrupt the world. 

Tennyson. 

OON after the Reformers had obtained possession 
of St Giles, John Knox came to Edinburgh, and 
on the 23d April 1560 commenced again his 
residence in the city, which continued with some 
intervals till the time of his death. For some few 
months he was associated with Willock the preacher, who had so 
boldly kept the situation during the brief period of Catholic ascend- 
ency, and who had remained in the burgh at the peril of his life. 
Willock*s services were, however, soon needed elsewhere. He was 
made " Superintendent of Glasgow and the West of Scotland," and 
left St Giles under the sole control of John Knox. He took his 
departure amid expressions of good- will on the part of the people, 
and the town bestowed on him a substantial present in acknowledg- 
ment of his labours. They ordered their treasurer " to deliver to 
Johne Willok xx^ crounes of the sone for recompens of the greit 
travail sustenit be him this hail yere bigane in preaching and minis- 
tering of the sacramentis within the burgh, and ordanis ane member 
of the counsail to thank him of his greit benevolence for the greit 
travail forsaid." * Certainly Willock well deserved this recognition 
of his services. He had kept his post manfully, when most men 

^ Burgh Records, Ist June 1560. * Ihid,, 30th August 1560. 



136 THE NEW ORDER. 

would have been excused for seeking safety in flight, and he left 
his colleague to carry on the work in circumstances of comparative 
prosperity, compared with those he himself had come through. 
The tide had now turned in favour of the Reformers, and if any 
of the old clergy who still lived in the purlieus of St Giles, cherished 
hopes of officiating within its walls, they must now have felt those 
hopes gradually vanish. 

On the 19th July 1560, a public thanksgiving was held in St 
Giles, which was filled firom end to end. It was an influential 
gathering, and according to John Knox, " the hail nobilitie and the 
greatest part of the congregation assembled." They had good cause 
to be jubilant, for they had got it all their own way. The Reformer 
himself officiated on the occasion, and he gives us in his History the 
prayer which he offered at the service.^ It is somewhat lengthy, 
but full of devotional feeling, and expresses the thankfulness which 
the Reformer felt at the departure of the French from the Scottish 
shores, and the prospective establishment of Protestantism in the 
land. After sermon, the leading members of the party of the Refor- 
mation remained in the church, and drew up a scheme for the 
distribution and planting of ministers and superintendents in various 
parts of the kingdom. What the church thus projected the state 
sanctioned. In the next month after this meeting was held, the 
famous parliament assembled in Edinburgh, which abolished the 
Roman Catholic system as the religion of the realm, and estab- 
lished Protestantism on its ruins. The "former clergy" were 
declared ''usurped ministers," and the "new preachers the only 
persons that have power to administer the holy sacraments." 

With the coming of Queen Mary to Scotland,* John Knox ob- 
tained greater prominence than he ever had before, and his church 
week by week became the great centre of political interest. The 
many controversies, intrigues, and startling occurrences of the time, 
with which the reader of Scottish history is familiar, were made 
the subject of sermons in St Giles, and received from the preacher 

^ Knox's History, voL IL p. 85. * 19th August 1561. 



THB NBW ORDER. 137 

tlie freest and most unconventional handling. From the first 
arrival of the queen^ the preacher seems to have regarded her with 
aversion. 

" The verray face of heavin, the time of hir arrival/' he writes, 
" did manifestlie speak what comfort was brought into this countrey 
with hir, to wit, sorrow, dolour, darkness, and all iniqutie; for in 
the memorie of man that day of the year was never seyn a more 
dolorous face of the heavin than was at hir arrival, which two days 
after did so continue, for besides the surfett, sweat, and corruption 
of the air, the myst was so thick and dark that skairse mycht 
any man espy ane other length of two pair of buttis. The sun 
was not seyn to schyne two days beforis nor two days after. 
That foir warning God gave unto us; but allace the most part 
wair blind." 

Whether the Reformer himself was among those who were 
thus first deceived as to the eflFect upon the Protestant Church 
likely to be produced by the coming to Scotland of Queen Mary, 
his eyes could not but be soon opened. On the Sunday after 
her arrival, to the scandal of the Protestants, mass was said 
in the chapel at Holyrood, and on the next Sunday the walls of 
St Giles reverberated with the Reformer's denunciation of the 
service in the royal chapel. As we read the words, we seem to 
hear them echoing under the arches. " That ane mass," he said, 
" was more fearful to him than gif ten thousand armed enemyes war 
landed in any part of the realm, of purpose to supress the hoile 
religion. . . When we joyne hands with idolatrie, it is no doubt but 
that both Godis amicable presence and comfortable defence leaveth 
us, and what shall then become of us ?" ^ 

This sermon was the beginning of a conflict between the Reformer 
and the queen, which lasted as long as she sat on the throne. He 
never regarded her from that time with anything but aversion, 
which no courtesy on her part could overcome. She was the enemy 
of the church of God, and an idolater who deserved death. What 

1 Knox's History, vol. iL p. 276. 



138 THE NEW ORDER. 

took place at Holyrood was commented upon in St Giles, and the 
fragments of sermons delivered there which have come down to us 
show how very free and fearless those comments were : " Princes," 
the preacher cried, " will not understand, they will not be learned 
as God commands thame. But Goddis law they despise, his statutis 
and ordinances thei will not understand, for in fiddling and flynging 
thei are more exercised than in reading and hearing of Goddis 
most blessed word ; and fidlaris and fiatterraris (which commonlie 
corrupt youth) are more precious in their eyes than men of wisdome 
and gravitie, who by wholesome admonition mycht beat doun into 
thame some part of that vanitie and pryde wherinto all are borne, 
but in princes tak roote, and strength by wicked education." * The 
appHcation of sermons of this kind was not difficult to make. It 
was no wonder the queen took them to herself. There were many 
listeners in St Giles who were ready to carry them to royal ears, 
and it was not likely that the preacher could ever find favour at the 
palace. 

During this period of his life in St Giles, Knox seems to have 
laboured incessantly. Besides his work in building up the polity of 
the Protestant Church in general, he preached constantly. The Eng- 
lish ambassador was a frequent attender at the church in those days, 
and in a letter to Cecil he gives his impression of the sermons he 
heard, and the effect produced by them. " Whene your honour," 
he says, *' exhorteth us to stoutness, I assure you the voice of one 
man is able in an hour to put more life into us than six hundred 
trumpets continually blustering in our ears."* He preached to the 
people three times in the week and twice on the Sunday,' and the 
only assistance he had in his work was that of a reader, named John 
Cairnes. Of this person we have frequent notices in the records of 
the town, where he is termed in one place ''lectour of the momying 
prayers." * His duty was to perform the ordinary work of a reader 
— to read each day, morning and evening prayers, and Scriptures in 

1 Knox'fi History, yoL iL p. 333. ^ Randolph's letter in Keith. 

> April 8, 1562. « September 26, 1561. 



THE NEW ORDER. 139 

the church, and to catechise the children. There was daily service 
in St Giles from the establishment of the Reformation, as was the 
case also in the principal towns in Scotland. 

Until the departure of Willock, the book of prayers used in the 
church was probably the second book of King Edward. Willock 
had lived long in England, and naturally would continue to use 
this formulary, which at their coming to Edinburgh the Congregation 
had, as we have seen, brought with them. After John Knox fairly 
entered upon his work, the Book of Oeneva, or as it came to be 
termed the Book of Common Order, became the rule for the 
devotions of the people. In 1560 it is said to have been *' already 
used in some of our churches," and St Giles was doubtless one of 
these. The Reformer did not confine himself to the prayers of this 
book. He gives us from time to time, in his History, prayers which 
he had used on special occasions, and which, as they are carefully 
composed, were probably previously read in the church. But the 
Book of Common Order was beyond all doubt regularly used 
both on week-day and Sunday ; ^ and for the celebration of baptism, 
communion, and marriage. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was 
at this time celebrated in St Giles three times in the year. John 
Knox first officiated on the 2d March 1561, and the celebration 
continued during the whole week. "Sonday, 2 March, ye com- 
munion mistrat be John Knox, in ye hie Kirk of Edinburgh — 
Mononday, Twysday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Setterday." * 

The bread and wine and necessary furnishings were supplied at 
the cost of the town. The amount of wine consumed seems especially 
large. Eight and a half gallons were used on one occasion, and 
"twa barrells wyne containing ten gallons" on another. Probably 
this free use of wine was a protest against the Roman Church, 
which had denied the cup to the laity. In the winter season the 
sacrament was as early as four in the morning,' and the church 
lit up with candles and torches must have presented a remarkable 

^ See Introduction to Book of Common Order, Sprott and Leifihman'a Edition. 

* See Commanion Accounts, Appendix, Lee's Church History, vol. i p. 389. > Ibid, 



140 THE NEW ORDER. 

appearance. Among the items of the church accounts are these : 
" 2 dozen torches ; half a dozen torches and 1 roll of wax to John 
Cairnes ; candle baith days." Tables covered with white linen cloth 
were erected in the church, and a " travess " or barrier of wood was 
built "for holding furth of ye non-communicants." 

The Reformer seems to have had, at the beginning of his incum- 
bency, the use of the whole church for his congregation. Powerful 
as his voice was at that time, he was but imperfectly heard.^ There 
are traces, however, in the records of the town, during the period to 
which this chapter relates, of a curtailing of the space of the 
interior of the church, by erecting the western part of the nave into 
a tolbooth * or place of meeting for the Lords of Session, and which 
was called the outer Tolbooth, to distinguish it from the building at 
the west end of the church, which was taken down and rebuilt at 
the same time, out of the stones of the chapel of the Holy Cross, 
which Chepman had erected in the Cowgate after the battle of 
Flodden. While these building operations were going on, the Court 
of Session seems to have occupied the Holy Blood Aisle in St Giles, 
so that a good deal of the area of the whole church would probably 
be screened off. We know, however, that the part in which the 
Eeformer preached could accommodate three thousand people, and 
that must have tried his vocal powers to the utmost. 

John Knox seems to have been treated personally with great 
kindness by the town. He received a house from the authorities, 
which had formerly belonged to the Abbot of DunfermUne.' It 
was well furnished and kept in repair, and the Dean of Guild was 
ordained,* " with all diligence, to make ane warm stidye of daillis to 
the minister, John Knox, within his house, above the hall of the 
same, with lycht and wyndokis thereto, and all other necessaris." He 
received money also from time to time as he needed it,* and when he 
began to preach statedly in the city, the town council assigned him 

* Infra, 

^ Burgh Records, 24th February 1561 ; Eeekiana, by R. Chambers, pp. 173-4. See Baillie*s 
Account of St Giles, infra. * Burgh Records, September 4, 1560. 

* Ibid.^ October 31, 1561. * See Appendix to M'Crie's Life of Knox. 



THE NEW ORDER. 141 

an annual stipend of four hundred merks Scots, which he was to 
receive quarterly. This sum was equal to about forty-four pounds 
in English money of that day. His stipend was considerably higher 
than the salary of the judges of the Court of Session, and not much 
lower than that of the English judges of the same period. When 
he was obliged to leave town for a time, to look after the interest of 
the church in Angus and Meams, the council of the burgh ordained 
the Dean of Guild to accompany him, to pay his charges, and to 
" haist the said minister home." 

The house which was given him had been occupied previously, 
as we have seen, by a distinguished ecclesiastic of the Church of 
Rome, and this shows that he was able to live in a condition and 
style not inferior to that of the upper classes of his time. He had, 
as we learn from his will, sometimes as much as a hogshead of 
wine in his cellar. He enjoyed also, in addition to the stipend he 
received from the town, a salary or pension which appears to have 
been conferred on him for his services to the church.^ The minister 
of Edinburgh was provided for in a manner suited to the eminent 
and influential position he had been called to occupy. He had 
not been long in his manse when he became a widower by the 
death of his wife, Margaret Bowes, who left two children. She 
had been a brave and faithful wife to him, and was his com- 
panion through many trials. The Reformer felt her death greatly, 
but faced his labours with a stout heart. Those labours had now 
become more than one man could cope with single-handed. Knox 
was often from home on the business of the church, and in 1562 
it became evident that it would be necessary to appoint some one 
to act as his colleague in St Giles. 

We read in the annals of this time of one duty which he must 
have felt it pleasant to perform : this was to oflBciate at the marriage 
of his personal friend, James Stewart, Commendator of St Andrews, 
aiterwards the Regent Moray. This nobleman, who was one of 

^ It consisted of two chaldeis wheat, six chalders bere, four chalders oats, and five hundred 
merks in money (M*Crie*8 Lift of Knox, p. 360). 



142 THE NEW ORDER. 

the leading Reformers, was married in St Giles with all the pomp 
that the Protestant ritual would permit. 

" Upon the sevint day of Februar, sixty-ane years," says a chronicle 
of the day,^ " James, Commendator of Sanct Androis, was made be 
our Soyraine ladie erle of Mar, and upon the eigth day of the said 
month the said erle was married upon Agnes Keith, daughter to 
William erle Marischal, in the Kirk of Sanct Geil in Edinburgh, 
with sik solemnetie as hes not been seen before ; the hail nobilitie 
of the realm being present, and convoyit thame down to Holyrood 
house, when the banket was made, and the Queens grace thereat 
and the same day at even — ^greit and diverse baUng, castying of fyre 
ballis, fyre speris, and rynning with horses." 

It must have been altogether a brave show. John Knox, how- 
ever, seems to have apprehended danger to the firmness of the 
bridegroom's principles from the blandishments and festivities of the 
court ; for he tells us that he warned him in his marriage address 
to be faithful to his Protestant convictions. "For," said the 
preacher to him, "unto this day the kirk of God hath received 
comfort by you and by your labouris, in the which gif heirafter ye 
shall be found faintar than ye war befoir, it will be said that your 
wyefi* hath changed your nature."* The Reformer expresses also 
his disapproval of the nuptial festivities. "The greatness of the 
bancquett and the vaintie used thereat, ofiended many godly. Thair 
began the masking, which from year to year hath continued since." 
Little did the minister, or any one present at the wedding, imagine 
how soon it would be succeeded by the mournful pageant of the 
bridegroom's ftineral. 

1 Diurnal of Occurrents. * Knox's History, vol. IL p. 314. 




CHAPTEK XV. 

Srabe iM en— 1562-1566. 

One still strong man in a blatant land. 
Whatever they call him, what care I, 
Aristocrat, democrat, antocrat — one 
Who can role and dare not lie. 

TXNNTBON. 

HE minister who in 1562 was appointed colleague 
to John Knox, was " Maister Johne Craig, presentlie 
minister of the Canongate." He was "to accept 
upon him the half chargis of the preaching of the 
Kirk of Edinburgh/* ^ He was a remarkable man in 
many ways, and it may not be entirely out of place or foreign to our 
story to give here some account of his life before he came to minister 
in St Giles.* 

He was bom in 1512 of a family long associated with Edinburgh, 
that to which the illustrious lawyer, Sir Thomas Craig of Riccartoun, 
belonged. His father was slain at Flodden. He was educated 
at St Andrews, and in early youth joined the order of St Dominic, 
and entered their house at St Andrews. After remaining there 
a short time, during which he was suspected of those heretical 
views which had even then begun to reach Scotland, he made his 
way to Italy, and through the good oflBces of Cardinal Pole, was 
admitted into the convent of his order in Bologna, where he so 
distinguished himself that he was appointed to the important position 

' Boigh Records, Aagnst 16, 1562. 

* The hest account of Craig is in the introductory memoir prefixed to his catechism, by 
T. 6. Law (Douglas, Edinbuigh). 
U 



144 BRAVE MEN. 

of Master of Novices, an oflBce only given to those whose character 
and attainments were of conspicuous merit. Bologna was at that 
time a famous seat of learning, and in the society of its scholars the 
young Scotsman found a congenial home. He was not, however, 
destined to spend his days in learned leisure. In the library of 
the convent he found a copy of Calvin's Institutes, a work that 
-entirely confirmed whatever heretical predilections he had hitherto 
entertained. He showed openly his change of opinion, and was 
summoned at once to Rome to give an account of himself before 
the dread tribunal of the Inquisition. This tribunal was at that 
time very vigorous and energetic under the patronage of Pope 
Paul IV. 

Oraig met with very severe treatment at its hands. He was, 
according to a well-known historian,^ "confined in a base prison, 
or rather pit, into the whilk the river Tibris did every tide flow, 
so that the prisoners stood in water, sometimes to their middle.** 
This was barbarous treatment, but worse was to follow, for Craig 
after trial was condemned to be burnt on 9th August 1559. This 
horrible fate he escaped owing to a singular circumstance. On the 
18th day of August the pope died. As soon as the event was 
known, the Boman mob began to riot. They set fire to the 
buildings of the Inquisition, and liberated the prisoners, among 
whom was the young Scotsman. He found refuge in a house in 
the outskirts of Rome, but was about to be arrested again, when 
he escaped in a marvellous manner. The captain of the soldiers 
who had come in pursuit of him took him aside, and asked him if 
he remembered helping a wounded soldier at Bologna, who in dire 
distress begged of him some relief. Craig answered that he did 
not. "But I do,'' replied the other, "and I am the man.*' This 
grateful soldier connived at Craig's escape, and helped him with 
money and advice. Craig immediately left Rome, found his way 
secretly to Milan, and afterwards wandered through pass and forest 
to the German frontier. 

^ John Row. 



BRAVE UVS. 145 

Bomantic as were the passages of his life we have given, they were 
eclipsed by another incident even more romantic still, and which 
seems to have received undoubted credence from the historians of 
the time, CathoHc and Protestant alike. "When he had travelled 
some days," says Spottiswood, " declining the highways out of fear, 
he came into a forest, a wild and desert place, and being sore 
wearied, he lay down among some bushes on the side of a little brook 
to refresh himself. Lying there pensive and full of thoughts (for 
neither he knew in what place he was, nor had he any means to 
bear him out of the way), a dog cometh fawning with a purse in 
his teeth, and lays it down before him. He, stricken with fear, 
riseth up, and looking about if any were coming that way, when he 
saw none, taketh it up, and construing the same to proceed from 
God's &vourable providence towards him, followed his way till he 
came to a little village, where he met with some who were travelling 
to Vienna in Austria, and changing his intended course went in 
their company thither." The historian Row says that he ultimately 
brought the dog and some of the gold to Edinburgh. And a Roman 
Catholic writer of the same period, while not doubting the occur- 
rence, points out that the colour of the dog was black, which 
indicated that it was an emissary of Satan who succoured Craig in 
his dire distress. " The colour of the dog may declaire gif it was 
send be ane guid spirit or nocht, for the halie spirit discendit upon 
Christ in the lykinis of a why t dow." ^ 

At Vienna Craig was well treated. He preached as a Dominican 
friar, and obtained influence at the court of the Emperor of Austria, 
.especially with his son the Archduke Maximilian, who listened to the 
prelections of Craig with favour. The presence of the escaped 
heretic, and his position in Vienna, seem to have been reported 
to Rome, and the pope wrote insisting on his being given back to 
the authorities of the Inquisition. The Scotsman had no desire for 
their further acquaintance, and obtaining letters of safe-conduct 
from his patron the archduke, made his way through Germany 

^ Fadle Traictise, p. 433, by John Hamilton. 



146 BRAVE MEN. 

to England, and thence to his native country. Great changes had 
taken place there since Craig had left it Twenty-four years had 
made a great diflference. The doctrines of the Reformation were in 
the ascendant, and the Reformers welcomed the returned Dominican 
with joy. Craig placed himself at their service, being in sympathy 
with their aims. He was for a considerable time unable to speak to 
the people^ and for a time addressed a congregation of learned men 
in the Magdalene Chapel in the Cowgate, preaching in Latin. He 
seems soon to have regained fluency in the Scottish tongue, and 
became minister of the Canongate or Holyrood House. 

This was the man who now became, along with Knox, minister of 
St Gilea He was bold and outspoken, but seems to have been on 
the whole more tolerant in his policy, and less uncompromising than 
his colleague. For a time, however, they both acted in the closest 
alliance. Knox was frequently absent from Edinburgh on the 
business of the church at this time, so that the chief burden of the 
work in St Giles rested on Craig.^ The relations between St Giles 
and Holyrood continued strained. The Protestant leaders seemed 
to Knox to have become subservient to the queen. She had beguiled 
them, and they were inclined to allow her to have her own way. He 
quarrelled with Moray as one " who preferred his own interest and 
the pleasure of his sister to the advancement of religion," and during 
the sitting of parliament,* when many of the members attended St 
Giles, he disburdened his mind in an impassioned discourse. '' I have 
been with you," he exclaimed, " in your most extreme dangers. Sanct 
Johnestoun, Cowper Mure, and the Craiggis of Edinburgh are yet 
recent in my heart ; yea, that dark and dolorous nycht whairin all ye, 
my lordis with schame and fear left this toune, is yett in my mind, and 
God forbid I shall ever forget it. What was, I say, my exhortation 
to you, and what is fallen in name of all that God ever promised 
unto you by my mouth, ye yourselfs yet live to testifie. Shall this 
be your thankfulness that ye shall render unto your God to betray 

^ It was daring this year (1562) Knox had his famous dispute with Kennedy. He was also 
long absent at Jedburgh. ' May 10, 1563. 



BRAYE MEN. 147 

his cause when you have it in your awn hands to establish it as 
ye please." After many strong statements of a similar kind, the 
preacher closed by referring to reports which had reached him of 
the queen's marriage. " To put end to all I hear,"* he said, ** of the 
quenis marriage; dukis, bretheren to empouris, and kingis strjrve 
all after the best game, but this I say, my lordis (note the day and 
beare witness after), whensoever the nobilitie of Scotland professing 
the Lord Jesus consents to ane infidell (and all Papists are infidels) 
shall be your soverane, ye do so far as in ye lieth to banish Christ 
from this realme ; ye bring Goddis vengeance upon the country, a 
plague upon yourself, and perchaunse ye shall do small comforts to 
your soveraine." 

It is foreign to our story to follow the Reformer into all the 
various discussions in which he took part both in the palace and out 
of it. These have been fully reported elsewhere;^ we can but 
confine ourselves to his connection with St Giles. Early in 1564 
his " banns of marriage," to the great surprise of the congregation, 
were published in the church at the usual time of service.* The 
event caused more discussion at the time than even the rumoured 
marriage of the queen. Knox had been a widower three years, and 
was now verging on sixty years of age. The lady he married, 
Margaret Stewart, was very young and scarcely out of her teens, a 
daughter of Lord Ochiltree. Probably he was the last man in the 
general estimation likely to become a bridegroom, and much wit 
was indulged in at his expense. The success of his courtship was 
ascribed by his enemies to sorcery, and a picture of the old man 
going forth to his wooing, given by a Roman Catholic writer, that 
has come down to us, is highly comical.* Margaret Stewart made 
him a good wife, and tended him with aflfection in his last illness. 
The gossip regarding his marriage soon died away, and again took 
up as its chief topic the future husband of the queen. 

1 In Maitland of Letkington, by John Skelton, a most graphic description is given of the 
Scotland of Mary Stewart. 

* Randolph to CecU, 18th March 1563-4. 

> See M'Crie ; Cunningham's Church History^ vol. i. p. 402. 



148 BBAYE MEN. 

On the 22d July 1565/ Damley and the queen were proclaimed 
in St Giles, as well as in the church of the Canongate and the 
Chapel Royal, and on the 29th of the same month they were 
married. On the 19th August Damley, who had been created 
king, came, probably with some idea of conciliating the Protestants, 
to sermon in St Giles. Considerable preparation had been made for 
his accommodation in the church. He entered in great state. A 
throne had been erected,* and he sat under a "canopy of fair 
velivef He could not have been much satisfied with what he 
heard, for it became soon evident, as the discourse proceeded, that 
John Knox was, to use a modem phrase, ** preaching at him." The 
text was from the words of the prophet : " Lord our God, other 
lords than thou have ruled over us," wherefrom Knox took occasion 
to speak of the government of wicked princes, who for the sins of 
the people are sent as tjrrants and scourges to plague them ; and 
amongst other things said, " That Grod sets in that room, for the 
offences and ingratitude of the people, boys and women,"* and some 
other words which appeared bitter in the king's ears, as " That God 
had justly punished Ahab and his posterity because he would not 
take order with that harlot JesebeU." 

This is the account the preacher himself gives us of his sermon. 
The effect produced upon the king by that effort can scarcely be 
wondered at. A chronicle of the day teUs us " he was crabbit ; " * 
and Knox relates pleasantly '* that the displeasure arose chiefly from 
the length of his own discourse. Because he had tarried an hour 
and more longer than the time appointed, the king was so moved at 
this sermon that he would not dine, and being troubled with great 
fury he past in the afternoon to the hawking." Knox was called to 
account for his boldness, and was charged by the privy-council to 
desist from preaching while the king and queen were in the city. 
This inhibition came to nothing. The council of the town resolved 
that " they would in no manner of way consent or grant that his 

1 Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 79. * Burgh Treasurer's Accounts. 

* Diurnal of Occurrents. 



BRAVE MEN. 149 

mouth be closed ; but that at his pleasure and as Grod should move 
his heart to proceed forward to true doctrine as before, which doctrine 
they would approve and abide at to their life's end." * 

As their majesties soon after left Edinburgh, the Beformer 
occupied his usual place in the pulpit of St Giles on the Sunday 
after this inhibition. But Darnley never came there again, which 
perhaps is not to be wondered at Next year the Boman Catholic 
party seemed in a fair way to get the upper hand. The king openly 
professed himself a Catholic. Many of the nobility followed his 
example. The English ambassador says that as many went to mass 
at Holyrood as went to sermon in the church. The ecclesiastics of 
the old church were restored to their places in parliament. On the 
8th May, Sir John Foster writes Cecil, " a soldier of the queen struck 
at Mr John Craig sitting in the church with a dagger." The queen 
intended restoring the old worship in St Giles, and twelve wooden 
altars were made ready at Holyrood for being transferred thither 
when opportunity oflfered.* The opportunity never came. Bizzio's 
murder took place, and the miserably weak king, to carry it out, 
entered into an engagement with the Protestant nobles. Whether 
the ministers of St Giles were privy to the engagement remains 
still a debatable question. "The slaughter of that villain Davie" 
was in their eyes doubtless " a just act, and worthy of all praise." * 

During the period to which this chapter refers there is little to 
tell of the buildings of the church. They seem to have been in an 
inexpressibly filthy state, if we may judge from the notices regarding 
them in the records of the town. About the time that a throne 
for the king was erected, there was also made a seat for the 
provost and town-council, which "had ane lok and six keys." 
The room near the north door of the nave, called the "priests' 
chamber," was also turned into a prison for scandalous persons, 
and a door was opened in St Anthony's Aisle. The church was 
a place for discipline as well as for preaching. Oflfenders were 

1 Bargh Records, August 23, 1565. ° Knox's History, vol. ii. p. 392. 

• Ibid,, y oil p. 935. 



150 



BRAVE MEN. 



rebuked, and hardened sinners were excommunicated, whilst Sunday 
after Sunday men and women did penance for their oflfences. 
One miserable man^ who had been deposed from the ministry 
appeared in St Giles to make his public repentance. It was 
suflSciently humbling. He was enjoined to appear at the church 
door when the second bell rang for public worship, clad in sackcloth, 
bareheaded and barefooted, to stand there until the prayer and 
psalms were finished, when he was to be brought into the church to 
hear sermon, during which ''he was to be placeit in the pubUc 
spectakill above the peiple." This appearance he was to make for 
three several preaching days, and on the last of them, being a 
Sabbath, he was at the close of the sermon to profess his sorrow 
before the congregation, and to request their forgiveness, upon 
which he was to be " clad in his ain apparell " and received into the 
communion of the church. Similar exhibitions were of frequent 
occurrence, and were supposed greatly to tend to edification. 

1 Paul Metliven, sometime minister of Jedburgh. 




From a Brass in St Giles. 



CHAPTER XVL 
Cie Aneeti anlr tit 18(rS— X566-1572. 

When she gaed up the Canongate aide. 

The Canongate side sae free, 
Oh, there she spied some minister lads. 

Crying, ** Och and alace for me I" 

Scottish Ballad. 




VENTS of importance now follow close upon one 
another in Scottish history, and there are few of 
them which have not some connection, however 
slight, with the subject of our story. On 19th June 
1566, in the Castle of Edinburgh, a prince, after- 
wards James VI., was bom. The event caused great joy throughout 
Scotland, and a public thanksgiving was held in St Giles. *' The 
lords and people came to the great Kirk of Edinburgh to give 
thanks to God, and to pray for great gifts and grace to him."* 
Probably John Craig officiated on the occasion, aa Knox was absent 
in England. The people were hearty, we are told, in their devotions, 
and "made humble prayers that the young prince might be en- 
dowed with the fear of God, with virtue and knowledge to govern 
the realm and subjects thereof, whenever the same should happen 
to come into his hands."* King James VI., who in after times 
influenced so greatly St Giles and its history, was thus associated 
with it from the time of his birth. His baptism took place in the 
Chapel Royal of Stirling. The English queen was represented on 
the occasion by the Earl of Bedford, governor of Berwick, and 

^ Calderwood, vol. iL p. 321. * Keith, vol. iL pp. 434, 563. 

V 



152 THE QUEEN AND THE KIRK. 

a Protestant. On his way home from the christening, he seems to 
have attended service in St Giles. It was in the early morning 
of a December day, for we find a note in the accounts of the town 
treasurer. *^ Gevin to George Johnstone for ane greit wax candill 
to set befoir my lord the Erie of Bedford, Ambassador of 
England, beand heir sone in the morning at the sermond, iiJ5." 

On the 10th February 1566-7, at two in the morning, the 
inhabitants of Edinburgh were startled by the explosion at the 
Kirk-of-Field, and the report of the murder of the king soon 
spread throughout the town. There were not a few who had 
little difficulty in surmising as to who was the guilty person. 
During the night after the catastrophe, a paper was secretly fixed 
to the doors of St Giles and other public buildings, charging 
the Earl of Bothwell and some of his friends as the murderers.^ 
" I," so the unknown accuser made his charge, " according to 
the proclamation have made inquisition for the slaughter of 
the king, and do find the Earl of Bothwell, Mr James Balfour, 
parson of Flisk, Mr David Chambers, and black Mr John 
Spence, the principal devisers thereof" This was not the 
only document of the kind ''privillie affixit on the public places 
of the Kirk of Edinburgh.'' 

These accusations drove Bothwell to fury, and he declared 
"publicly, with furious oaths and gestures, that if he knew who 
were the authors of the bills or drawings, he would wash his 
hands in their blood."* Such statements on his part were not 
much heeded by the unknown accuser, for on the evening of 
the day on which he made them, two more placards were hung up. 
On the one were written the initials M. R. with a hand holdinof a 
sword. On the other, Bothwell's initials with a mallet painted 
above, an obscure allusion to a wound on the body of Damley, 
supposed to have been given with a blunt instrument. These accusa- 
tions being persisted in even after Bothwell had been acquitted at a 
so-called assize, the earl came to St Giles, and on its doors affixed 

1 Bothwell's narrative, quoted in Keith, voL iL p. 648. * Ibid,, p. 534. 



THE QUEEN AND THE KIRK. 153 

with his own hand a public cartel challenging to combat any gentle- 
man who should stiU accuse him of Damley's murder. In a narra- 
tive by himself of his proceedings, he tells us that *' according to the 
custom of that country, and according to the laws of war," he placed 
the following document, sealed with his own seal, to the doors of 
the Tolbooth, St Giles' Church, and other public places : 

*' For the defence of my honour and reputation, if there be anyone, 
whether noble or commoner, rich or poor, disposed to accuse me of 
treason, secret or overt, let him present himself, that I may give 
him combat in this just cause." ^ 

On the following day on which this cartel appeared, another 
paper was posted declaring that if a day was fixed a gentleman 
would appear/ but "nothing came of the matter," and the con- 
gregation of St Giles, who must have read those notices with much 
interest as they crowded to Mr Craig^s preaching, ceased to gossip 
on the subject. Their interest, however, was soon to be revived, 
by a strange proclamation made by the minister from the pulpit, 
for we read in an old chronicle ' that : " Upon the nynt day of the 
said month of Maiy (1567) our Souerane ladie and the said erle of 
Bothwill wes proclamit in the college kirk of Sanct Geill to be 
marryt togedder." 

This proclamation was not made by the minister without strong 
protest. On the ground of the common rumour that the queen 
was under restraint, John Craig demanded to see the queen's 
handwriting. A letter declaring her freedom was brought him 
by Sir John Bellenden, the Justice-clerk. Craig declared that such 
a marriage could only be solemnised in defiance of the laws of the 
church, and was ready to give his reasons to the parties them- 
selves, which he did in a bold and defiant manner. "I laid 

^ Selon la constonie du diet pays, et selon les loix de la guerre, je feis faire cries h Edin- 
bonrg, et mettre des lettres s^ell&s de mon seau, sur le portes des Eglises .... en la forme qui 
s'ensnyt : '*Poar la defense de mon honneur et reputation, s'il y a quelqu'un, noble ou ignoble, 
riche ou pauvre, qui me veuille acouser de trahison, secrete ou ouverte, qu'il se presente afin 
que je luy liure le combat en ceste juste cause " [Les Affaires du Conte de Boduel: Bannatyne 
Club). 

' Keith, p. 663. ' Diurnal of Occurrents. 



154 THE QUEEN AND THE KIRK. 

to his charge the law of adultery, the law of ravishing, the 
suspicion of collusion betwixt him and his wife, and last, the 
suspicion of the king's death, which her marriage would confirm. 
But he answered nothing to my satisfaction, wherefore after many 
exhortations I protested that I could but declare my mind pubhcly 
to the church." This he did, and while he reluctantly proclaimed 
the banns in St Giles on three several days, he took heaven and 
earth to witness that he abhorred and detested the intended 
marriage as scandalous, "and seeing," he says, "that the best part 
of the realm did approve of it, I desired the faithful to pray 
earnestly that God would turn it to the comfort of this realm." 

The realm, as we know, had little comfort for some time to come. 
The events which followed rapidly upon this infamous marriage — 
the flight of Bothwell, the imprisonment of the queen, the corona- 
tion of her son, and the appointment of James Stewart as regent 
during his minority — are well known to the readers of Scottish 
history. While these events were occurring, Knox resided chiefly 
in Edinburgh, and took an active part with Craig in guiding the 
afiairs of the church. The murder of the Regent Moray was a 
great blow to him. The Regent and Knox had returned some 
time before to the old terms of friendship that had formerly existed 
between them, and there was no man for whom the Reformer 
had so warm a regard, and in whose wisdom he had such confi- 
dence. 

On the 23d January 1570 the Regent was shot at Linlithgow, 
and died on the evening of that day. His death filled the hearts of 
his admirers with the deepest grief, and none more truly than John 
Knox, who, when the tidings reached Edinburgh, poured forth the 
bitterest denunciations from the pulpit of St Giles on the perpetrators 
of the murder, and expressed in the most touching manner the 
sorrows of his own heart, concluding his sermon with the words, " He 
is at rest, Lord ! We are left in extreme misery." On the 14th of 
February the funeral of the Regent took place in St Giles — where 
a few years before his marriage had been celebrated. It was 



THE QUEEN AND THE KIBK. 155 

conducted with much pomp and solemnity, and a long procession 
composed of the greatest in the land came up the High Street from 
Holyrood to the church. 

*'Ma Lord Regentis corpse," says a contemporary writer, 
"being brochte in ane bote by sea fra Stiurling to Leith, quhair 
it was keipit in Johne Wairdlaw his house, and thairefter carryit 
to the place of Halyrudhous, wes transportit fra the said palaice 
of Halyrud to the college kirk of Sanct Geill, in this manner; 
that is to say, William Kircaldy of Grange rade fra the said palace 
in dule weid, beirand ane pensall whairin wes containit ane red 
Lyonn, eftir him followed Colville of Cleishe, master of household to 
said Regent, with ane uther pensall wherein was containit the Lord 
Begentis armes and bage ; efter thame was the erles of Athol, Mar, 
Glencairne, lordis of Ruthven, Methven, Master of Grahame, Lord 
Lindsay, with diverse uther baronis, beirand the said corpse to the 
college kirk of Sanct Geill, quharin the same wes placit before the 
pulpett, and thairefter John Knox, minister, maid ane lamentable 
sermon tuitching the said murther ; the same being done, the said 
corps was buryit in Sanct Anthoneis yle within the said kirk/'^ 

St Anthon/s Aisle, as our readers will remember, was the south 
arm of the transept, and was down to modem times called the 
Moray Aisle. The church at the fimeral was crowded, no less than 
three thousand people being present, and all descriptions of the scene, 
which must have been most striking, speak of the deep impression 
made by the preacher on his hearers. The English ambassador, 
writing to Cecil, speaks of the grief of the people, " as great a sorrow 
as I ever saw ;" and Calderwood tells* how "Knox made a sermon 
before the burial upon these words, * Blessed are those that die in 
the Lord/ and how he moved three thousand persons to shed tears 
for the loss of such a good and godlie governor." Shortly after the 
funeral a tomb was erected in the aisle where he was buried, the 
•contract for making which has lately come to light.' It must have 

1 Diurnal of Occurrents. ' Calderwood, vol. ii. p. 525. 

* Hist. Com. Report, voL vi p. 646. — Given in Appendix, with costs of funeral. 



156 THE QUEEN AND THE KIRK. 

been a monument as handsome as it was costly. One part of it has 
happily come down to our day. This is the brass plate, for the 
"engraving" of which twenty pounds was paid to James Gray, 
goldsmith, and which does great credit to his workmanship. 
The inscription by George Buchanan is in Latin, and may be 
thus translated : " To James Stewart, Earl of Moray, Regent of 
Scotland, a man by far the noblest of his time, barbarously slain 
by enemies, the vilest in history ; his country mourning has raised 
this monument as to a common father." 

The grief of Knox at the death of the Regent told on his health, 
and his sorrow was still more intensified by the defection of his old 
friend Kirkaldy of Grange, who took up the cause of the queen, and 
held for some time the castle of Edinburgh in her behalf. The 
Reformer thundered at him from St Giles, and denounced him as 
*' a throat-cutter," and soon after, as Mr Craig was sitting in the 
pulpit, a servant of Kirkaldy came with a letter desiring him in 
God's name to declare openly to the people that he was nothing of 
the kind.^ Knox's life was threatened, a placard against him was 
posted on the church doors, and at the entreaty of his friends he 
left Edinburgh for a time. John Craig refused to quit his post, and 
was allowed to remain : probably being of a more conciliatory dis- 
position than his colleague, it was supposed he was in less danger. 
His peril, however, must have been considerable. The church was 
turned into a fortress by the partisans of the queen. " The voulte 
was holit in all pairtes so that nane culd cum therin without sicht of 
thame that are abone, neither can ony enter or be in the kirk but 
thai may be shot from abone."* Kirkaldy also placed soldiers in the 
steeple of the church,^ and cannon, to one of which he gave the name 
of Knox. 

On the 4th June "the men of weir in the steipill slappit aU 
the pendis of the kirk for keeping thairof aganis my Lord Regent^" 
and on the 20th there was placed in the steeple of Edinburgh 

1 Calderwood, vol. iii. p. 21. ' Bannatyne's Memorials, p. 119. 

• Diumal of Occnrrents. 



THE QUEEN AND THE KIRK. 157 

"thre pieces of brasin ordinance with victuallis and uthers neces- 
sary for defending of the samyne."^ During this abnormal state 
of things the inhabitants appear to have attended church as usual. 
The Bishop of Galloway, who seems to have taken Knox's place, 
preached in a manner that was not displeasing to the queen's party, 
and Mr Craig, with the departure of his colleague, appeared to 
become, as they termed it; " a neutral, because he made the cause of 
both parties ahke.*' Probably he knew that he would not remain 
long there if he used such strong words as were wont to be spoken 
from his pulpit. On the 27th July 1572 a more peaceful state 
of things was inaugurated, and St Giles resumed its former appear- 
ance. *^ The haill artillery about the walls and on the stepill head 
of Sanct Geill was tane to the castel of Edinburgh." * 

Towards the close of 1572 the citizens of Edinburgh sent a depu- 
tation to St Andrews, whither John Knox had retired, expressing 
their earnest desire " that his voice might be once more heard among 
them." He yielded to their request, reached Edinburgh by slow 
stages, and preached in St Giles on the last day of August. A 
great change had taken place in the preacher since he last was there, 
and he could scarcely be heard in the vast space. " But because his 
* voice ' was febled and waike, and thairforis culd not be hard of the 
whole multetude that convenyit, he desyred thame to provide for 
that place ; for he confessed that his voice was never able (the 
best tyme that ever he was) to extend to all that come together in 
Sanct Gellis kirke, and meikle les now was it able to satisfie the 
auditore seeing that he wes so weak, and his voice so far spent." • 
Calderwood says : " He desired another place to teache in if it were 
but an hundred persons, which wes granted. Mr Knox preached in 
the Tolbuith, where he continued as long as God gave him strength." 
The Tolbooth was the portion of St Giles which had been cut off 
the western part of the nave, and was used for meetings of the 
council. Here the Reformer preached for some little time, and here 
he delivered his last sermon. 

1 Calderwood, vol. iii. pp. 202, 211. ^Ihid., pp. 73, 267. * Bannatyne's Memorials, p. 263. 



158 



THE QUEEN AND THE KIRK. 



Before Knox returned to Edinburgh, Craig had left the town and 
gone to Montrose. James Lawson, sub-principal of Aberdeen, had 
been fixed upon by the church as his successor, and on the 9th Nov- 
ember Knox presided at his installation. He preached the sermon 
in the Tolbooth, but came into the " great church " afterwards with 
the congregation, and ascending the pulpit, put the usual questions 
and gave the charge to the new minister. His voice was so weak 
that few heard him. He discoursed " on the dutie of a minister 
and the dutie of the flock. He praised God that he had gevin them 
one in his rowme, and desired God to augment his graces in him 
a thousand fold above that which he had if it war his pleasure, and 
so ended with the blessing."^ He then descended the pulpit, and 
leaning on the arm of an attendant, tottered feebly out of St Giles, 
where he had laboured so long, down the High Street. The congre- 
gation poured out of the church after him, and followed him with 
eager eyes, many of them believing they would never see him again. 
Their premonition was true. He went home to die. So this 
great historic figure disappears from the pages of our story. 

' Calderwood, vol. iiL p. 230 ; Bannatyne in loc 




Knox leaving St Giles. 
(From a Drawing by Sir W. Fettes Douglas, P.R.S.A.) 



CHAPTER XVII. 
CUvitil iBotoer— X572-1579. 



Sara 'tis an orthodox opinion 
That grace is founded in dominion. 

HUDIBBAS. 




AMES LAWSON, whom Knox had inaugurated as 
his successor, received a cordial welcome from the 
people. He was well cared for by the town, and aided 
in his ministry by three colleagues whose stipend 
was provided for out of the funds of the burgh. 
One of these was John Cairnes, who had for some years acted as 
reader in the church. He had now been admitted as a minister 
by the General Assembly.^ John Durie was another colleague 
appointed soon after Lawson's induction, and in 1574 Walter 
Balcanquhal also took part in the work of the parish. These three 
ministers were very much of the same character. They were 
strongly imbued with the principles of the Reformation, and equally 
uncompromising in their views, which very frequently brought them 
into violent collision with the government of the time.* 

The burgh authorities did all in their power to promote their 
comfort." The house of John Knox does not seem to have been 
a manse, and was probably his own property. The town, therefore, 
set themselves to provide residences for the ministers ; and the 
house occupied by the provost of the church and that belonging to 

" Scott's FasH (Midlothian), p. 6. * Ibid., p. 7. 

* The stipends finally fixed on for the various ministers are given in Burgh Records, 10th 
May 1578. 
W 



160 CLERICAL POWER. 

the curate in Catholic times being now vacant, they resolved that 
these should at once be put in a suitable condition and made 
parochial manses, and they ordered also that a sum of five hundred 
pounds should be " sett, liftit, and raiset yeirlie for payment of the 
ministers and readaris their feis and dewties." The sums bestowed 
on " the bigging, repairing of the place in the kirkyard sometime 
belonging to the provost of St Geils kirk, with the curattis place 
adjacent thereto,"^ were considerable, and from time to time we 
read in the town records of money advanced and timber given to 
fit up and add to the buildings.* Money also was received from 
certain influential citizens to help in the work. 

Though their worldly circumstances were as comfortable as the 
town and citizens could make them, the ministers had their full 
share of the troubles of the time that followed in church and state 
after the removal of John Knox. A revival of the episcopate 
after a fashion had taken place with the approval of the crown,* and 
to this the ministers of St Giles, in common with other prominent 
persons in the church, were violently opposed, and the relations 
between our church and the constituted authority became almost as 
strained as they had been in the time of John Knox. The Regent 
Morton and Mr Lawson were bitterly opposed, and the one sought 
in every way to thwart the policy of the other. A curious instance 
of this occurred which gave rise to no little comment at the time, 
and which indicates the disposition on the part of the government 
to curb the ecclesiastical power. An elder of St Giles, by name 
Robert Gourlay, was "ordained to make his public repentance in 
the church," for what was then considered a very heinous ofience, 
■** transporting wheat out of the country."* Information of this 
having been conveyed to the Regent, he appeared personally in the 
-church, and, at the time the peccant elder should have made his 
confession, said openly to the minister, Mr James Lawson, '* I have 
given him license, and it apperteaneth not to you to judge of 

1 Burgh Records, 2l8t July 157e. ' Ihid., 8th October 1674. 

» The "Tulchan Episcopate." * Calderwood, vol. iii. p. 328. 



CLERICAL POWKR. 161 

that matter." This little incident, which must have caused some 
sensation in the congregation, is significant of the tendency on 
the part of the government to treat with as much contempt aa 
they were able what they considered the assumption and pride 
of the ecclesiastical power. 

A curious instance of the exercise of that power occurred in the 
same year. A certain Thomas M'Kaslan, one of the College of 
Justice, and a man of considerable eminence, had remained in 
Edinburgh during the siege, and continued to discharge the duties 
of his office. For this he was refused admission to the communion^ 
though an elder in the congregation. He appealed to the 
Assembly of the church, and that body, " after reasoning," made him 
take oath 'Hhat he had remained within the said toun and bare 
office therin, for most just fear and dreadour which might fall on 
a constant man." The Assembly condoned the oflfence to a certain 
extent, but ordained him to appear " before the pulpit of Edinburgh 
in his own gown, and to make repentance for his said offence in the 
face of the congregation, and thereafter giving to the poor the gown, 
wherein he maketh the said satisfaction, or else the price thereof" ^ 

The "troubles of the time" during Morton's regency are often 
referred to both in the minutes of the Assembly and of the town, and 
they occasionally touch the subject of our story. The building was 
frequently used for secret meetings, and the council ordained " the 
kirk durris to be keipet clois all tymes of the day, except the tyme of 
the preaching and prayer, for stopping of the conventions in the said 
kirk during the tyme of the troubles."* This precaution was not 
sufficient, and in the next year " efter advisement with the trubblis 
which yesterday chanset betwixt Lord Seyton and the Laird of 
Invermarkie within the paroche kirk of this burgh," they renew 
their injunction as to "steiking"' the doors. 

Early in 1579 the Earl of Athole, the chancellor of Scotland, 
and the great leader of the confederacy against Morton, died, 

1 Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland, Part L p. 324. 

" Burgh RecordB, 2d July 1578. » Ibid., February 1678-79. 



162 CLERICAL POWER. 

as was generally thought, from the effects of poison, and his 
funeral took place in St Giles with "great solemnity and 
lamentation."^ The council of the town gave permission that 
he should be buried there: "that upon the wester part of 
Walter Chepmans iyle, foment the Erie of Murays tombe, 
sal be brokin, and thair ane burial place be maid for the 
Erie of Athole." The church authorities having heard rumours 
that the funeral was to be conducted with certain solemnities which 
tli^y judged superstitious, interfered to prevent these occurring. 
The General Assembly directed one of the ministers of St Giles, 
and another of his brethren who had charge of the funeral 
arrangements, to go to the lords to desire "that all superstition be 
avoided thereat. Quho reportit that they had maid information 
to their honours, that the brute ^ was of some superstitious rites 
quhilk were prepared for the burial, as a whyte crosse on the mort- 
claith, lang gounes, with stroupes * and torches, quher answer was : 
That it was not a crosse, and grantit the gounes, and denyit the 
torches . . . Whereto were immediately sent unto them .... 
John Durie to declare the kirk thought the crosse and the stroupes 
superstitious and ethnic* lyke, and desirit them to remove the 
same."* Those having charge of the funeral agreed to the request 
of the Assembly, and the Earl of Athole was laid in his grave with 
such rites as the church allowed, without the " stroupes," and " with 
the mortclaith covered with black velvet." 

A much grander ceremony took place in St Giles in the same 
year with these funeral obsequies, in connection with the public 
entry of King James VI. into Edinburgh. He made a grand 
progress through the town from the West Port, where he was 
received by the magistrates "under a pompous payle of purple 
velvet.* As he came towart the chief coUegiat kirke, thair Dame 
Religion shewed herself, desyring his presence, so he lighted at the 

1 History of King James VL, p. 174. * Rumour. 

' Flambeaux. ^ Heathen. 

' Booke of the UniverscUl Kirk ofScotland^ p. 431. 
• History of King James VL, p. 178 ; Calderwood, voL iii p. 459. 



CLERICAL POWER. 163 

ladeis steppes and went into the great kirk. Mr James Lawson 
made an exhortation upon Psalm ii. ver. 10, and exhorted the 
king and the subjects to doe thair dutie, to enter into league and 
covenant with God, and concluded with thanksgiving. After 
sermon was sung the twentieth Psalm." 

We are not told how his majesty was pleased with the address 
of Mr Lawson — ^probably the performance which immediately 
followed the singing of the psalm was on the whole more to 
his taste. A few steps from the church he came to the Cross, 
" where Baccus satt on a puncheon, with his painted garments and 
a flowre garland. He drank manie glasses and cast them among 
the people, and there were then run three puncheons of wine." 

His majesty's relations with the ministers were not always so 
pleasant as on this occasion. In the year following his visit to 
St Giles, while he was still in Edinburgh, a rumour reached 
him of a violent sermon preached there by Mr Durie, in 
which he was referred to in very uncomplimentary language. He 
accordingly, with the advice of his council, ordered the minister 
to appear before that body, "to answer sic things as shal be 
enquirit of him, touching some words spoken be him in his last 
sermon, and within the pulpett of St Gellis kirk, quhilk some- 
what touches His Hieness." He w^as also ordered to put what 
he said in writing, and to bring his manuscript with him to the 
council.^ Mr Durie "compeared personally" before the king and 
council, but utterly refused to comply with their order, and 
"wilfullie and contemtuouslie refusit to produce his said speking 
and meaning in write ... to the evill example of utheris giff 
this be sufFerit to remane unpuneist." The macer, therefore, is 
ordered to charge the said John Durie to enter into ward in 
Edinburgh Castle on Saturday next, " befoir the dounpassing of the 
sone, and to remain there upon his own expenses until freed by the 
king, under pain of rebellion." Mr Durie seems to have yielded to 
these severe measures — Saturday was an awkward day for the 

^ Register of Council, voL iiL p. 335. 



164 CLERICAL POWER. 

minister to be imprisoned. He gave in his manuscript,^ and the 
matter appears to have dropped for a time. "The sentence of 
warding was recalled/* says Calderwood, "for they had aime at 
greater persons."^ 

One of these greater persons to whom CaJderwood refers was the 
Earl of Morton. The Earl of Lennox was now the reigning power 
in Scotland, and in high favour with the king. To gain favour also 
with the church, he made a public profession of his Protestantism in 
St Giles,* and after the execution of his rival Morton, his authority 
was for long imchallenged. The ministers of St Giles, Durie and 
Balcanquhal, attended Morton in prison, and Lawson, who had so 
earnestly opposed him in life, at his own request accompanied 
him to the scaflfold, where he made "a maist comfortable 
prayer.'' 

Lennox, who succeeded the unfortunate Morton in the control of 
public affairs, notwithstanding his profession in St Giles and general 
obsequiousness to the clergy, soon began to show that he would, if 
he could, curb their power as thoroughly as his predecessor in office 
did. To this they made, as might be expected, determined resistance, 
and the ministers were soon involved in a conflict with the court, 
which was as determined as any they had previously waged. In an 
Assembly of the church, held in 1581, the king made complaint 
against Mr Balcanquhal for having spoken in a sermon against 
Lennox.* The words are strong enough, and show with what 
freedom the ministers handled public affairs. " Within these four 
years," said the minister, "Papistrie had entered the country, not 
only in the court, but in the king's hall, and was maintained by the 
tyranny of a great campion who is callit Grace ; but if his Grace 
would oppose himselfe to God's word he should have little grace." 
There is a certain touch of rough humour in these words, which 
probably was caught up by the people and repeated. The General 

^ Galderwood, vol. iii. p. 480 — Mr Balcanquhal eeems to have been along with Durie. 
^ Ibid, ; see also description of Dune's preaching, Historical MSS. CommiBsion's Report, 
p. 667. ' Spottiswood, toL iiL p. 273. 

* Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland, 1581. 



CLERICAL POWER. 165 

Assembly, however, absolved Balcanquhal, and the king made 
nothing of his complaint. 

Stronger language even than that complained of was soon 
to be heard from the pulpit of St Giles. Durie took up 
the strain of his colleague, and sounded a fearful alarm against 
Popery and the court.^ The king, he said, had been moved 
by certain courtiers, who now ruled all at their will, to send a 
private message to the king of France and the Duke of Guise, and 
to seek his mother's blessing. He knew this from the very man 
employed in the message — George Douglas, Mary s sworn servant 
— and he painted in strong colours the deplorable eflfects that might 
arise from such a coalition.* He went to the king himself at 
Kinneil, and besought his majesty to be true to the principles of 
the Reformation. A certain envoy having at this time brought a 
present to the king from the Duke of Guise, the incident added 
fuel to the flame. ** Is it with the Guise," cried the minister, "that 
your grace will exchange presents ; with that cruel murderer of the 
saints ? " Returning to Edinburgh he made the walls of St Giles 
echo with his denunciations. A report of his sermon has come down 
to us from one who was present " when Mr John Durie preached 
in the cathedral church of Edinburgh, where diverse noblemen were 
present," ' and we can see as we read it that it is the product of 
violent and excited feeling. " The sermon was very long, godly, 
and plain," says the reporter, " to the great comfort and rejoice of 
the most number that heard it or do hear of it." It was not so to 
the king. Mr Durie was cited before the privy council, and ordered 
to leave Edinburgh. Before he would do so he consulted the 
Assembly, who advised him to keep to his charge till he was 
removed by force ; but should he be so removed, to go peaceably. 
The magistrates of the city were, by orders from the king, with 
reluctance obliged to compel him to go. About nine o'clock, after 
supper on a summer evening, he was seen making his way to the 
Cross of the town, in company with Mr Lawson and Balcanquhal, 

1 Tytler, vol. viiL p. 93. ' Ibid. » Ibid. 



166 CLERICAL POWER. 

and two notaries, and there, under the shadow of his own church, 
he went through the curious ceremony of placing a piece of money 
in the notaries' hands, in token that he left his charge against his 
free will. There was a little crowd round them as the party went 
through this strange performance, who, it is said, were much moved, 
though the wife of a shoemaker cried out that if any would cast 
stones she would help. ** After this, John Durie went forth at 
the Neather Bow, and St Giles for some time knew him 
not."^ 

He left, however, one as uncompromising as himself, who was well 
fitted to carry on his policy, and Mr Lawson's sermons became as 
much talked about as those of the exiled minister. There can be 
but little doubt that Lennox was scheming to get Queen Mary back 
to Scotland, and to place her on the throne beside her son.* Such a 
restoration would have been probably disastrous to the church, and 
the ministers naturally did all in their power to make it impossible. 
Their fears were, however, soon relieved so far as this was concerned. 
The Bald of Ruthven took place, and the king was a prisoner in the 
hands of Protestant lords. Great was the joy of Mr Lawson, who, 
though earnestly besought by the provost of the town to be careful 
of his words, poured forth in his sermons a bitter attack upon 
Lennox and his confederates. He replied to the provost's caution 
in the words of Micah, that " what the Lord put into his mouth he 
would speak." It is possible he might have been less bold had 
Lennox been in the full swing of his power ; but that power was 
now broken, and Lawson denounced him and his friends with the 
greatest freedom. "What had been his practices since he came 
among them ? With what taxes had he burdened the common- 
wealth to sustain his intolerable pride ? What vanity in apparel, 
what looseness in manners, what superfluity in banqueting, what 
fruits and follies of French growth, had he not imported into their 
simple country ? Well might they be thankful ; well praise God 
for their delivery. Well did it become Edinburgh to take up the 

» Calderwood. " Tytler, vol. viii. p. 107. 



CLERICAL POWER. 167 

words of the psalmist, *Laqueus contritus est, et nos liberati 
smnmr 

The joy of the preacher was further enhanced by the return 
of his colleague Durie from captivity. He came back in 
triumph, and was met on his return and escorted by the 
people of Edinburgh, who went forth to meet him in great 
numbers. The accounts of contemporary writers bring the scene 
before us in a manner sufficiently picturesque.^ " As he is coming 
from Leith to Edinburgh upon Tuesday the 4th September, 
there mett him at the Gallow Greene two hundred of the 
inhabitants of Edinburgh. Thare number increased till he came 
within the Nether Bow, and going up the streit with bear heads 
and loud voices sang to the praise of God, and testifying of grait 
joy and consolation, the 124th Psalm, 'Now Israel may say, and 
that treulie,' and sang in foure parts knoune to most of the people. 
They came up the street till they came to the Great Kirk, singing 
thus all the way, to the number of two thousand. They were much 
moved themselves, and so were the beholders. The duke (Lennox), 
being in the toun and ludging in the Hiegait, was astonished and more 
afraid at that sight than at anie thing he had ever seen in Scotland ; 
he rave his beard for anger, and hasted him out of the toun. After 
exhortation made in the reader's place by Mr Lawson to thankful- 
ness, and the singing of a psalm, they dissolved with great joy." 
It must have been a striking spectacle, that great bareheaded 
multitude singing opposite the door of St Giles that psalm, in the 
rugged metre which has come down to the present day. Few 
more picturesque scenes have occurred in connection with our 
church's history. When darkness came down on the town on that 
memorable night, two or three hundred citizens kept watch at the 
back of the church for the " saftie of the ministers," and though the 
authorities besought them to go home, they kept their watchfires 
bright, and remained singing psalms till break of day. Next day 
Lennox left the town, and they needed to watch no longer. 

> Calderwood, toL iiL ; Melville's Diary. 
X 



168 CLERICAL POWER. 

During the period to which this chapter relates, considerable 
changes took place in the interior of St Giles. A portion of the 
west end was, as we have seen, occupied as a tolbooth, the lower 
part being a council-house, and the upper a court of justice. A 
portion of the east end was now cut off to form a separate church, 
which went by the name of the Little or East Kirk ; this was done 
in 1578.^ The other part, between this new kirk and the Tolbooth, 
was called the Great Kirk, being the larger portion of the building. 
In the new church some of the most celebrated assembUes of the 
church met at this time,* and amid many items in the town treasurer s 
accounts for building and timber- work spent in the alterations we 
have mentioned, the following occurs : " For rusches and bent to 
the New Kirk at the assemblie." The floor was, we know, of earth, 
and this carpeting was needed to keep the feet of the divines from 
the damp soil. Other changes took place in the structure, of the 
extent of which we can only form a guess. 

January 30, 1578-79. — "The bailUes and counsal ordanis Lucas 
Wilson, Dene of Guild, with the avise of James Lauson, minister, to 
big up the ylis of the kirk, and in speciall the south kirk door, 
passand to the said maister James ludging, through his yaird quhair 
is now maid ane place of filth and making of water. . . . and sick 
like, to big Sanct Johnes He on the north syde of the kirk." 

September 17, 1579. — "The baillies ordanis the Dene of Gild to 
mak a loft in the eist end of the kirk." 

The church was lit by three great lamps provided by the town.* 

The ministers seem to have been attentive to their pastoral duties 
as well as to political matters ; but they took part in a movement 
for which the city may be grateful to them — the founding of the 
University of Edinburgh. It was in the ministers' lodging that 
the first meeting for taking order concerning the foundation of 
a university* was held, and in Mr Lawson's house the books 

1 Burgh Records, Octolier 17, 1680 ; Ibid., 25th January 1580-81. 

' Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland. 

» 7th October 1580. 

* Burgh Records, 24th April 1679 ; Grant's History of the University/. 



CLERICAL POWER, 



169 



bequeathed by a citizen ^ for a library were stored. The university 
thus sprung from the church. Mr Lawson was a man of learning, 
and did all in his power for the advance of scholarship in Edin- 
burgh, and it was probably through his influence it came about that 
we read in the town treasurer's accounts of the erection in St 
Giles of a " scoUers' loft '' — ^a gallery for the use of the students of 



the infant college. 



^ Clement Little. 




Robert Goorlay's House. 




CHAPTER XVIIL 
ftolproou antr £t ii&aefJ— 1579-1590, 

The hearts of princes kiss obedience, 

So much they love it ; but to stubborn spirits 

They swell and grow as terrible as storms. 

Shakespeare. 

THE history of the period we now enter upon is 
one of dispute and controversy, and the relation is 
not very pleasant, though it needs to be told to 
make this narrative complete. St Giles may be said 
to have been at this time the headquarters of the 
Church of Scotland, and its ministers formed a kind of spiritual 
conclave with which the state had to reckon before any of its 
proposals regarding ecclesiastical matters could become law. The 
clergy regarded themselves in a special manner as watchmen on 
the towers of Zion ; their eye was ever fixed steadily on Holyrood 
as the quarter from which they expected danger to come ; and 
when they sounded a note of warning, assemblies of determined 
men convened at once under the arches of St Giles to concert 
measures of defence. The Raid of Ruthven was heartily approved 
of by an Assembly convened within the new kirk or eastmost part 
of St GiJes, and a time of quietude seemed to the divines to 
have been thereby inaugurated. Mr Lawson was sent on a 
friendly embassy to the Confederate Lords,^ and returned to 
his flock to resume in peace his ordinary pastoral duties, 
which, however, were soon interrupted. An ambassador arrived 

* Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland, 



HOLTROOD AND ST GILES. 171 

at the court "from the most Christian king of France," who 
naturally demanded that he should be allowed while in this 
country to attend the rites of his own religion. " As I have food 
allotted for my body," he said, "so do I require to be allowed 
the food of my soul, I mean the mass, which if it is denied me 
I may not stay and suffer a Christian prince's authority and 
embassy to be violated in my person." This speech was taken up 
next Sunday in St Giles as the subject of discourse, and the 
ministers were very eloquent upon it. Mr Lawson found a fit- 
ting text in the passage of the Old Testament, describing the 
mission of the king of Babylon, and denounced the Frenchman, 
Monsieur de Menainville, as the counterpart of the blasphemous 
Rabshakeh.^ 

The indignation of the preacher and his colleagues was inten- 
sified when, in spite of his counterblast from the pulpit, the magis- 
strates received a royal command to give a banquet to the French 
ambassador before his departure from the kingdom. The ministers 
were very wroth and exceedingly personal in their declamations. 
Probably the Massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572 did much to 
increase their alarm. They termed a white cross, which one of 
the envoys wore on his shoulder, "the badge of Antichrist,"' 
and the Frenchman, "the ambassador of the bloody murderer, 
the Duke of Guise." Their strong language did not, however, 
prevent the banquet being given by the town, as they doubtless 
expected. They made, nevertheless, a strong protest, when 
their sermons seemed ineffectual to stay the feast. A fast was 
proclaimed by them on Sunday to be held during the festival, 
and while the magistrates were entertaining the ambassadors, 
and the king and his courtiers were abandoning themselves to 
the jollity of the hour, the ministers in the church hard by were 
denouncing the proceeding, " crying out in their allegoris all evill, 
sclanderous and injurious words aganis the King of France, the 

* Tytler, vol. viii. p. 133 ; Caldenvood. 

' The ambassador was a knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. 



172 HOLTROOD AND ST GILES. 

Duke of Guise, and the magistrats of Edinburgh for geving of the 
feast." ^ It was not a very edifying spectacle this competition between 
feasting and fasting. The service in St Giles began between nine 
and ten, and continued till two in the afternoon. Three ministers 
preached in succession, and between the exhortations there was 
reading and singing of psalms. After the ambassadors had 
departed, the magistrates were proceeded against by the censures 
of the church for not keeping the fast, and the terrible sentence 
of excommunication was with difficulty prevented from being 
Eliminated against them. 

But the tables were soon turned on the ministers, and they 
had an experience themselves of the hardships they were ready to 
mete out to others. The king escaped from the control of the Con- 
federate Lords, and soon set himself to establish what he deemed a 
less independent form of church government than that in existence. 
Bishops were to rule the Church of Scotland, and in favour of 
the scheme Parliament passed an act which was of a very sweeping 
character. The king was declared to be "supreme in all causes 
and persons," and the chief jurisdiction of the church was lodged in 
the hands of the Episcopal body.^ There was also an enactment 
in the new law which bore very hard upon the outspoken 
ministers of St Giles, namely, "that none should presume 
privately or publicly in sermons, declarations, or familiar conferences, 
to utter any false or slanderous speeches, to the reproach of His 
Majesty or council, or meddle with the aflfairs of His Highness and 
estate.'* 

The latter clause against meddling with public affisiirs cut the min- 
isters at once off from what was the chief staple of their sermons, 
and there was some anxiety manifested as to what course they were 
likely to take in the circumstances. On a Saturday* the acts were 
made known in Edinburgh, and the provost and bailies had instruc- 
tions to prevent comments on them from the pulpit, if necessary 

1 History of King Jamea T/., p. 197. 

3 Cunningham, vol. L p. 463. ^ May 23, 1584. 



HOLTROOD AND ST GILES. 173 

by force. Mr Lawson and Mr Balcanquhal, .who officiated on the 
Sunday, were as free-spoken as ever in their expressions of aversion 
and disgust But as the acts were not to be publicly proclaimed 
till Monday, the magistrates thought it best not to interfere, 
and allowed the preachers to finish the service in peace. Mr 
Balcanquhal and some of his brethren appeared at the Cross when 
the proclamation was made, and in the name of the Church solemnly 
took public protestation against them. The government were 
indignant, and " Arran made manie vowes that if Lawson^s head 
was as great as an haystacke he would cause it leape from his 
hawse." Mr Lawson had no intention of giving him the 
opportunity of carrying out his threat, and before the warrant for 
their arrest could be executed he and Mr Balcanquhal fled to 
Enorland. Lawson never came back.^ Mr Durie had been sent 
away previously to Montrose,* and the king would not allow him 
to return. The town was thus in great want of ministerial supply, 
and of the ministers of St Giles only Mr Cairnes, who does not 
seem to have been much of a preacher, remained. The following 
extracts from the records of the burgh refer to this period, and 
may be inserted here : 

'^December 25, 1583. — The provost, &c., understanding that 
Jhonn Dury, minister, hes removet fra the toun at command of 
the king's grace, quhairby the Eist Kirk is left destitute of ane 
minister to preach thairin on the Sonday, quhairupon the kirk 
hes desyrit that ordour micht be tane for ane to preich thairin 
and for visiting his quarter and taking up the falts in his absence, 
thairfore hes thocht expedient that thai shall all pass to the king's 
grace to know his grace's mind gif it be his will that the said Jhonn 
retume or nocht to the effect that thai may provide for ane 
uther. 

^* February 21, 1583-4. — The provost, &c., fynd best to pas with 
the commissioners of the kirk and travell with the king's ministers, 

1 Register of Privy Council, vol. iiL p. 668 — ''Lawson died in London, October 12, 1584.'' 
^Ihid.; ^0%'% Fasti, 



174 HOLYROOD AND ST GILES. 

that ane of thame may teach on the Sonday in the Eist Kirk the 
tyme the toun is destitute of thair third minister." 

Two of the elders of the church appeared at this meeting stating 
that Durie was in need, and asking something for him from the 
town. The council found that they owed him nothing, and as the 
king had declared that "he will nocht that the said Jhonn Durie 
return agane or serve or mak any residence here, they discharge 
the said Jhonn Durie of ony stipend to be payet to him hereafter. 
And in respect of the kirk's request they grant unto him the 
sum of fyftie punds for the transporting of his wyfe, familie, and 
household geir from this toune, provyding he binding the guid toun 
na furder in tyme coming, quhilk sum they ordain John Broun, 
collector of the kirk annuells, to delyver to the said Jhonn Durie's 
wife.'* 

Shortly after, the manses of the banished ministers were delivered 
over to the town. 

** September 18, 1584. — Comperit Marjoriebanks, the spous 

of Maister Balcanquhal, minister, and conform to the charge geven 
her be our soveraign lord's letters, declaret that she hed red and 
maid voyde the minister's ludgeing occupeit be her and desyret 
to be exonerit thairof. Sycklyke comperit the spouse of Johne 
Camis, minister, and in the name of Johnn Dury and his spous 
producit the keys of the ludgeing sometime occupiet be the said 
Johnne." 

The town ordered the keys to be kept, and the books which 
Lawson had in keeping^ to be taken and set up in the towns 
college in a house convenient, and to be "deliverit to Maister 
Robert RoUock, maister of the said college." 

It was necessary that something should be done to supply the 
town with religious service. The town, therefore, on the 24th 
September 1584, "considering that the kirk of this burgh is destitute 
of pastures and teachers throw the absence of thair ain ministers, 
thairfore votet and consentit in presense of my Lord Bischop of 

^ AnU, p. 168. 



HOLTROOD AND 8T GILES. 175 

Sanct Androisy that the King's Majestie suld nominat and assigne 
furth twa of thir personis quhome his Majestie fand maist ex- 
pedienty to witt, Maister David Lindsay, minister of Leyth, Maister 
Peter Blakbume of Abirdeene, and Maister John Craig and John 
Dunkeson, his grace's awn ministers to occupy that place." 

Johii CaimeSy the usual reader of the prayers, seems to have 
been sent out of the town after his brethren, so that the king 
evidently made a clean sweep of the old ministers. 

*^ September 30, 1584. — In respect of the absence of John 
Caimes, minister, be ordinance of the secreit counsale, thairfor 
ordanis Cudbert Sanderson, maister of a schole, to reid the common 
prayeris morning and evening, quhill the hamecoming of the said 
Johnn, or quhill ferther ordour be tane thair anent." 

Mr Craig was the old colleague of John Knox and one of the 
king's resident chaplains. He now came back to his old church as 
a substitute for his brethren, who had been less uncompromising 
than himself. The Archbishop of St Andrews preached occasionally, 
but "the most people went fiirthe when he entered the pulpit."^ 
Craig did not long discharge the office of^ supplying St Giles. A 
change occurred when the exiled lords, as they were called, 
marched" northwards from England, and the church again took 
courage. A young minister, Mr William Watson, whom the 
Archbishop of St Andrews had placed in St Giles for occasional 
supply, after the ministers had been banished, " took the boldness to 
reprove the king to his face," and another of the same humour, called 
James Gibson, minister at that time in Pencaitland, "usurping 
the pulpit of Edinburgh, fell out in the like impertinent 
railing." « 

Balcanquhal came back in the train of the victorious lords and 
thundered away as before, and on the 2d January 1586, when 
the king was in the Great Kirk, he " improved the occasion " by 
expatiating upon the unlawfulness of bishops. The minister must 
have been considerably surprised to find that he had not things as 

1 Calderwood, voL Iv. p. 199. * Spottiswood, voL iL p. 325. 

Y 



176 HOLTROOD AND ST GILES. 

usual all his own way. The king from his seat in his *' loft/' answered 
and rebuked the divine/ and said he would prove there should be 
bishops endued with spiritual authority over the ministry, offering to 
pledge his crown that he would make good his contention. This 
was the first but by no means the last appearance of the king in 
church when he thought proper to address the congregation. 
A more striking instance soon occurred towards the end of this 
same year. 

When it became known in Scotland that the unhappy Mary, 
Queen of Scots, was likely to be put to death by Elizabeth, the 
king requested the ministers of Edinburgh to remember her in their 
prayers, " that it might please God to illuminate her with the light 
of His truth, and save her from the apparent danger wherein she was 
cast." To this surely natural and reasonable request the ministers 
sent a refiisal.' The king intended coming to the church next 
Sunday, and appointed Archbishop Adamson to preach and offer 
prayers for his mother. On his arrival he found a Mr John Cowper 
in the pulpit, it being his turn to preach as one of the ministers of 
the city.* The king rose' in his seat and addressed him, " Mr John,*' 
he said, " that place was destined to-day for another, but if you will 
remember the charge that has been given, and remember my mother 
in your prayers this day, you may go on." Cowper answered that 
"he would do what the Spirit of God directed him."* He 
was then ordered to leave the pulpit, which he did, ** uttering his 
miscontentment in these words, * that he would make accompt one 
day to the Great Judge of the world for such dealing/ " * The rest 
of the scene we may give from the words of one who was present 
and witnessed it :^ " The Bischop of St Androis went up and (after 
the Englishe form) began to beck in a low courtesie to the king, 
whereas the custome of this kirk was first to salute God, to doe 
God's work, and then after sermon and divine worship closed, to give 

' * Calderwood, voL iv. p. 491. ■ Calderwood, voL iv. p. 60d. 

' Scot's Fasti. — He had been elected the previous year. 

* Spottiswood ; Conningham, vol. i. p. 472. 

* Calderwood, vol. iv. p. 606 ; Moysie, p. 55. • Row, p. 115. 



HOLTROOD AND ST GILES. 177 

reverence and make curtesy to the king ; but soon after that the 
Bischop was entered the pulpit all the people in the Great Kirk 
of Edinburgh gave a showt and loud cry so as nothing could be 
heard, and all almost ran out of the kirk, especiallie women ; none 
almost remained but they who were with the king, and some of the 
nobilitie and gentry in the Lord's Loft, also the provest and council of 
Edinburgh sat still in their loft. This carriage of the people made 
the king rise and cry out, * What divill aills the people that they 
may not tarie to heare a man preach ? ' He taught indeed that day 
but with great fear (the writer being an eye and ear witness of all 
this), and then was putt among the king's guard that none 
should do him harme, and thus guarded was taken doune to the 
abbey." 

A more pleasant scene occurred in St Giles when the king 
brought his bride there after his return from Denmark. Mr 
Robert Bruce, one of the ministers of St Giles, oflBciated at the 
coronation of the queen in the chapel of Holyrood, and on Tuesday,, 
19th May 1590, she made a royal entry into Edinburgh. She was 
received with all manner of pageantry on her way through the town. 
Many *' orations " were made to her. " There wes forty-three young 
men all cled in quhyt talfettie and wisseours of black culour on thair 
face lyke mores, all full of gold chenyeis, that dancit befoir her grace 
all the way.^ At the Tolbuith were five youths clothed in gentle- 
women's apparel, one having a sword, another a ballance, the third 
a booke, the fourth a target, and other two with their signs, all 
representing. Peace, Plenty, Policie, Justice, Liberality, Temperance. 
Everie one expounded the signification of their own signs. 
Thereafter the queen went into the kirk and satt in the east 
end under a fair canobie of velvet. Mr Robert Bruce made the 
sermon, which being ended in half-an-hour the queen is brought 
forth." 

The town treasurer's accounts show that much was done to mak& 
her visit to St Giles pleasant.^ We learn from them that the kirk wa& 

^ Moysie, p. 84. ' Appendix. 



178 HOLTROOD AND ST GILES. 

** graithed, wasched, paynted, and spaiiged/' Thirty shillings were 
paid for flowers to strew and " cast about the lofts, salts, and stalls 
and kirk flair aspecting her Majesty's entres." There was a " sait 
prepared in the ScoUers' Loft," where the king and queen's arms were 
hung up, and there was tapestry in the " yle of the kirk/' Neither 
were the elements of good cheer wanting, as the following items 
show : 

" Item, for twa quarts of wyne and four mainshotts ^ that 
were broucht into the yle of the kirk for the strangeris giff" it 
had been requiret for thame to drink, and thairafter drunken with 
the maister of wark, the tapestriers and uthers of the King's 
servands. 

" Item, for ane gallon of aill and breid tane up to the steeple to 
the ministers and wryters." 

The Sunday after these festive doings the king came in person to 
the Great Kirk where Mr Patrick GkJloway preached. At the close 
of his sermon the minister called on the king to confirm the promises 
he had made before. His majesty then made a speech in which he 
thanked ministers and people, promised to prove a loving, faithful, 
and dutiful king. Partly through his youth things had been 
sometimes out of order, but now having seen more and being married 
he would be more staid. Thus peace once more reigned between 
the court and the church. 

There is little to chronicle at this period regarding the structure 
of St Giles itself. It seems to have remained in much the same 
condition as before. The clock of Lindores Abbey was bought 
by the town and placed in the steeple. The council, on the 21st 
April 1585, "ordained the Dean of Gild to pay £55 as the pryce 
of the Knok of Lindores, and the said dean to intromett with the 
said Knok and be compatible for the same ; " also 

*^ April 23, 1585. — Condescends and agrees that Smyth, 

smyth in Blantyre, for repairing of the Knok of Lindores bocht 
be the town, setting up thairof and dressing of the same, to haif 

^ A kind of bread. 



HOLTBOOD AND ST GILES. 179 

twa hands to be sett in the hie steeple, and doing all things necessar 
pertaining to his occupation." 

One or two people of distinction were allowed by the town to be 
buried within the walls as an honour. Among these were Archibald 
Stewart, late provost of the burgh, who was buried in St Anthony's 
Aisle, Crichtoun, Bishop of Dunkeld,* and the Countess of Argyll. 
The old provost of St Giles was laid, by special authority from the 
king, in the place in which he used to minister, and the Countess 
of Argyll* was buried in the tomb of her first husband, the 
Eegent Moray. 

We meet in the records of this time, as we might have expected 
with notices of occasional disturbances in the church, and a 
proclamation was specially made by the town* ''against the con- 
tentious and wikket pepill who in tymes past has made turblances 
within the Hie Kirk of this burgh by injuring their neichburis, 
drawing of swords, and shoting of pistolets, thairby abusing that 
place appointed chieflie for Gods service."* A certain Abacuke 
Bisset, a writer to the Signet, complains to the Privy Council of 
how two Hamiltons, one of them of Preston, " came to Sanct Gelis 
Kirk bodin in feir of weir with swordis, pistolets, and utheris weapons 
invasive, and thair finding the said Abacuke gangand in peacefiillie 
awaiting upon the fyve hours bell in the evening prayers, quhan he 
was myndful to have said his prayers to God conform to his 
accustomed use," and how they set upon him *'and brak his heid 
first with the plumbattis or gardis of ane of thair swords to the 
effusion of his blood." They attacked him again as he was fleeing 
through the west door, and in the porch cut off four fingers of the 
left hand. The two offenders did not appear at their trial, and were 
proclaimed rebels. Whether Mr Abacuke Bisset had done anything 
to deserve such violent treatment we do not know. 

With a more pleasing incident we may close this chapter.* The 
wife and children of James Lawson, so long the chief minister of 

1 26th March 1585. * 19th July 1588. ^ 2l8t March 1588-9. 

^ Recorda of Privy Council, vol. iv. p. 205. " Burgh RecordB, 4th March 1585-0. 



180 



HOLTROOD AND ST GILES. 



the town, came to petition the provost and magistrates, and ask for 
assistance. This brave and courageous man had died in poverty in 
England, and his family were in want. The town, in a minute in 
which they speak in the highest manner of the services of their old 
minister, and of his sufferings, bestow an annual rent of forty pounds 
usual money on his widow and children, the pension to go to the 
longest liver. It was a kind and generous thing to do. 




Holyrood, before 1650. 




CHAPTER XIX. 
€it lafng Crfumylftant— 1590-1596. 

In the auld time unto the croon 
Sail sanct the kirk had given ; 

But noo 'tis changed wark. 
The king giee, in the wrath o' hevin, 

A sair croon to the kirk. 

OOR a few years time passed with tolerable quietness 
in St Giles. The king was on fair terms of amity 
with the church, though with his strong proclivities 
towards Episcopacy, he was ever and again showing 
his desire for the estabUshment of that form of 
church government. He came often to preaching, and from time to 
time after sermon gave his views on current events to the people, 
and these orations must have entertained them almost as much 
as the prelection that preceded. When once he was seen seated 
in his '*loft," the minister generally directed to him *'a word in 
season," which, to one fond of flattery generally, could not have 
been very agreeable. He never appeared in his "loft" but they 
preached at him, and too often put him to shame in the presence of 
his subjects. On 6th June 1591 Mr Robert Bruce was preaching 
in the Little Kirk,^ and after some general observations ** willed the 
king to call to God before he either ate or drank that the Lord 
would give him resolution to execute justice upon malefactors, 
though it should be with the hazard of his life, which if he would 
enterprise courageously, the Lord would raise men to assist him, and 

1 Calderwood, voL iv. p. 129. 



182 THE KING TRIUMPHANT. 

all these impediments would vanish away which were now cast in 
his way, otherwise, sayeth he, ye will not be suffered to bruike^ 
your crown alone, but every man will have one." The king did not 
reply at the time, and took the warning in apparent good part. 

On the 28th December his majesty came to the Great Kirk to give 
thanks for his escape from Francis, Earl of Bothwell, and after Mr 
Patrick Galloway had enlarged appropriately upon the 134th Psahn, 
the king made a harangue regarding his escape, relating "what 
benefits he had bestowed upon Bothwell, and how ungrate he was 
of late in seeking his life." This madman was a source of great 
trouble at the time. When James was in Denmark he came to St 
Giles and made his public repentance, " humbled himself on his knees 
in the Little Kirk in the forenoon, and in the Great Kirk in the 
afternoon." He confessed his wicked and licentious life, and promised 
" to prove another man in time coming ; but he mocked God and 
the people as was seen after." ' His mad career filled the king with 
apprehension, and on more than one occasion the king in St Giles 
appealed to the people to protect him from his threatened violence.' 
He was more a madcap than a conspirator, but his escapades inspired 
the king with great dread.* 

Mr Balcanquhal followed in the steps of his colleague, unmindful 
of his former and unpleasant experiences, and was summoned before 
the king. He defended his freedom of speech on high grounds, 
and alleged the practice of the commonwealth of Israel. The king 
said that the oflBce of prophets was ended. " Mr Walter said that a 
greater office had succeeded in the ministry than the prophets had." 
''Where have we that?" said the king. "Johne the Baptist was 
greater," said Mr Walter. It was thus that the ministers defended, 
on what they deemed scriptural grounds, their freedom of speech ; 
but it must be confessed that they used that freedom without much 
discretion, and it is not to be wondered that the king came to detest 
them altogether, and retaliated on them at the first opportunity for 

1 Enjoy. ' Calderwood, voL iv. p. 08. 

» History of King James F/., pp. 364, 375. * See Burton, voL v. 



THE KINO TRIUMPHANT. 183 

the rough handling they had so frequently given him. Had their 
rebukes been more tempered by discretion, and directed by common 
sense, the troublous times through which the church had afterwards 
to pass might not have come. The king's hatred to Presbytery 
grew from what he suffered in St Giles. 

The ministers seem occasionaUy to have been made the subject of 
ridicule, and though there was not much humour in the theological 
mind of that period, a good many jokes appear to have been played 
off upon them by those who ventured to differ from them. On the 
24th September 1592 a "squib" was "cast into the pulpit of the 
Great Eark " warning the Christian people of a great massacre which 
was shortly to be executed by Papists in Scotland, and which would 
rival that of St Bartholomew. It was evidently done in a frolic, 
though it seems to have been treated seriously. Probably the 
pastors did not treat so seriously another pasquil which shortly after 
was thrown into the same pulpit.^ It satirises the ministers very 
severely, and we fear with considerable truth, so far as regards their 
constant meddling in matters with which they had no business. 

Will Watson's wordes or Bruce's hoist avail ? 

Can Cairns or Craige make merchants to remaine ? 
Balcanker's cryes a whitt sail not prevaile ; 

Balfour may barke, but all will be in vayne. 
Ye spew yer spites on such as sayle to Spaine, 

And lives like lairds by bryberie of the poore. 
Howbeit we beg, providyinge ye get gayne. 

You of your stipends will not want one stim [stiver]. 
Ye crye for kirkes, for furnishing of your ane, 

Not taking tent howe men may doe the tume 
I fear your falles, your days cannot indure, 

The best among you will be loath to bum. 
Ye curse but cause by [beyond] warrant of the word; 

Wee need not feare the fury of your sword 

What moves your mindes to mell with merket dayes ? 

What law alledge you for such foolish actes ? 
Your qukket zeale procures our great dispraise. 

And heapes contempt and hatred on your backes I 

^ Calderwood, voL iv., where it is given at length. 
Z 



184 THE KING TRIUMPHANT. 

The common people craves your public wrackes, 

Detests your tournes, and damnes your divelish deeds ; 
The devill himself can forge no curster facts. 

You are but wolves cladd up in wethers weedes ; 
Ye look like lambes, yet in your bosom breedes 

A poysoned speare, poor people that perverts. 
I hope to see yourselves, or else your seedes. 

Abandoned all, like our lawes in desert& 
Ye scome but Christ, your country, kinds, and king, 

Prescribing pointes as Scribes in everything. 

These sharp rhymes could not have been agreeable to those to 
whom they pointed. We have not space to give here any but the 
briefest account of the violence of the invectives in which the 
ministers at this time indulged ; how Mr Davidson, preaching in the 
East or Little Kirk, said, " the king had received infection, and if 
he vomitted it not out, he would not escape severe judgment." The 
king swore that night he should not be suffered to teach any longer, 
and the divine had to make an apology.^ Or how *'Mr James 
Melvill, teaching in the Great Kirk upon the 5th Psalm, discoursed 
upon madmen that refiised the right way of standing, beginning at 
James V. ;" or how Michael Cranstoun, in the Great Kirk, upon the 
12th Psalm, ''inveighed against the king, lords, and all estaits," in 
fact, according to the Scottish saying, "swore at large."' These 
Eliminations were all th^ more inexpedient and uncalled for, as at 
the time the king was evidently doing his best to keep in favour 
with the Presbyterians, whatever ulterior designs he might have 
cherished against them. On the birth of a prince, James's first-bom, 
they turned for the moment to a more agreeable theme ; a public 
thanksgiving was held in St Giles,' and Mr Balcanquhal in his 
sermon, '^ amang manie other speeches he had, said he was assured 
that the ministers and godlie in the realme were more joy full of 
these good news nor false flatterers that sought themselves onhe, 
and means to gett silkin shankes and gold buttons." 

The contest of the king and the ecclesiastics grew sharper as time 

1 Caldenvood, voL v. p. 191. « Ibid,, p. 238. » Ibid., p. 293. 



THE KING TRItlMPHANT. 185 

went on, and it must be confessed the provocations the latter gave 
were extremely great. The strife came to a head in a tumult which, 
like many others then and afterwards, took place in St Giles. It 
gave the death-blow to Presbytery for the time. Many accounts of 
the uproar have come down to us, both from the Presbyterian and 
the Episcopalian side;^ all of them more or less graphic. The 
tumult took place on the 17th December 1596. On that day, before 
the ordinary time of the week-day preaching, a number of those 
interested in the business of the church were considering the state 
of affairs. There was evidently much excitement, and rumours 
regarding a bloody persecution were circulated, and it was said that 
the great popish Earl Huntly had been the night previous at 
Holyrood with the king. It was Mr Balcanquhal's turn to preach 
in the Great Kirk, and he went to the pulpit evidently under much 
excitement. After a very vehement discourse, he at the close 
"declared that there was something fallen out by the expectation 
of the ministerie tending to the hurt of religion, and, therefore, the 
brethren of the ministrie of that toune should conveen themselves 
presentlie in the Little Kirk, where he doubted not but noble men, 
barons, and other ministers well affected, would also meet to give 
their best advice and concurrence in such a good cause."* 

The Little Church was crowded to the door. " An exhortation 
was maid by Mr Robert Bruce declairing to the people the 
danger quhairin the kirk and religion stood by the return of 
the papist lords, and thairupon desirit sich as wAre convenit 
there to hald up thair hands and avow the defence of the kirk 
and religion against all whomsoever."* A deputation was appointed 
to wait on the king, who was in the over-house of the Tolbooth, 
in the west end of the church, holding a meeting. The deputa- 
tion broke in upon his majesty, followed by the crowd. The king 
entered into conference with them, and some words passed not 

^ Calderwood, vol. v. p. 510; Spottiswood, p. 429; Moysie, p. 130; Burden of Isachar; 
Birrers Diary. The latter I think the best account. 

■ Row, p. 184. * Moysie Memoirs, 



186 THE KING TRIUMPHANT. 

of a very courtly character. More people pressed into the room, 
and the king getting alarmed retreated to the Lower Tolbooth, 
where the judges were sitting. The deputation returned to the 
Little Kirk with their report, where, during their absence, the 
minister of Cramond had been reading to the congregation the 
suggestive story of Haman and Mordecai. At this moment a 
person at the church door, called by Calderwood a messenger 
of Satan, cried out *'Save yourselves!" A terrible panic and 
confusion arose. "Some ran one way and some another; some 
thinking the king was taken, ran to the Tolbooth ; some thinking 
that some of the ministrie were slain, ran to the kirk. In this 
hurlie burlie two or three came to the Tolbooth doors, and called that 
certain persons should be delivered to them.'' The church echoed 
with the cries, "To arms! To arms!" "The sword of the Lord and 
of Gideon ! "^ "God and the Kirke !" 

"Yair wes ane honest man," says a contemporary writer, "qua 
wes deiken of deikens, his name wes Johne Watt, smythe. This 
John raisit the hail craft in armis, and came to the Tolbooth 
quher the entre is to the cheker hous, and yair cried for a 
sight of his majestic or ellis he suld ding the yet up w^ foir 
hammers, sua that never ane in the Tolbooth sould come out 
wi yair life. At length hes majestic looket over the window and 
spak to the commonis, quha offerit to live or die with him. Sua 
hes majestic cam down and wes convoyit be the craftismen to the 
Abbey of Holyruidhouse,"^ where, "after he had taken a drink," 
he grew calm. Next morning the king and court left the city for 
Linlithgow, and a proclamation was issued ordering the ministers of 
justice to quit the town also. Dire rumours w^ere in circulation as 
to what was to be done to the town for its misdemeanour. It was 
to be razed to the ground, sown with salt, and a pillar set up to 
mark where it stood ! The ministers were ordered to be arrested. 
Their houses were seized and made the property of the crown; 
" Mr Robert Bruce, Mr Balcanquhal, Mr William Watson, and Mr 

^ Birrel*8 Diary. 



THE KING TRIUMPHANT. 187 

James Balfour, being charged to compeir before his majesty in 
council." This they failed to do. They sought safety '*in secret 
places which the Lord prepared ; "^ on Sunday the churches were 
silent. A writer of the time says, " Upon the Sabbath day efter 
nae preiching in Ed\ nather be foimoon nor afternoon ; the lyke hes 
not been sein befoir."* 

The king after a few days' absence returned in triumph to 
Edinburgh; armed men lined the street. The magistrates met 
him, and on bended knee protested their innocence, and promised 
to consult him in future as to the appointment of ministers. His 
majesty then came to " the Great Kirk, where Mr David Lyndesay 
preached a sermon, and thereafter the king declared to the people 
that he meant no alteration of religion, but to establish the same." 
In a very short time what he meant by these words became 
sufficiently clear. 

Before resuming our story, we may quote here a description of the 
state of St Giles at this period from a Boman Catholic writer, 
which gives certainly a striking, though perhaps an overdrawn 
account of its interior. It is by a Scotchman, Father Alexander 
Baillie, of the order of St Benedict.* After depicting with natural 
horror the state of Holyrood Abbey, and the once royal, brave, and 
gorgeous church of Aberbrothock, he says, *' Bot leaving it thus 
wasted and deplored, I will turn me, and take a view of St Giles. 
If our Saviour Jesus Christ, when he came into the temple of 
Jerusalem, did cast out al those who were buying and selling in it, 
and so heavily complained against them that he said, * It is written 
my house sal be called a house of prayer, but yee have made it a 
den of theives.' Now, I pray you, what wold he say if he were now 
entering St Giles, and looking to bare walls and pillars al cled with 
dust sweepings and cobwebs instead of painting and tapestrie, and 
on every side beholding the restless resorting of people, treating 

* Calderwood, vol. v. p. 621. ■ Biirel's Diary. 

s Quoted by Dr Laing in his introduction to Charters of St Giles. I take it that the 
description applies to this time, as the interior of the church was shortly after altered from 
what he describes it. Baillie lived in 1628. 



188 THE KING TRIUMPHANT. 

of their worldly affairs; some writing and making obligations, 
contracts, and discharges; others laying countes, or telling over 
soumes of money ; and two and two walking and talking to and fro, 
some about merchandise or the lawes, and too many alass about 
drinking and courting of women, yea, and perhaps about worse than 
I can imagine, as is wont to be done al the day long in the common 
exchanges of London and Amsterdam, and other great cities ; and 
turning him further towards the west end of the church, which is 
divided in a high house for the College of Justice, called the 
session or senat-house, and a low house called the low Tolbooth, 
where the baillies of the toune used to sit and judge common actions 
and pleas in the one end thereof, and a number of harlots and scolds 
for flyting and whoredom inclosed in the other ; * and there I ween 
if our Saviour were present to behold such abominable desolation, 
that where altars were erected, and sacrifices with continual praises 
and praiers were wont to be offered up to the Lord in remembrance 
of that bloody sacrifice of Christ on the crosse, there now are holes 
for whores, and cages for scolds . . . how heavily wold he 
complain that they have made his house not only a denne of 
thieves, but a dungeon of devills ; and would weep upon Edinburgh 
as he did on Jerusalem." 

This is a sad description, making all allowance for the religious 
bias of the narrator. There is sufficient indication, however, from 
the records of the town and other sources, to show that the building 
was filthy and ill-kept, and that nothing more was done for it 
beyond keeping it in decent repair. This was called " decoring the 
kirk." 

We close this chapter by relating an incident which seems to 
us of a humorous character, but which illustrates the feeling of the 
time when great stress was laid on portents and warnings as of a 
supernatural character. It is entitled " Mr J. Davidsone's observa- 
tion of God's speciale providence," and relates to his experiences 
in the Great Kirk : " Upon Moonday, the 1st of Julie, Mr J. 

1 The ** Priesta' Chamber " vas a prison for such persons. 



THE KING TRIUMPHANT. 189 

Davidsone being in the kirke, at the preaching, he seeth coining in 
at the West Kirk doore George Dawsone of Leith, skipper of the 
shippe called The Grace of God, wherin he faired when he went out 
of Scotland that tyme nynteen yeere or a little before. That sight 
brought to his minde their safe deliverie from shipwracke which 
they were like to suffer upon the coasts of Flanders. Whill he was 
musing on this mater another skipper of Leith, George Peddie, 
came in at the other doore within his sight ; a grave pathetic man, 
in whose shippe first (called The Angd) he embarked, and after a 
day and night's sailing, by contrarie wind was brought backe again 
to Leith, and stayed fourteen dayes upon the other shippe called 
The Grace of God, and gott greater support and provision for his 
voyage than he had got before. He was much moved and greatlie 
comforted by this sight; and others also to whom he discoursed 
upon this providence. No doubt the Lord did animat his servant 
that he sold not be afirayed for the speeches he had uttered so 
freelie the week before." 

Mr Davidson came from Liberton to Edinburgh. He seems to 
have escaped many of the troubles that overtook his brethren, and 
finally left in peace for the Canongate. The curious vision of the 
two sailors that he had while preaching in St Giles, appears to 
have been a happy augury of his future. 




CHAPTER XX 

tfpfefopacs— 1596-1625. 

Auld Orthodoxy lang did grapple, 
But now she 'a got an nnco ripple ; 
Haste, gie her name np i* the chapel. 

Nigh nnto death. 
See how she fetches at the thrapple. 

An* gasps for breath. 

Burns. 

^^N the 25th February 1598 there took place an 
eclipse of the sun, which was regarded as an evil 
omen by many of the devout people of Scotland, 
who trembled as they thought of what it might 
portend. St Giles was filled with people who, 
believing the last day had arrived, ran thither to pray.^ Nothing 
can be more graphic than the description that has come down to us 
in the pages of a contemporary historian, and his conclusion as to 
what the eclipse portended was quite in keeping with the dread he 
and others entertained that steps were being taken for bringing 
Episcopacy again into Scotland.^ 

** Upon Saturday, the 25th of Februar, betwixt nyne and tenne 
houres before noon, beganne a fearful eclipse which continued about 
two houres. The whole face of the sunne seemed to be covered 
and darkened about half a quarter of an houre, in such measure that 
none could see to reade in a booke. The starres appeared in the 
firmament. Sea, land, and aire was still and strucken dead as it 
were. The ravens and fowles flocking together mourned exceidinglie 

* BirrePs Diary, p. 45. ' Calderwood, vol. v. p. 681. 



EPISCOPACY. 191 

in their kinde. Great multitudes of paddockes ranne together 
making an uncouth and hideous noise; men and women were 
astonished as if the day of judgment had being coming. Some 
women swooned. The streets of Edynburgh were full of cryes. 
Some ranne off the streets to the kirke to pray. The like fearfuU 
darknesse was never scene in this land so far as we can read in our 
histories or understand by tradition. The wise and godliest thought 
it verie prodigious, so that from pulpit and by writt admonitions 
were given by the ministers that the changeable and glistering shew 
of the world goe not in betwixt them and Christ, the Sunne of 
Righteousness, and remove the clear light of the gospell from the 
kirk, and indeid if the estait of Bischops which was then in hatching 
continue long it will not faile to bring on darkness and ignorance, 
atheisme, and poperie. The like fearfull eclipse of the sunne and 
appearance of fallin starres from heaven was seen in France, when 
men of greatest estimation were intised by flatterie and gifts to 
agree upon a middle betwixt Papists and Protestants, which had 
been effectuald if God had not cutt them off in a strange manner." 

The "hatching of the new estait of Bischops," to which the 
chronicler refers as portended by the eclipse, began very cautiously 
after the banishment of the four ministers of St Giles, though it is 
not diflScult to see that the king in every step he took was keeping 
in view the establishment of his favourite form of church government. 
In the roister of the Privy Council these notices occur, which show 
how determined his majesty was never again to allow the ministers 
of St Giles to get the upper hand. 

*' In respect of the facility afforded to the ministers of Edinburgh 
by their Uving together within the circuit of ane clois, for making 
convocations and conspiracies, it is ordained that they shall not hve 
together in a close in future, but in separate houses, the king to 
possess the houses of the close lately occupied by them. 

" The king declared to have the power to command ministers to 
preach or desist from preaching whenever he shall think fit."^ 

^ Begister of Privy Ck>micil, vol. v. p. 357. 
2A 



192 EPISCOPACY, 

In order further to separate the ministers from one another, and 
to guard against their convocations and conspiracies, the king 
resolved to divide Edinburgh into parishes, and to allot the 
ministers separate churches and parochial districts. Up to this 
time they had preached in the same building according to any 
arrangement they thought fit to make among themselves ; now they 
were to be confined to separate and distinct spheres of duty. Steps 
had been taken by the town and by the church courts several years 
before to have this done, but the ministers apparently preferred the 
old way, and the intentions of the town-council do not seem to have 
been carried into effect.^ The king now took the matter in hand, 
and it seems to have been accomplished.* The town was divided into 
four quarters or parishes. The people of the north-east quarter were 
to attend Trinity College Kirk, Those of the south-east were to 
go to the Great Kirk. Those of the south-west to the Upper 
Tolbooth ; and those of the north-west to the East or Little Kirk. 
Three congregations thus occupied St Giles, quite separate and 
distinct charges, and the parishioners were ordered to attend their 
own places of worship, and the ministers to confine themselves to 
their own parishes. The arrangement was completed early in 1598. 
On the same day as that on which the eclipse took place, "the 
king being in the Grate Kirke of Edinburghe at the sermon, Mr 
Patrick Galloway red out ane tikit the forme or manner of the 
devisione of the four kirkes of Edinburgh, ane quarter of the toune 
to everie kirke;" and "on the 18th April, Edinburgh was devydit 
in four quarters to be foure parochines."* 

Having now fortified himself by various provisions and enactments 
against his "spiritual enemies'* the ministers, the king thought 
himself secure enough to allow them to return. After various 
conferences with them at Holyrood, in which he tried to make them 
confess themselves in error, he at length, on the supplication of a 
commission of Assembly, consented "that they sould continue in 

' Burgh Records, October 14, 1584 ; Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland, 
> Calderwood, voL v. p. 713 ; Introduction to Lalng's Charters of St Giles. 
■ Birrers Diary, p. 46. 



EPISCOPACY. 193 

their general ministrie in Edinburgh as before, till the divisioun in 
quarters, and colleagues to fill the places might be had/' ^ After 
some little delay they were appointed to their different quarters, 
with two additional ministers. Mr Balcanquhal and Mr Robertson 
to the College Kirk ; Mr Watson and Mr John Hall to the Great 
Kirk; Mr Robert Rollock and Mr Peter Stewart to the Upper 
Tolbooth ; and Mr Robert Bruce and Mr James Balfour to the 
East or Little Kirk.* 

Their relations with the king do not appear to have become any 
sweeter, and he seems to have taken a violent prejudice especially 
against Mr Bruce. One thing, however, is evident, that the king had 
so thoroughly entrenched himself behind acts of parliament and acts 
of Assembly in his favour, that he felt quite secure. The ministers 
were several times brought before the council and warned to be 
careful.' At length an open rupture took place after the Gowrie 
conspiracy. The ministers were ordered to give thanks for the 
king's delivery. They refused, and five of them were banished from 
Edinburgh, and prohibited from preaching anywhere in Scotland. 
Four afterwards publicly professed belief in the reality of the 
conspiracy, and were restored to their churches. Robert Bruce, 
however, remained obstinate, resolved that " nothing should be able 
to stain the glory of his ministrie." His friends in vain endeavoured 
to procure a remission of his sentence, and after residing in remote 
parts of the country, he retired to France, where he lived several 
years, and though permitted subsequently to return to Scotland, 
he was never allowed to resume his ministerial work in Edinburgh/ 
He was an able man, a powerful preacher, and in his day the 
most popular minister in Scotland. 

' Calderwood, voL v. p. 654. 

^ Ibid, J p. 718. A curious episode took place in connection with the Battlement of Mr 
Brace. He had never been ordained by the imposition of hands. The king insisted this should 
be done. Bruce refused if it implied his former ministry unlawful. He consented at last under 
protest. 

' Calderwood, toIb. ▼. and vi These interviews between the king and the ministers are 
given at length. 

^ Narrative of Mr Brace's troubles by himself in Bannatyne's Miscellany, vol. L p. 163. 



194 EPISCOPACT. 

On 3d April 1603 the king came to St Giles for the last time 
for some years to come. It was a great occasion, for he had just 
succeeded to the English throne, and was about to take his departure 
for London. He was accompanied by several English noblemen 
and other persons of distinction. Mr Hall preached the sermon 
in the Great Kirk, and made some pleasing remarks suitable to the 
occasion. After he was done, the king rose in his seat and made 
^' ane orisone or harrang to the pepill." It is too lengthy to quote 
here. '*He maid guid promises," says an auditor, "as namelie, the 
defending of the faithe, and yat he sould come and visit his peipill 
and guide subjects in Scotland everie three yeirs." ^ " There is no 
difference," said the royal orator, '* betwixt Londoun and Edinburgh ; 
yea, not so muche as betwixt Inverness or Aberdeen and Edinburgh, 
for aU our merches are dry, and there be no ferries between them. 
But my course must be betwixt both to establish peace and religion 
and wealth betwixt the countries. And as God has joynit the 
right of both the kingdoms in my person, so you may be joined in 
wealth, in religion, in hearts, and affections. . • • I have no more 
to say, but pray for me." 

Shortly after the king's departure, the queen, who had not been 
able to accompany him, and the young Prince Henry, came also 
in state to the church "ryding in a coache, and accompanied with 
manie English ladies in coaches, and some ryding on fair horses, 
the queen in her awin coach which cam with her owt of Denmark." 
Great was the confluence of people flocking to see the prince.' 
"They hard ane guide sermone in the kirke, and thairafter raid 
hame to Holyrud-house." * 

It is away from the purpose of this narrative to enter into details 
regarding the measures employed by the crown, which resulted in 
the final establishment of Episcopacy. This result was achieved 
by a combination of coercion, corruption, and intrigue, more credit- 
able to the king's determination than to his honesty. We can 
only note the effect of this change on the subject of our story. The 

» Binel's Diary, p. 58. * Calderwood, voL v, p. 231. ■ BirreL 



EPISCOPACY. 195 

bishops are mentioned frequently in connection with St Giles. In 
1609 it was ordered by the king that the church was always to be 
open to them, and they were given the right to occupy any of its 
pulpits when they were disposed to preach. 

*'In the beginning of November a letter was sent from court 
to the counsell and ministrie of Edinburgh, declaring his majestie's 
will that their pulpits be patent to all the bishops that were to 

be in toun or were desirous to teache Sindrie of the bishops 

were providing for their winter residence in Edinburgh. Manie 
meanes were used by the king to bring his bishops in credit and 
estimatioun.*^ 

Their lordships seem to have availed themselves largely of the 
privilege granted them, and frequently made their appearance in the 
pulpit.* We read also of a *' Bishops' Loft *' being provided in the 
church for their accommodation.* About this time also they put 
on " their new clothes," garments designed and prescribed for them 
by their royal master, and when they " came doun from the chan- 
cellor's lodging, with their robs, to the Tolbuith, with tippets and 
craips about their craigs," the people flocked together to behold 
them. They were a wonderful spectacle in what the people 
deemed the king's livery. 

King James did not keep the promise he made in the Great Kirk 
on his accession to the English throne, to visit Scotland every three 
years. It was not till 1617 that he returned to his northern 
dominions. He entered Edinburgh with great pomp and pageantry. 
" He was convoyed first to the Great Kirk, where the Bishop of St 
Andrews had a flattering sermon upon the 2l8t Psalm, and thanked 
God for his prosperous journey." There are items in the accounts 
of the treasurer of the burgh which show that a good deal was 
done to prepare the church for him. 

*'The compts of expensis debursit in reforming of the king's 
majesties loft, the pulpit, doune taking the Bischopis Loft, the Lords 
of Sessioun entre, and the trap, and reforming the haill entre of 

^ Calderwood, voL vii p. 52. ' IbuL * Town TreaAurer's Aocounts. 



196 EPISCOPACT. 

the auld kirk for his majestys coming to his loft. To Janet Cuir for 
aucht scheittis of floweris to the kirk the day of his majesty's entrie.** 

His majesty forbore on this occasion to give a harangue to the 
people ; probably his sojourn in England had taught him to have 
greater respect for the proprieties. He seems, however, to have 
been as ready as before to enter into disputation with the ministers, 
so that many of them were sorely troubled, and although his 
arguments may have been weak, he was always able to supplement 
them by falling back upon his royal supremacy in all causes, 
spiritual and temporal. He appears on the whole to have had a 
pleasant time during his visit. His chapel at Holyrood was 
internally refitted, and service conducted there according to the 
English form, with "playing of organs, and singing of men and 
boys." A banqueting-house was also erected at the back of St 
Giles, where the king was sumptuously entertained, and where 
sundry knights and gentlemen of good note were made burgesses. 
It was an extremely festive gathering. "They danced about the 
Cross with sound of trumpets and other instruments ; throwed 
glasses of wine from the Cross upon the people standing about, 
and endit with the king's scoll." ^ 

Many of his Scottish subjects were at this time in anything but 
a festive mood, and some of those even who had for peace's sake 
conformed to episcopal government were filled with alarm at the 
changes proposed by what were called the Articles of Perth. " Mr 
Andro Ramsay, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, declaimed 
publicly in the Great Kirk against the innovations which were 
like to be brought in, and used seven or eight reasons against 
them;"^ but Mr Ramsay, along with many others of similar 
opinion, had to give way in his opposition, or he would have 
experienced very rough treatment. Ministers were frequently 
banished from their parishes, and many were imprisoned. It 
was a serious thing to oppose the authorities, and some, like 
Mr Ramsay, swallowed the pill, however bitter it may have 

1 Calderwood, voL viL p. 267. ■ Ibid., p. 280. 



EPISCOPACY. 197 

tasted. The people of Edinburgh were not so complaisant, though 
many of them found to their cost that the strong arm of the law 
could reach them as well as their ministers. 

"A little before Christmas (1618), letters were sent to the king 
from the ministers and Presbyterie of Edinburgh, wherein he assured 
himself that they wold, according to the acts of the Assembly, 
preach upon Christ's nativitie upon Yule day. All the ministers 
of Edinburgh, except Mr John Hall, consented ; but it was thought 
sufficient that there should be preaching onlie in two kirks, becaus 

they doubted of the conveening of the people The Great 

Kirk was not halfe filled, notwithstanding the provost, baillies, and 

counsels travells The dogges were playing in the midst 

of the flure of the Great Kirk for rairitie of people, and these were 
of the meanest sort." ^ 

The citizens opened their booths under the shadow of St Giles 
while preaching was going on, and many of them walked in front 
of them persuading the people not to go inside. When E^ter 
approached, " the king sent doun a command to the officers of estate, 
the lords of secrete counsell and sessione, and the advocats^ to take 
the communion in the Great Kirk of Edinburgh, kneeling, upon 
Easter day nixt to come, under paiqe of the loss of their office. He 
sent a conmiand likeweys to the magistrats of Edinburgh to com- 
municate kneeling." * How the royal injunction was kept is told us 
in a letter of Lord Binning to the king himself.* He tells how some 
of the high officials came, and how others absented themselves on the 
ground of sickness; that the '' noblemen, councellours, and sessioneis, 
went to the first table all upon their knees. Maisters Gralloway 
and Eamsay did first receive kneeling, and thairefter ministered to 
the honourable persons being at the table. Neither man nor woman 
during the space of four houres ofiered to receive, sitting upon the 
furmes, except onlie one base fellow." * We have another accoimt 

1 Calderwood, vol. viL p. 341. * Ibid., p. 355. 

' Original Letters, Bannatyne Club, p. 09. 

* He was a skinner, called Meiklejohn, and was " warded " for his sitting, in Dankeld 
(Bannatyne's MisceUany, p. 211). 



198 EPISCOPACY, 

of this service besides that transmitted to the king, which is probably 
nearer the truth. " The inhabitants of the toun went out at the 
ports in hundreds and thousands to the next adjacent kirks ; cold 
and graceless were the communions, and few were the communicants. 
The provost absented himself, resolved not to communicate kneel- 
ing." Many of the elders refused to officiate, and as it has been said, 
the '* people ate their passover with bitter herbs." ^ There was no 
relaxation of the severity of the law, and the Articles of Perth, so 
obnoxious to the people generally, were ratified by act of parliament. 
On 21st August 1621 they were read at the Cross amid a storm 
of rain, thunder, and lightning, and at the close of the ceremony 
of proclamation a solemn protest against them was affixed by a 
faithful Presbyterian to the church door of St Giles, " in the name 
of the brethren professing the religion as it hath bene practiced in 
our kirk since the reformation of the same."^ 

At Easter, in the following year, the communion was observed 
under circumstances similar to those that had marked its adminis- 
tration before. An occurrence took place which the devout regarded 
as equally ominous with the storm which is said to have accompanied 
the proclamation of the " Black Acts." " All the actual ministers 
were in the Great Kirk, or in the College Eark, helping to give the 
elements to each one out of their awin hands ; also, all were desyred 
to kneel in the act of receiving the elements. Mr Patrick Galloway 
having kneeled and prayed (I should say, having read the prayer 
of consecration wherein there is not one word of Lord blesse the 
elements or action), the cupps being standing full of wine upon the 
table, he preassing to rise off his knees, taking a grip of the table 
to help himself up, it not being surely fixed, he drawes over the 
table, spills all the wine in the cups upon the table cloth; so that 
they were forced, after they had sett up the overturned table, to get 
clean cloths and fill the cups againe with new wine." " 

The strife regarding kneeling at communion and keeping of the 

* Cunningham's Chvreh History, vol. ii * IhicL 

' Row, p. 331. See a cnrious account of this communion in Calderwood, vol. viL p. 540. 



KPISCOPAOY. 199 

festivals went on briskly for a time, accompanied by severe perse- 
cution, and then there was a brief period of quietness. At the 
approach of Easter (1625) the king commanded again that all 
ministers should give the communion kneeUng, and any minister 
who should not do so was to be immediately deposed. This 
"fearful storme of persecution arysing like a black cloud," says 
Row, "was dissipiat and the evil prevented by the Lord's 
providence." The providential interference to which this loyal 
subject alludes was the death of the king on 27th March 1625. 
" The Lord," piously says Calderwood, " removed him out of the 
way." Nevertheless the ministers on the following Sunday dutifully 
recounted all the king's virtues from the pulpit, and we learn from 
contemporary annals that "his majesties seat in the grate church 
of St Geilles at Edinbrughe was coured with blacke." * 

A few years before this, several changes took place in the fabric of 
the church, consequent chiefly on the division of the town into 
quarters or parishes. The western part, which had been occupied 
as the Tolbooth, was allotted, as we have seen, to the parishioners of 
one of the quarters, and had to be put in order and fitted up as 
a place of worship ; this was ordered to be done, as we learn from 
the town records, on 19th July 1598. 

" The same day it is fund expedient and ordanet that the parpall 
wall wes standand betwixt the grett kirk of this bureh and the 
Tolbiuth, be tayne doun and re-edifyet upon the eist syde of the 
pillars, nixt adjacent thereto, and concludds that the present lofting 
sail stand ane jeisting and lofting prepayret fer swa mekill as sail 
be augmentit, and this to be done with all expedition." 

The East or Little Kirk was also found too small for the 
parishioners allotted to it, and Mr Bruce, who was one of the 
ministers, desired earnestly that it should be enlarged. The king, 
who, as already mentioned, regarded Mr Bruce with anything but 
friendship, interfered to prevent this being done. There was a good 
deal of contention regarding the matter, but on the 1st August 1599 

^ Balfoar*8 Annals, toI. iL p. 116. 
2B 



200 



EPISCOPACY. 



the king, " at the suit of Niniane Morhame, merchant, and George 
Heriot, goldsmith, burgesses and commissioners for the burgh of 
Edinburgh, authorises the provost, baillies, and council of the said 
burgh to demoliche the wall biggit between the eist kirk and the 
mid kirk of Sanct Gellis, and to tak in ane piller of the said mid 
kirk, and adjoyne the same to the east kirk, that it may be mair 
able to hald the haill parochynaris of that quarter." ^ 

We learn from Calderwood that this alteration was carried out 
about the beginning of April 1600.* At this time the steeple 
seems to have been employed as a common prison for offenders 
against morals, the " priests' chamber " having probably proved too 
small. The prisoners appear to have wandered in the dark space 
above the vaulting of the aisles and to have injured the roof, 
probably attempting to escape. In the burgh records we find 
this entry : 

''August 10, 1599. — Ruf of Kirk. The quhilk day Alexander Lord 
Fyvie, present provest of this burgh, John Moresoun, William 
Hamilton, James Forman, baillies, the dene of gild, and maist part 
of counsil, being convenet, understanding that the sclattis an rwiff 
of the kirk hes bene greatly damnegyed be the fomicatoris and 
criminall persouns wardit in the steipill, thairfore they dischairge 
the placeing and resaving of any fomicatoris or criminall persouns in 
the said stepill in tyme coming." 

^ Register of Privy Council, vol. vl ^ > Calderwood, vol. vi. p. 27. 




View of St Gilea 
(From Survey of Edinburgh, by James Gordon, 1647.) 



CHAPTEK XXL 
CJe *erb(fr-4ooi— 1625-1637. 



Hark ! hark ! what mde disoonlant Bounds, 
A jail hroke loose 1 a pack of hounds ! 
No, 'tifi a hishop, dean, and bawling boys. 

PiNDAB, 




]ITH the death of King James VI. ecclesiastical 
affairs in Scotland became, for the time, more 
peaceful. There was a cessation of persecution, 
and the "Articles of Perth," to which such objection 
^^^^ had been taken, were pressed no longer with the same 
severity upon the ministers and people to whom they were offensive. 
The communion was given either kneeling or sitting as people 
preferred, and on the Easter Sunday of 1627, when the rite was 
administered in the Great Kirk, " there were not above six or seven 
persons in the town that kneeled, also some of the ministers kneeled 
not."^ Had Charles L been a wise man Episcopacy might have 
been still the established religion of Scotland. If the measures by 
which it had been introduced were discreditable, those measures had 
succeeded ; the bulk of the people had given in their acquiescence, 
and a generation had grown up under that form of church 
government, who in the natural course of things would have come 
to regard it without prejudice. The folly of the king and his 
advisers pulled down suddenly the fabric which it had taken so 
much pains to build up. 

> Row, p. 34a 



202 THE SERVICE-BOOK. 

Before Easter (1628) there was an endeavour to make an 
arrangement to have the communion given in the old Scottish 
fashion, and the ministers of Edinburgh seem to have desired to do 
so "in what they termed the *good old manner without kneeling.'"^ 
They wrote to the king direct to ask his permission, and his majesty 
deigned no reply, but sent a letter to their bishop, which showed he 
was as determined as ever his father had been to insist upon the 
observance of the new ritual. He expresses himself as offended 
with the ministers, and concludes with ordering the bishop to mete 
out to them condign punishment. " Our special pleasure is that ye 
conveen those persons before you, and having tryed the truth of this 
business and chief authors thereof, that ye inflict such condigne 
punishment as may by this example make others forbear to doe the 
like hereafter." ^ 

A letter from the king to the Earl of Menteith,' written at 
the same time, shows us how determined he was to pursue 
the same policy as his father. His majesty informs the earl that 
he had ordered the ministers of Edinburgh, who had deferred 
the administration of the Holy Sacrament on account of the 
turbulent disposition of certain persons now in their congregations, 
now to administer it for the benefit of the obedient ; that he had 
ordered the magistrates to bring obedience among the people to 
their pastors, and the Lords of Session for an example to the people 
to communicate with them in the church of St Giles, and he asks 
the earl in particular to be present and to countenance that holy 
action. In this letter we have a fair example of that spirit with 
which the king entered upon his duties as sovereign, and which was 
in time to produce dire results. The communion does not, however, 
appear to have been administered in Edinburgh in the year he 
ordered it, nor for some time afterwards.* 

In 1633 King Charles came to Scotland, and was crowned at 
Holyrood on the 18th June. On the 23d of that month he came to 

1 Row, p. 345. " Ibid,y p. 346. 

s Whitehall, 27th November 1628 ; Historical MSS. Commission's Third Report, p. 401. 

* Row. 



THE SERVICE-BOOK. 203 

St Giles to hear sermon. He seems to have come without warning, 
for the reader was engaged in reading the Scriptures and common 
prayers before sermon when the king entered. What happened may 
be told best in the words of a writer of the day who describes the 
scene.* 

" On Sabbath, June 23, the king came to the Great Kirke of 
Edinburgh to heare sermon, and after he was sett down in his awin 
place, the ordinare reader being reading the Word and singing 
psalms {as the ordinare custome then was) before sermon, Mr John 
Maxwell, minister of Edinburgh, but now Bishop of Rosse, came 
doun from the King's Loft, caused the reader remove from his place, 
sett doune there two Inglishe chaplains, clad with surplices, and 
they with the help of other chaplains and bishops there present 
acted their Inglish service. That being ended, in came Mr John 
Guthrie, Bishop of Moray, clad also with a surplice, went up so to 
pulpit and taught a sermon. " After sermon there was a banquet 
where the king was entertained by the town. The festivities were 
riotous, and the "voyse of men, musicall instruments, trumpets, 
playing, singing, also shooting of cannons, was so great that no 
sermon was had in the afternoon, either in the Great Kirk or Lesser 
KirkofStGeiUs." 

The bishop's " graithe " seems to have caused greater wonderment 
among the people even than his sermon, and in another history than 
that we have just quoted, it is fully described for the benefit of the 
unlearned in ecclesiastical millinery. 

*'The king maid John, Bishop of Moray, teach in his rochet, 
which is a white linen or lawn drawn on above his coat, above 
the whilk his black gown was put on and his arms through the 
gown sleeves, and above the gown sleeves is also white linen or 
lawn drawn on shapen like a sleeve. This is the weed of 
archbishops and bishops that wears no surplice, but churchmen of 
inferior degree in time of service wears the samen, which is above 
their cloathes, a side linen cloth over his body and arms like a sack. 

^ Row, p. 363. 



204 THE SERVICE-BOOK. 

" The people of Edinburgh, seeing the bishop teach in his rochet, 
which was never seen in St Giles kirk since the Reformation, and 
by him who was some time one of thair ain Puritan ministers, they 
were grieved and grudged thereat, thinking the samen smelled of 
popery."^ 

Whether this impression on their part was correct or not, they 
were certainly soon made to feel that greater changes than they had 
yet witnessed were impending. 

On the 29th September, the king by a royal charter, on the 
petition of the Archbishop of St Andrews, erected Edinburgh into 
a bishopric. The charter is a long and verbose one,* and is written 
in Latin. It defines the bounds of the new diocese and sets apart 
the revenues of Holyrood Abbey, and New Abbey in Kirkcudbright, 
for the support of the new bishop. It appointed St Giles as the 
cathedral of the new diocese. " We erect," it said, " the church of 
Saint Giles (lie Saint Giles Kirk) into a cathedral church, and 
ordain the same to be the cathedral church of the said newly erected 
bishopric, and with all the liberties, privileges, and prerogatives of 
a cathedral church." The charter also appointed the principal 
minister of St Giles to be the dean, and other ministers in 
Edinburgh and the neighbourhood to be prebendaries. It also 
contains this clause : " We revolving in our mind that the said burgh 
of Edinburgh is the principal burgh of our kingdom of Scotland, 
and is therefore most fit to be the chief city of the said newly 
erected bishopric, we therefore by our royal authority, with con- 
sent of the aforesaid, erect the said our burgh of Edinburgh into a 
city." 

Edinburgh thus takes its right to the status of a city from the 
deed which raised St Giles to the rank of a cathedral. The 
bishopric, then founded by royal authority, has been long ago done 
away with as part of the ecclesiastical polity of Scotland, but both 
the church of St Giles and the town of Edinburgh have continued 

^ Spalding's History, quoted by Kirkton, p. 29. 
' I have given it at full length in the Appendix. 



THE SERVICE-BOOK. 205 

to this day to retain the dignity conferred upon them by this 
charter of King Charles.^ 

Close upon the granting of the charter came an order to the 
provost and magistrates of the city to fit up St Giles as the 
cathedral church of the new diocese. It was as follows : 

"Charles R — Trustie and weill belovit we greit you weil. 
Whereas of our Princelie Motive and Zeale for the Advancement 
and Government of the Churche of that oure Kingdome, we have, 
with the advice of the chiefest of oure clergie thairof, erected at 
our Chairges, a Bishoprick of new, to be callit the Bishoprick of 
Edinburgh, whairby none of your Privileges or liberties ar anie 
wayes to be infringed, but rather preservit and increased : And 
whereas to that purpose, it is verie expedient, that Saint Geilles 
Churche (designed by us to be the Cathedral Churche of that 
Bishoprick) be ordered, as is decent and fitt for a churche of that 
Eminencie, and according to the first intentions of the Erectors and 
Founders thairof; which was to be keiped conforme to the Lairgnes 
and Conspecuitie of the Foundation and fabrick ; and not to be 
indirectlie parcelled and disjoinit by Wallis and Partitiones, as 
now is, without anie Warrant firom anie of oure Royall Predeces- 
sores. 

'* Oure Pleasure is, that with all dilligence, you cause raze to the 
ground the East wall of the saide Churche ; and sicklyke, that you 
cause raze to the Ground the Wester wall therin, betwixt this and 
Larnbas insewing ; at or before which Tyme, we require you to cause 
finish the New Tolbooth,* to the effect it may be for the use of oure 
Churche and uther Judicatories and Commissiouns, as the tyme 
and Occasioun shall require. We bid you fairweill, from oure Courte 
at Whitehall, the 11th October 1633."' 

The magistrates proceeded at once to carry out the royal order, 

1 From this time, while the difierent parts of the building had different designationB, such aa 
the High Church, Tolbooth, the Old Kirk, &c, the whole has generally received the designation 
of St Giles or St Giles' Cathedral, retaining the architectural rank conferred upon it by the 
crown. — See Heart of Midlothian, by Sir W. Scott ; Cockbum's Memorials, &c. 

' This was in order to throw into the building the west part of the church. 

• Town Council Register, quoted in Maitland's History of Edinburgh, p. 281. 



206 THE SBRVIOE-BOOK. 

and in January 1634 the wall between the Little Kirk and the 
Great Kirk was taken down.^ The kuthorities perhaps thought 
they had done suflScient to implement the command of the king, for 
the wall between the Great Kirk and the Tolbooth seems to have 
been left standing. They were in need of funds at the time, but the 
king held over them the threat that he would exact from them a 
heavy fine, which they had incurred by importation of grain, unless 
they proceeded at once with the work. The provost stated to the 
council, 23d July 1635, "that except the counsall would undertake 
the building of two churches and the repairing of St Giles there was 
no means left to free citizens from the penal statute." * 

They accordingly found the work required of them to be 
*' necessar, pious, and religious," and endeavoured to raise the needful 
funds, first, by voluntary subscription, which was a failure, and 
afterwards by assessment, and in the next year after the above 
meeting," they ordered one of the bailies and one of the clerks of 
Edinburgh to desire James Hanna, the dean of the cathedral, to 
repair to Durham *'to take a draught of the choir of the cathedral 
church in that city, in order to fit up and beautify the inside of the 
choir of St Giles' church after the same manner." \ 

The first bishop of the new see was Dr William Forbes, who was 
appointed on the 2d January 1634,* and died on the 1st April of 
the year following. " He read his first sermon," says Row, " in the 
Great Kirk, now made more ample and greather nor ever it was since 
the reformation of religion, upon the first Sabbath of Februaire ; 
but he being sickHe and his voyce weak, albeit there were many 
hundreds convened, yet one-hundredth of many heard not his 
sermon." Dr Forbes was a man of saintly character and gentle 
disposition. He was buried in the choir of the cathedral, and a 
long inscription in verse, describing his many virtues, was placed on 

^ Row. — There caji be no doubt of this. In the town treasurer's accounts is a note of the 
expenses in re-erecting the walL 

> Findlay's Tron Kirk. » Februaiy 10, 1636. * Quoted by Maitland, p. 281. 

^ Introduction to Laing's Charters. Forbes had been previously a minister of the church 
(see Scot's Fasti), but resigned on account of ill health. His character is portrayed in Keith's 
Scottish Bishops. 



THB SBRVICE-BOOK. 207 

the monument erected to his memory.^ The poetical tribute is a 
long one, and perhaps not altogether worthy of its subject. The 
following lines may serve as a specimen: 

Holie was his lyfFe without blemiache or spott, 
As was Weill known by God's servants most dear ; 
But alaee, for pitie ! for such was his lotte, 
His dayis wes few, that he remained here. 
While he lived here a schyning light wes he ; 
Consumed himself by giving others light. 
Matchless most painful in reading and studio, 
No wayes weraing nather day nor night 

Bishop Forbes was succeeded by David Lindsay, who was 
translated from Brechin in 1634, and who had a troublous episco- 
pate. 

From the time when John Knox became minister the service in 
St Giles had been conducted, as we have seen, according to the Book 
of Common Order. There was always a *' reader " connected with 
the church. Prayers were read daily, morning and evening, from 
this liturgy, and on Sundays before sermon, after the reader's 
service was ended, the minister entered the pulpit. There was 
extempore prayer also permitted, according to the desire of the 
minister. This ritual continued during the reign of Episcopacy as 
well as that of Presbytery, with the exception of the occasion noted 
above, when the king visited the church in person, and the 
Anglican service was read. It was a bold proceeding to attempt 
the abolition of a service to which the people had been so long 
accustomed, and the consequences were of the most appalling 
character.* The idea of an English, service-book prepared in 
London for Scotland roused in opposition all the patriotic feelings 
of the people. 

On the 23d July 1637 — a memorable day in the annals of St 
Giles — the congregation met in the Mid Kirk, or what had been 

1 Maitland, p. 184. 

' The history of the new liturgy, and how it superseded John Knox's Book of Common Order ^ 
is fnUy given in the introduction to Sprott's Scottish Liturgies of James VI, 
20 



208 THE SERVICE-BOOK. 

formerly the Great Kirk. The wall between it and the East or 
Little Kirk had already been taken down, but the latter was in con- 
siderable disorder, consequent upon its being arranged for the new 
Anglican ritual; or, as a Presbyterian writer^ puts it, "the East 
Kirk being at that time repairing for the altar and other pendicles 
of that idolatrous -service." After the people were gathered, the 
reader of the church, Mr Henderson,* read the usual prayers from 
the old Scottish Book of Common Order, and when he was done 
added a few words, in which he took farewell of those present with 
tears. " Adieu, good people,'* he said, '* for I think this is the last 
tyme of my reading prayers in this place." About ten o'clock the 
Bishop of Edinburgh, with James Hanna, the dean,' entered the 
church, the latter taking his seat in the reader's desk, and the 
former proceeding to the pulpit above him.* The dean then began 
to read the new prayer-book, or, as it was generally called, the 
service-book. 

The scene that ensued has had many narrators. They differ in 
some small particulars, but they are all at one as to the great- 
ness of the tumult.* As the dean went on with the prayers 
there were openly expressed murmurs of discontent. Some of 
the expressions used have come down in the narratives, and they 
are not very savoury : " False antichristian," " beistlie bellie-god," 
''craftie fox," "ill-hanged thief," "Judas," are among them. The 
women present were among the most demonstrative, and they seem 
to have mustered in great numbers for the occasion.' The bishop 

1 See Crawford's History of the Universitt/y p. 131. 

' He had refused to read the new service-book. 

s Hanna was made dean, 13th May 1634. He was of the Hannays of Sorbie, Wigtownshire. 

* Row, p. 408. 

^ The narrative above is drawn from several authorities. The scene is described by the 
following : Wodrow in his unpublished ** Life of David Lyndsay, minister of Leith and Bishop 
of Brechin, then of Edinburgh ; " ** The large declaration concerning the late tumults in 
Scotland;** the appendix to ** Rothe's Relation** (Bannatyne Club); Memoirs of Henry 
Guthrie, Bishop of Dunkeld. See also the admirable historical sketch of The Iron Kirk, by 
the Rev. William Findlay. 

They are often called "maid-servants,** and it has been supposed that they had been sent 
to keep plckces for their masters and mistresses at the sermon that followed the prayers. 
Wodrow says they were apprentice lads dressed in women's clothea. 



THE SSBYICE-BOOK. 209 

from the pulpit, who watched the rubric to see that it was rightly 
followed; asked the audience to be calm, and allow the service to 
proceed, and turning to the dean told him to go on to the collect 
for the day.^ At this, a herbwoman, Jenny Geddes by name, 
who had a market-stall near where the Tron Kirk now stands, 
started up in wrath, and catching the word "collect" which the 
bishop had used, shouted aloud, '* Deil colic the wame of thee ; out, 
thou false thief 1 dost thou say mass at my lug?" and snatching 
up the stool on which she sat, hurled it at his head,* " intending 
to have given him a ticket of remembrance, but jouking became his 
safeguard at that time." Others followed this woman's example. 

^ The seventh Sunday after Trinity. 

' The earliest notice of the famous kail- wife is found in the MS. coUeotiouB of Sir Jamea 
Balfour of Denmiln, printed in Maidment*s Scottish PcuquiU, thus : 

From papill, pastor, tutor, flocko. 
From Gutter Jennie, pulpit Jooke, 
Trom all tudh hesd-oontroUing tayllei. 
And from small barkes with too big sayllea ; 
From him that Jesus' name defaoes, 
And violate all holy plaoes ; 

And all mad masters of Oithamn, 

Ahnighty God deliver us. 

" Gutter Jennie," in the opinion of Maidment, was ** Jenny Geddes." She was a " kaile-wife," 
and with her stall occupied the gutter of the street in the neighbourhood of the Tron. In 1661 
she is mentioned as follows by Sydserf : " Amongst all our bontadoes and caprices, that of the 
immortal Jenet Geddes, princess of the Trone adventurers, waa most pleasant ; for she was not 
only content to aasemble her creels, basquets, creepies, &c, and all other sorts of pot 
merchandise that belongs to the garden, but even her leather chair of state, where she used 
to dispense justice to her lankale vassals, were all orderly burned." This extract shows that 
Jenny Geddes was a conspicuous character, and "immortal" evidently on account of some 
famous exploit. The clearest evidence on the subject is found in Phillipe' Cantinuaiion of 
Baker*s Ckroitiekle, published in 1660, in which the "great uproar made by those of the 
mecmer sort" is described. " One of them, called Jane or Janot Gaddis {yet living at the time 
of this relation), flung a little folding-stool wheron she sat, at the dean*s head, saying, 'Out, 
thou false thief, dost thou say mass at my lug?' &c." This seems conclusive testimony. In 
addition to this, in a very old ballad, Jenny's name occurs : 

Put the gown upon the bishop. 
That's his miller's due o* knaveship ; 
Jenny Geddes was the gossip 
Put the gown upon the bishop. 

In a tract published in 1651, ** A Narration of the most Material Parliamentary Proceedings 
of this present Parliament," there is a woodcut depicting the riot : stools are flying in the air, 
and in the centre is a female, evidently the leader of the fray. There is a rival claimant to the 
honours of Jenny — a certain Barbara Hamilton or Mein ; but it is only said of her that *'she 
spoke openly in the church against the service-book." The exploit of throwing the stool belongs 
to Jenny by general tradition. 



210 THE SEBYICE-BOOE. 

The bishop sought in vain to quell the tumult that arose. The 
uproar increased. The magistrates were appealed to, and cleared 
the church of the mob, who remained outside knocking at the door. 
There was an old woman as full of spirit as Jenny, who was unable 
to get out before the doors were closed, and who had retired with 
her Bible to a remote part of the church. As she was reading 
quietly, stopping her ears to the obnoxious service which had 
been resumed, she suddenly heard a young man near her cry 
*' Amen." " At the hearing thereof she quickly turned about, and 
after she had warmed both his cheeks with the weight of her hands, 
she schott against him the thunderbolt of her zeal. * False theif,' 
said she, * is there no other part of the kirke to sing mass in but 
thou must sing it at my lug.' When the congregation dispersed 
they were assailed by the mob that was waiting outside. A little 
man with a goun got his backbones and belliefull of no small 
buffeting distributions, his goune was rent, his service-book taken 
from him, and his body so pitifully beaten that he cried for mercy. 
The bishop was laid hold of by the rabble, who derided and insulted 
him, pelting him as he ran with the filth of the street. At last he 
was rescued from their hands by the Earl of Wymess." On the 
same morning the service was read in the west end of St Giles or 
Tolbooth Church, " not without noise and tumult, yet the furie was 
not so great as in the other church." 

This was the first and the last time that the new service was 
performed in the church in its entirety. In the afternoon Mr 
Thomson read a few collects from it, and preached a '' verie short 
sermon." There was a disposition in the people to resume the riot, 
80 that the doors were locked and the mob excluded. On going 
home the bishop was again attacked Lord Roxburghe dragged him 
from his assailants, and took him home in his coach, while the people 
pursued it down the street pelting it with stones. The coachman 
*' received plenty lapidary coin for his drink silver,"^ and as the 

^ The description attached to Rothe*s narration, which, though coaise, I consider from the 
date the most correct, and have given it in the Appendix. 



THB SERVICE-BOOK. 



211 



Tron Kirk was then building there was abundant material to pelt 
him with. 

Seldom has there been a popular tumult that led to greater results 
than this one within St Giles. " It not only suppressed the English 
liturgy almost until the nineteenth century, but it gave an impulse 
to the civil war of England, which ended in the overthrow of church 
and monarchy." ^ 

* Stanley's Lectttrei on the CTiureh of Scotland, p. 72. 



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The Jenny Geddes Tumult. ( From Burton's Civil Wars> 




CHAPTER XXI L 
€i)t tfobenant-1637-1639. 

The kettle o* the kirk and state, 

Perhaps a claut may fail in 't ; 
But deil a foreign tinkler loun 

Shall ever ca' a nail in 't. 
Our fathers' bluid the kettle bought, 

And wha wad dare to spoil it ; 
By heaven ! the sacrilegious dog 

Shall fuel be to boil it. 

BUBNS. 

^IIHE state of Edinburgh during the week after the 
tumult in St Giles, was one of the greatest excite- 
ment. The merchants of the Lawnmarket, the 
gentry of the Canongate, the substantial burgesses of 
the Cowgate, the humbler citizens in the top flats of 
huge tenements in the wynds and closes, did little else than discuss 
the great event that had taken place in their midst. The bishops 
at once inhibited Mr Henry RoUock and Mr Andro Ramsay, two 
of the ministers who had refused to read the service-book ; and 
apprehensive of any gathering of the people in the church which 
might lead, in the present state of feeling, to further uproar, they 
ordered the daily service to be suspended, and that " neither the old 
service nor the new established service be used in this interim." 

" The bishops callit before them Mr Harie RoUok and Mr Andro 
Ramsay, two of the special ministers of the town who refused to 
read the book, and silenced them ; also they did inhibit the ordinary 
morning and evening prayers, which were customable in Edinburgh 
since the Reformation."^ Mr Henderson, who had been long the 

1 Row, p. 410. 



THB COVENANT. 213 

reader of the church, was deposed, and for several weeks there were 
no daily prayers. 

Baillie in his graphic letters describes the state of violent excite- 
ment that prevailed in the city.* The day after the tumult he 
•happened to be in Edinburgh, and writes of what he saw. **I 
fand," he says, " the people nothing settled, but if that service had 
been presented to them again, resolved to have done some mischief 
Some six or seven servants were put under ward ; the toune put 
under ane episcopall interdict, which yet continues; no preaching, 
no prayers on week days, no reading nor prayers on Sunday." He 
afterwards wrote, "I think our people possessed with a bloody 
devill, far above anything I could have imagined though the mass 
in Latine had been presented." 

The '• bloody devill " was not to be cast out either by force or by 
persuasion. The bishops became more conciliatory, and the Arch- 
bishop of St Andrews authorised the old liturgy of Knox to be 
used again ; * but it was too late. Matters proceeded to extremea 
Laud from London urged the bishops to be firm. " Will they now 
cast down the milk they have given," he says, " because a few milk- 
maids have scolded at them," but the power, if they ever possessed 
it, was fast passing out of their hands. The Bishop of Galloway 
was in danger of his life, while walking in the neighbourhood of 
St Giles, near the Tolbooth. "While he is near the door, the 
women after some quarrelling of him for his crucifixe, and clamorus 
began to pluck at him, and so affrayes him that he cries to some 
gentlemen for help." He was borne into the lower Tolbooth, and 
kept there till two of the nobles " convoyed " him down the street. 
The two ministers of St Giles who refused to read the service-book 
were regarded as heroes. They were foremost in the " cabals " that 
ensued, and assisted at the many conclaves that took place in 
Edinburgh, and which finally terminated in the signing of the 

I Vol. L p. 19, et infrck 

■ " The last nevrs that came tells me that the old Archbishop of St Andrews hath, in 
great weakness, given way to their old service again."— Laud to Strafford, 19th December 
1637. 



214 THE COVENANT. 

Covenant in the Greyfriars' Churchyard, on 28th February 1638. 
Dr Hanna, the unfortunate reader of the service-book, ventured 
in St Giles, the week after this had been done, to find fault with his 
people for subscribing, and was assaulted in the church, his " goun 
was torn, and he himself beat with hands." 

" Mr Hanna," says Baillie, " has been in hot watter with his 
people since his entrye. So the Sonday after his people had sub- 
scryed against his command, they sett on him in the church, ryves 
his goune, gives him dry cuffes, and so without further harm 
dismisses him." ^ 

Two incidents occurred at this time in St Giles, which we 
venture to insert in this part of our narrative. They are equally 
significant of the temper of the period. The first was the recan- 
tation of a Jesuit, which made a considerable sensation at the 
time. He is said to have been converted from the Roman faith by 
hearing of the wonderful doings in connection with the subscribing 
of the Covenant, though it is difficult to see how they should have 
produced such an effect upon him. The story is told by Row with 
much unction. 

'* About this tyme ane Mr Thomas Abemathie, a Jesuit, hearing 
of God's wonderful work here in his native country, wakened in 
conscience came home, and presenting himself to the Tables,* 
entreated for Christ's sake, the favour of subscryving the Covenant, 
very humbly confessing his fearful apostasie ; and in token of his 
ingenuitie, he revealed all the popeish plotts aganis Scotland and the 
popeish government in Scotland, and gave his advice for taking order 
with them. He was admitted to the Covenant, and publictlie in 
the Great Kirk of Edinburgh, before a most frequent auditorie, made 
confession of his apostasie ; and Mr Andro Ramsay preached upon 
' Come out of Babel ' a little before, to make way for Abemathie's 
confession and abjuring of Popery." 

The confession of Mr Abernethie, whose conduct looks somewhat 

1 Baillie's Letters, vol. i p. 71. He was deposed by the Assembly, 1st Jannaiy 1639, for 
declining the Assembly and defending the service-book, 
s The committees of the Covenanters. 



THK COVENANT. 215 

puspicious, and the sermon of Mr Kamsay were doubtless very 
edifying to those who heard them, but they were quite thrown into 
the shade by a pulpit effort about the same time and in the same 
place. A Highland minister, Mr Row of Strowan, found his 
way by some curious chance into the pulpit of the cathedral, 
and his sermon, afterwards published, caused great amusement.* 
Various magnates who had come to town in connection with 
the movements that were going on were present, and among 
them some Aberdonians who were well known, and the High- 
landman improved the occasion marvellously, and must have 
astonished his audience. A few extracts from the sermon may 
give some idea of the character of the performance. The text was 
from Jeremiah, xxx. 17: "I will restore health unto thee, and I will 
heal thee of thy wounds," &c., and after showing how the "Kirk of 
Scotland was wounded in her hands," the preacher thus proceeded. 

" Now I am come to tell you how she is wounded in hir feet, and 
that I caU the worship of the Kirk of Scotland. The Kirk of 
Scotland was a bony trotting naig, but then she trotted sae hard 
that never a man durst ryde her ; but the bishops, wha after they 
had gotten on her back, corce-langled her and hopshaikled hir, and 
whan she becam a bony paceing beast, they tooke great pleasure to 
ryde on hir. But then cadging hir up and doune from Edinburgh 
to London, and it may be from Rome too, gave hir sik a hett cott 
that we have been these twal months bygane stirring her up and 
doune, to heep her frae foundrying. 

" Yea, they made not only ane horse but ane ass of the Kirk of 
Scotland. ' How sae ?' ko ye ;* * what meane ye by this V lie tell 
you how they made Balaam's ass of her. Ye ken well enugh 
Balaam was ganging hame an unlucky gate, and first the angell 
mett him in a broad way, and then the ass hoghed and startled, but 
Balaam gat by the angel, and tile hir and battand hir sufficiently ; 

1 It was preached on the last Sunday of July 1638, and first printed in London, 1642, 
nnder the name of " The Red Shanke's Sermon," and afterwards published under the title of a 
" Cup of Bon Accord." It is appended to the MemoridU of the Row Family, 

■ Quoth ye. 
2D 



216 THB COVENANT. 

that was whan Episcopacy came in, and then they gave the Kirk of 
Scotland her paiks.^ 

*' Afterward Balaam mett the angell in a narrow gate, and then 
she startled more than befor; but Balaam till hir againe, and 
whaked hir soundly ; that was when the fyve articles of Perth were 
brought in. 

" The third tyme the angel met Balaam in sae strait a gate that 
the ass could not win by ; and then it pleased the Lord to open 
blind Balaam's eyes ; and that is this happy day s wark. Now God 
has opened all our eyes ; we were lyke blind Balaam ganging ane 
unluckie gate, and ryding post to Rome ; and what was gote behind 
him upon the ass, watt ye ? * He tell you, there was a pockmanty.' 
And what was in it, trow* ye, but the Book of Cannons and 
Common Prayer, and the High Commission; but as soon as the 
ass sees the angell she falls a flyinging, and ore gangs the pock- 
manty ; and it hings by a string on the one syde, and aff gangs 
blind Balaam, and he hangs by the hough on the other syde, and 
faine would the carill ^ been on the saddle againe, and a been 
content to leave his pockmanty. But beloved, let not the false 
swinger gett on againe, for if he get on againe, he will be sure to 
gett his pockmanty on also!" After some equally quaint obser- 
vations the Highlander concluded his sermon, but when he stood 
up to give the blessing at the close of the service, to the astonish- 
ment of the congregation he addressed the following observations 
to the Lords of Session and other magnates present : 

*' I ken well eneugh it is not the fashion of the place to speak 
anything after prayer, but becaus I had meikle to say and one 
thing dang ® another out of my head, wherefor I must beg leave to 
add a word or two. 

" And first of all I will speak to you who are members of the 
College of Justice. And why, I pray you, will not ye subscrive the 
Covenant ? Ye will say to me, ye are employd by his majesty in 

* Strokes. ' Do you know? ' Portmanteau. 

* Think. * Old man. « Drove. 



THE COVENANT. 217 

some speciall affaire, and you cannot with honour subscrive the 
Covenant. That is a bra answer indeed I There is not the meanest 
man that gathers up twenty merks for the king per annum but may 
have this hole to goe out at ; then we shall have also subscryving. 
Yea, yea, there is but one man between God and you ; gett by that 
man and gett to God. 

" And in the second place, why doe not ye noblemen subscrive the 
Covenant ? Ye will say, noli me tangere ; howsoever He give you a 
touch. It may be you will be putt to it; ye will say, ' We must 
ryde in parliament order ; the meanest man must goe fbrmost and 
subscryve the Covenant, and then we will come after.* This is a bra 
answer indid 1 You have a fashiane in the south part of Scotland 
that whan ye come to a foord, the jackman must venture first upon 
his weak, weary naig, and if he can goe and come back againe, then 
up comes the laird mounted on his stately steed and over gaes he. 
This is no right. But we that are Highlanders have a better 
fashion, for we usually come on foot, and whan we come to the foord 
we are loath to leive a man ; therefore we joyne oxster to oxster and 
airme to airme, and loup all togethir in the foorde, and if one droune 
all drounes. Even so here ; sett your hand to the Covenant and if 
ane perish lett all perish." 

The preacher then addressed the magistrates in a similar strain: 
''Albeit I see two of your chiefest chayres empty, yet have at you," 
and closed thus : 

" Last of all, I have a mynd to speak a word to you that are 
strangers," and then turning himself about to the place where the 
provost and bailies of Aberdeen sat — " And what is the reason ye 
subscrive not the Covenant ? It may be, ye will say, ye came here 
about your civill affaires, and whan ye cam out ye resolved not to 
subscrive the Covenant. Will ye tak my advyce ? I say, Aberdeans- 
men, will ye take your word againe * and goe home and drink the 
cup of Bon- Accord, and joyne to the Kirk of Scotland, and subscrive 
the Covenant ? And so farewell." 

^ Alluding to a common proverb. 



218 THB COVENANT. 

Probably a more extraordinary sermon has not been delivered in 
St Giles during its long history than this one of the "Red Shankye.''^ 
It was much discussed, not only in Edinburgh, but throughout 
Scotland, and the preacher bore during the rest of his life the name 
of " Pockmanty Mr James." The times were serious enough, and 
fasting was more congenial to the bulk of the people then than 
laughing, yet the rough and ready humour of the Highlander must 
have caused smiles to come to the faces of the gravest of his 
hearers. In the year that he preached his sermon, many of his 
desires for the success of the Covenant were realised. The General 
Assembly of the church met in Glasgow, and Episcopacy for the 
time was overthrown. The Bishop of Edinburgh was deposed and 
the dean sent after him *'to bear his train," and the only two 
ministers of St Giles left were those who had refused to read the 
service-book. "We have now cast down the walls of Jericho," 
Henderson, the moderator of the Assembly, is said to have 
exclaimed; "let him that rebuildeth them beware of the curse 
of Hiel the Bethelite." 

This Mr Henderson now came to Edinburgh as one of the 
ministers of the city. He was the most zealous of the Covenanters, 
and indeed was the reputed author of the Covenant itself. He 
was minister of St Giles during a stormy period, and shortly after 
he came there the country was on the verge of a civil war, happily 
averted, though only for a time, by the king agreeing to an Assembly 
being held at Edinburgh, which should pass anew the measures of 
that of Glasgow, and give them civil as well as ecclesiastical autho- 
rity. The Assembly met, and the king's commissioner, the Earl of 
Traquair, represented royalty. As in the period of our story 
on which we are now entering there is but little to chronicle in 
the way of pomp and pageantry, we will give here the account of 
the entry, the first, we believe, on record, of the Lord High 
Commissioner. It is a gleam of sunshine before the storm. 

^^ Monday y 12th Augitst 1639. — John Stewarte, Earle of Traquair, 

^ Red-shank was a name given to Highlanders from their making buskins of the deer's hide. 



THK COVENANT. 219 

receved his commissione under the broad seall in counsale about 
seven o'clock in the morning at Holyrood House, and thereafter in 
coatche attended by the Lords of the Privy Council, came up to 
Edinburghe, and went all of thame doune to the threasurer deputes 
lodging, and ther stayed till about nine houres, at which tyme the 
last bell did ring to sermon, then marched he up the strett on 
foote from the head of the Netherries Wynd to the church in this 
order: 

"First went the seriants of the toune of Edinburghe in thir 
liueryes, uncovered, with partisans in their hands. 

" The prouest and magistrates of Edinburghe, uncovered. 

" Some sixty gentlemen, uncovered, followed them. 

" Lord Linton, the Commissioner's sone, earring in his hand his 
majesty's commissione in a carnation velvuet bage. 

" Then came the Commissioner Traquaire on foote, on his right 
hand the Marquess of Huntley, and on his left hand the Earle of 
Roxburghe, Lord Privy Seal. After them followed the Lords of 
His Majesty's Privy Council, covered. 

" And last of all a number of young lords, earl's sones, and in this 
order went the king's Commissioner to church to hir sermon, befor 
the dounsetting of the Assembly."^ 

Something like this has often been seen in Edinburgh since. 
The Assembly on this occasion met in the New Kirk, probably in 
the east end of St Giles, for that part had been refitted. It was a 
famous Assembly in its way. All that was done in Glasgow was 
done formally over again, and received royal assent, and beneath 
the arches of St Giles another memorable event occurred. Episco- 
pacy was, with all legal formality, abolished, declared unlawful and 
contrary to God's word, " to the unspeakable joy," says one who 
was present, *' of all them that feris the Lord and waittis for his 
salvation."* The joy of these worthies was not destined to be long 
lived. 

Episcopacy being now done away with, the wall which by order 

^ Balfour's AnruiU, voL ii p. 353. ' Diary of Sir John Hope, p. 104. 



220 THE COVENANT. 

of the king had been taken down in order to furnish a cathedral for 
the new bishopric was again built up. The west end of the building, 
or the Tolbooth, which had been used on week days as a civil court, 
was now used only as a church.^ Within St Giles there were 
again three congregations as formerly. The following notes from 
the town treasurer's accounts show that the cost of restoring the 
building to its ante-cathedral condition was considerable : 

"The compter, Johne Admistone, appoynted be the provost, 
baillies, and counsall of Edinburgh for the building of the mid 
wall betwixt the Mid Kirk and the east end of St Jeills, repairing 
the windows, building the assemblie seats, with other necessars 
belanging thairto." The expenditure in this account is £2327, 
12s. 4d. 

In 1640 John Admistone expends £5008, 15s. 5d. Scots in building 
" the dasks and seats of the east end of St Jeills, with all necessars 
belanging thairto." 

The throne is mentioned in the account of 1639 in connection 
with the alterations, and John Salvoy, painter, gets £132, 18s. 4d. 
for painting the king's loft and assembly seats. 

The church had thus gone back very much to its old state in 
King James VI. 's time. 

^ Row in 1633 says the courts were transferred from this placei 





CHAPTER XXIIL 
Cjbe Sntre$entrntt)t— 1639-1660. 

Poor Preabyter was now reduced. 
Secluded and cashiered, and choa8*d, 
Tarn*d out, and excommunicate 
From all affairs of church and state ; 
To stroll and teach from town to town, 
And those he had taught up, teach down. 

Htuiihrcu. 

T GILES was now once more Presbyterian. The 
Covenanters had triumphed — bishop, dean, and pre- 
bendaries disappear from the scene, and Mr Hender- . 
son, the deposer of the bishops, and his colleagues 
reign in their stead. But Henderson's ministry in 
Edinburgh was soon interrupted, and the year after his induction he 
was marching as chaplain with the Covenanting army into England. 
He was one of the commissioners appointed to treat with King 
Charles L, and exercised his gifts during his stay in London in St 
Antholin's Church in the city, where he denounced Episcopacy with 
all his might, and supported the principles of Calvinism against 
Arminianism. When the king came to Edinburgh in 1641, Hender- 
son was appointed one of his chaplains, and insisted upon his royal 
charge conforming himself to Presbyterian requirements, and going 
twice a day to church. On two Sundays the king came to St 
Giles in the forenoon, when Mr Henderson stood behind the throne, 
probably to see that he comported himself with proper solemnity.* 
It is amusing to see his majesty, who had so often obliged the 
Presbyterians to worship as he pleased, himself compelled by them 

* Balfour's AnncUSf vol. iii. pp. 66, 57 ; Ayton's Life of Henderson, 



222 THE INDEPENDENTS. 

to conform to their observances. They had now the power, and 
they were disposed to use it. 

Charles was not long in amicable relations with them. The Civil 
War broke out ; Episcopal government was abolished in England ; 
and the hope began to be cherished in Scotland again, this time by 
Presbyterians, that there might be one church for the two kingdoms. 
It is a hope which has been often entertained before and since that 
time, which has seemed more than once about to be realised, but 
which has always come to nothing in the end. There was now to 
be one great Presbyterian church, one creed, one form of worship. 
This was the dream in which Henderson and many others indulged, 
and which they sought to turn into a reality. On the 2d August 
1643 the General Assembly met in an apartment which had been 
fitted up in the East Eirk of St Giles — probably in the aisle 
founded to the memory of Preston. " A little room," Mr Baillie 
calls it, *' of the East Church, which is verie handsomlie dressed for 
our Assemblies in time coming, when we shall have them." To this 
Assembly many nobles, ministers, and elders *^ conveened." Frequent 
sermons were preached in the New Church during its sitting, and a 
great deal of business was transacted. To the gathering there came 
also certain commissioners from the English parliament, accompanied 
by two ministers, Mr Marshall and Mr Nye,^ desirous of effecting 
a civil agreement between the countries. Mr Henderson was all for 
a Covenant which he had drawn up himself, instead of what they 
proposed. This Covenant bound all who signed it not only to 
labour for the preservation of the reformed religion in Scotland, 
but also for the reformation of religion in England,* and was the 
first step taken towards the construction of a united church for the 
two kingdoms. Mr Henderson and others were appointed to carry 
this document to London, and on the 22d September it was sub- 
scribed in St Margaret's Church, Westminster, by the Assembly 
of Divines, the Scottish commissioners, and the members of the 

^ Mr Marshall was a Presbyterian, Mr Nye an Independent. — Bishop Gnthrie's Memoirs^ 
p. 35. They preached in the New Chnrch on this occasion. — Baillie, voL IL 
* Cunningham's CTiurch History, vol. ii. p. 133. 



THE INDEPENDENTS. 223 

House of Commons. On the return of the commissioners, the 
religious concordat between England and Scotland was completed by 
the solemn signing of the Covenant on 13th October in St Giles. 

" This day," said Sir Thomas Hope, " the Covenant subscryvit and 
swome solemnly in the Eistmost Kirk of St Jells be the Committie 
of the Conventioun and of the Committie of the Generall Assembly, 
efter Mr Robert Douglas had preichit on 2 Chron. xv. 12, and efter 
him Mr Merschell, the Inglische minister, spak to that samyn, and 
publickly being setting with the Inglische Commissioners, quho 
satt under the reidaris dask ; and the noblemen satt foiranent the 
minister, at the syd of ane tabill coverit with greyn ; and all the 
persones of the Committie, both of the Estait and Assembly, satt at 
the two endis of the tabill in a traverse tabill both south and north. 
And I heving there renewit my vow, in presence of the Lord, to 
adhere to his blessit treuth aganis Papistrie, hyerarchie, and all the 
breaches thereof — contra omnes mortales ; but I scrupillit at that 
part of the Covenant to sweir to mantayn the privileges of the 
Parliament of Ingland, because I, as ane subject of Scotland, cannot 
be tyet to mayntene, or sweir to mantayne, the Parliament of 
another kingdome and the liberties thairof." ^ 

Most people will be of the opinion of this writer as to the folly 
of these ecclesiastics in meddling with affairs that were not within 
their province. His opinion was not general, for soon after a Scottish 
army entered England " to seek for conformity of religion amid the 
horrors of civil warfare." It is a melancholy episode in the history 
of our country. The Presbyterians were as eager to impose the 
Covenant on those who disliked it as others had been to impose 
the service-book on themselves. Their affictions had certainly not 
taught them toleAtion. . All who resisted the signing of this 
document were excommunicated by the reading of the awful formula 
contained in the Book of Common Order, which gave them to 
Satan for the destruction of their bodies, and handed them 

1 ThiB was the point where MontroBO parted company with the Covenanters.— See BlackiwocTB 
Magaeine {1887). 
2E 



224 THE INDEPENDENTS. 

over to the civil magistrate to be dealt with as he thought 
proper. 

"April 14, 1644. — This day being Sonday, Mr John Adamson, in 
the Eist Kirk, did be reiding the prayer contanit in the psalm 
book, excommunicat Geo., Marquis of Huntly, &c., be summar 
execution for their notorious coming in arms aganis the Covenant. 

'* Memorandum. — Mr John Paip, younger, wes excommunicate be 
the said Mr John on the Sabbath day preceiding."^ 

Similar proceedings took place all over Scotland. Every man 
must be a Presbyterian and a Covenanter, and England must also 
be made to submit to the yoke. It was a yoke that was speedily to 
be broken, and " Oliver Cromwell was soon to preach toleration with 
a drawn sword in his hand." * 

We may mention here that on the 15th May 1644, a distinguished 
royalist, Sir John Gordon of Haddo, ancestor of the Earls of 
Aberdeen, was imprisoned in the room above the north porch of the 
churcL On the 19th June of the same year, ''he was headit at the 
Cross of Edinburgh as a traitor." His place of confinement, which 
had up to this time borne the name of the " Priests' Chamber," was 
afterwards called ''Haddo's Hole," a name which was given also 
to the adjoining church in the north-west part of St Giles, and 
which it bore until late times. 

Mr Henderson attended the famous Assembly of Divines at West- 
minster, and assisted at its deliberations. Its decisions affected the 
order of worship which had hitherto been followed in St Giles, 
inasmuch as the '* Directory of Publick Worship," sanctioned in 1646 
by the Assembly of the church, superseded the old liturgy or Book 
of Common Order, though the latter has never been formally 
abolished. The change is noted by a diarist of the time : 

" It is to be rememberit that in the months of March and Aprill 
1646, the Directorie for Godis Service began insteid of evening and 
morning prayeris, the ministeris taking to their consideration that 

1 Hope's Diary. Nicoll in his diary gives many instances of what befell those who refused 
to sign the Covenant See also my History of the Abbey of Paisley, in loc 
3 Cunningham. 



THE INDEPENDENTS. 225 

the not reiding and exponing of the Scriptures, at the old accus- 
tomat tyme of prayer, was the occasioun of much drinking at that 
seasoun, quhen these prayeris and chaptures wer usuallie red; 
thairfor it wes concludit in the beginning of March 1650 that all the 
dayis of the week a lectorie should be red and exponit in Edinburgh 
there by everie minister per vices ; quhilk accordingly wes put in 
practice, and so began this holie and hevinlie exercise."^ 

Preaching, probably preceded by extempore prayer, thus super- 
seded the old Scottish liturgy ; but even this form of service was 
done away with at the coming of the English Independents. We 
must pass over the many important events which now rapidly 
succeeded one another in Scottish history, but which belong only 
remotely to the subject of our narrative. After the battle of Dunbar, 
Oliver Cromwell entered Edinburgh, and St Giles came into the 
hands of the English sectaries, and remained so for a considerable 
time. They obtained the use of the East Kirk for their *' exercise," 
and members of the army astonished the citizens by airing their 
gifts in the pulpit, though they had no call, according to Scottish 
usage, to the ministry. 

" General Lambert haiffing urgit the toune of Edinburgh's com- 
mon counsale to appropriate to him the Eist Kirk of Edinburgh, 
being the special kirk and best in toun, for his exercise at sermond, 
the same wes renderit to him for that use ; quhen there wes dyveris 
and sundrie sermondis preached, als weill by captains and lieuten- 
antis, and trouperis of his airmy, as by ordinar pastouris and 
Englische ministeris ; quhilkis captanes, commanderis, trouperis, 
quhen they enterit the pulpittes did not observe our Scottish 
formes, hot when they ascendit they enterit the pulpite with thair 
swordes hung by thair sydes, and sum careying pistolles with thaim; 
and efter thair entry layd aside within the pulpittes thair swords 
till thaiy endit thair sermondis. It wes thocht that these men were 
Weill giftit, yet were not ourderlie caUit according to the discipline 
observit within this kingdom of Scotland."* 

1 Nicoll'B Diary, p. 6. » Ibid., p. 68. 



226 THE INDEPENDENTS. 

These intruders ruled Edinburgh with a high hand. By tuck 
of drum they proclaimed that *' the day callit Chrystmas " should 
not be observed. This to the Presbyterian burgesses was no great 
matter, but when these worthies saw the stool of repentance burnt 
as a popish relic of the sacrament of penance, and the king's seat 
demolished, they must have been greatly scandalised. The former 
article of church-furniture these sectarians cast out wherever they 
went. The taking down of the throne is thus chronicled : 

" Upone Setterday the sevint of Februar 1657, by ordouris from 
the Commissiouneris of the Parliament of England now sittand at 
Dalkeith, thair wer masonis, carpentaris, and hammermen direct to 
the Kirk of Edinburgh, quhair the kingis sait wes ereckit, and to the 
Mercat Croce of Edinburgh, quhair his arms and unicome with the 
croun on his heid was set ; and thair pulled doun the king's armes, 
dang doun the unicome with the croun that wes set upon the 
unicome, and hang up the croun upon the gallows."^ 

This was bad enough, but was as nothing compared with the 
indignity inflicted upon a General Assembly that ventured to meet 
within the church. After listening to two sermons preached by 
ministers of the city, the court proceeded to business in the usual 
manner. They were soon interrupted by two colonels of the 
English army, backed by a file of soldiers, who asked them by 
what authority they were met ? It was a question that must have 
sounded strange to the members, who claimed the highest authority 
for their convocation, and the moderator protested that they were 
^' Christes court." He then began to open the meeting with 
prayer; but after he had spoken five or six words, the English 
oflScer " desyred thame againe to be gone, so they arose and cam 
forth." It must have been a curious spectacle to see these gentle- 
men marched out of St Giles by a band of fanatics more fanatical 
than themselves. 

" They were gairded on both hands up the way to the Why 
House, where they were carried along to the Port, and from thence 

1 NiooU, p. 80. 



THE INDEPENDENTS. 227 

to the Quarrel Holls, where they made them stand. The moderator 
protested again att the same place. After thir names wer written, 
they discharged them to meet againe under pain of being breakers 
of the peice, and to be gone before eght o'clock on the next 
day."^ 

The sectaries put down, as we have said, the daily service,* and 
to make up for the want of the exercise, the ministers introduced 
singing of psalms and hearing the boys their catechism. They were 
indeed greatly tried. All kinds of heretics under the new regime 
seemed to flourish when the ecclesiastical power was relaxed, and 
great "numbers of that damnable sect the Quakers" made their 
appearance in St Giles, and interrupted the sermons, to the great 
annoyance of the preachers, whose cup of bitterness was full. 

" Possest of the spirite of error, they opposed the preachers in the 
New Kirk alledgand that the ministeris taught fals doctrine, and 
dischargit the auditouris to hear thame and to give no credit to 
their sermoundis. The devil working strongly on their imagina- 
tions, made thame believe that the Spirit descendit on thame lyke a 
dow; caryit thame from ane place to anither, and maid mony of 
thame crie out, * I am the way, the treuth, the lyff ; * maid thame 
to make circles round about them with their hands, with many like 
actionis."' 

This must have been more vexing to the sober-minded Presby- 
terians of that day than even the reading of the service-book. 
They were almost in as bad a case under the Independents as they 
had been under the bishops — ^their assemblies silenced and all their 
power taken away. For six years also the communion was not 
administered. They were also commanded to offer no prayers for 
the king, and were obliged to pray for the Protector. 

" October 14. — Upon the Sonday thairefter Mr Patrik Gillespie, 
minister at Glasgow, did preach in the Eistmost Kirk of Edinburgh, 
quha in his prayer efter sermond did emestlie pray for his Heynes 
the Protector, and for a blesing upon his proceedings ; and this wes 

1 Lamont's Diary, p. 67. > Nicoll, pp. 115, 171. » Ibid., p. 143. 



228 THE INDEPENDENTS. 

the first Scottis minister that did publickly pray for him within 
Scotland. 

" Oh for the miseries of Kirk and Stait at this tym," exclaims old 
NicoU, the diarist, and then he gives another grievance that vexed 
him sore : 

*' The ministrie, not content with the statioun of thair pulpites as 
they stuid, causyit change thaim in sindry of the churches of Edin- 
burgh — three severall tymes in the Tolbooth, quhilk wes so callit 
because it wes laitlie the pairt and place quhair the criminal court 
did sit, and quhair the gallows and maiden did he of old; likewise 
this kirk alteret and changit, and of this one kirk they did make two. 
Farder in the New Kirk, callit the East Kirk, the pulpit was twyse 
transpoirtit, anes fra the north to the south, quhairof befoir it stood 
on the north syd. By these dyvisiouns of the kirk and pulpites 
the loffcis on all sydes, which war verie costlie, war alterit." 

These changes are set down as marks of the " instabilitie of the 
time," and the chronicler evidently regards it as a judgment that '* at 
the upbigging of the separation wallis in tua of these kirks at two 
several tymes in the month of Februar 1656, the skafellding fell, 
slew sum of pepill and mutilat others." 

He records, however, that on the last Sunday of April the West- 
most Kirk was completed ; and again, 

*' The Eistmost Kirk of St Geill being devydit in twa, and the 
Eistmest Kirk of the twa being firat compleit and put in order, efter 
much delay, wes at length taght in upon the penult Sonday of 
December 1656." 

It is almost impossible to say what changes took place in the 
structure of the church at this period. The writer mourns over 
those he witnessed evidently on account of the expense incurred, 
and puts it all down to the sectaries, who were at the root of every 
mischief. It was a great relief to him and other Presbyterians when 
King Charles II. succeeded to the throne — their deUght was 
immense, and a solenm thanksgiving service was held in St Giles, 
for was not Charles a covenanted king ? 



THE INDEPENDENTS. 



229 



" Quharat was all the Magistrates of Edinburgh and the Com- 
mune Councal, all of thame in thair best robes ; the mace and sword 
df honour carryed befoir thame to the sermond and throw the whole 
streets as they went all that day." 

It was a day of rejoicing — the arches of the old building rang 
with psalms of thankfulness, there were prayers in the church, and 
there was feasting at the Cross, the spouts of which ran with 
" claret wyne, and three hundred dosane of glassis all broken, and 
castin throw the streets with sweet meits in abundance." Bonfires 
were lit, and amongst the crowd who exhibited their joy was, it 
is said, " the immortal Jenet Geddis, princess of the Trone adven- 
turers, for she was not only content to assemble all her creels, 
basquets, creepies, &c., and all other sort of pot merchandise that 
belong to the garden, but even her leather chair of state, where 
she used to dispense justice to her lankale vassals, were all orderlie 
burned, she herself countenancing the action with a high-flown claret 
and Vermillion majesty."^ 

1 See ante. 




CHAPTER XXIV. 




^ertetutfon— 1660-1688. 

The Solemn League and Covenant 
Cost Scotland blood, cost Scotland tears ; 
But it sealed freedom's sacred cause, 
If thou 'rt a slave, indulge thy sneers. 

BUBNS. 

^ERY soon after the restoration of King Charles II., 
the interior of St Giles was changed again. The 
division by which the choir was made into two 
churches in the time of Cromwell was taken down, 
and the whole chancel thrown into one place of 
worship as formerly. The throne which had been cast out of the 
building with so much ignominy, was re-erected, and the East 
Church fitted up for the members of the great parliament soon 
to be held in Edinburgh. Great things were expected from 
this gathering, and it was hoped it would establish for ever the 
Church of Scotland on a sure foundation, and ratify the Covenant as 
the charter of Presbytery. The king had intimated his intention 
of sending for Mr Robert Douglas, one of the ministers of St 
Giles who had officiated at his coronation, to consult with him 
as to ecclesiastical affairs, and though many doubted his sincerity 
in regard to supporting Presbytery, there were those who believed 
in it, and who hoped for the best. The change in the fabric of 
St Giles is thus noticed by a contemporary : 

" This yeir 1660 the twa eistmost kirks nearest the great Old Kirk 
of St Geill were alterit ; the stane wark and devision betwixt thame 



PERSECUTION. 231 

were alteiit and taken doun with tliair loffcis and haill frame, and 
these two kirkis being formerlie two kirkes wer now ereckit into ane 
kirk ; the Kingis Sait placed therein, dasks, saittes, and loftis inlarged 
for ease of his majesty's commissioner, and of the nobles and utheris 
of the parliament now convenit to be halden the first day of Januar 
nixt."^ 

The parliament met in great pomp, and the commissioner and 
members came to chmrch, and took their ''ease" in the seats 
prepared for them, while Mr Robert Douglas, the leading minister 
of St Giles, preached, at the request of the king's advocate, before 
them when they met in state, from 2 Chronicles, xix. 5, 6 : " And 
Jehoshaphat set judges in the land, and said unto thame, Take heid 
quhat ye do;" but the result of their deliberations was a poor 
response to the preacher's exhortations. . They prohibited the 
renewal of the Covenant, and by passing the Act called the 
'* Rescissory Act," which undid the legislation of the past twenty 
years, they virtually established Episcopacy again. Little was needed 
to do this effectually, and that little was done. The king sent a 
letter down to Scotland interposing " his royal authority for restoring 
the church to its right government by bishops as it was by law 
before the late troubles."* The Privy Council passed an Act 
embodying this letter, and giving it effect by proclamation, and 
Episcopacy once more became the established religion of the 
country. 

Well might the hearts of steadfast Presbyterians fail them 
for fear, because of those things that were coming upon the land. 
There was lamentation and prophecy of evil in St Giles, and on the 
last Sunday of the year a sermon of the most doleful kind was 
preached in the Old or Great Church. It lamented the " corruption 
of God's worship, and order of God's house in a violent way, and the 
setting up of self-seeking perjured men over the inheritance of the 
Lord." This discourse ' seems to have made a great impression at 

» NicoU, p. 314; Wodrow*s Hiatory, p. 286. ^ Wodrow's History, vol. L p. 231. 

* " The Churches' Comfort, a sermon on John xvi. 22, preached in the Old Church of Edin- 
burgh, 29th December 1661, by Mr William Thomson."— Given in Kirkton's History, p. 115. 
2F 



282 PERSECUTION, 

the time, and was afterwards printed. It concluded with this 
characteristic reference to the bishop, whose advent was looked for 
daily : "Oh, how unbecoming a title would Paul have thought it 
if any would have come unto him and called him your lordship or 
your lordship's grace I Oh, how abominable would he have thought 
himself if he had seen a prelate's mitre upon his head, and their 
side robes^ upon him with some bearing up their tails 1 There is no 
ground in the Bible for this, and yet it is done. [He did see 
some laughing and others affrighted, which made him speak thus.] 
Let this neither be looked upon as a matter of laughter to strangers 
or affrighting to friends, seeing necessity constrains us to speak of 
these things unto you. Now may not this give us sad ground of 
fear that the Lord will go away and leave us, seeing such abomina- 
tions are set up among us?'* The " abominations " which the worthy 
preacher dreaded were not far away, and not many days after the 
delivery of his sermon a bishop again presided over the see of 
Edinburgh. 

We must not leave the year in which these events took place 
without noting an incident which is memorable in the history of St 
Giles — namely, the funeral of the great Marquis of Montrose, 
Shortly after the Restoration his head was taken down from the 
Tolbooth, to which it had been affixed after his execution, and such 
portions of his remains as could be identified were collected and 
taken to the chapel of Holyrood. On the 11th May 1661 they were 
conveyed to St Giles with the greatest possible funeral pomp, and 
buried in the Chepman Aisle, where his family seem to have possessed 
a burying-place. Various accounts have come down to us of the 
magnificence of the funeral.^ We choose from many that of the old 
diarist Nicoll, whose description seems to us the most graphic, and 
who doubtless witnessed the display. 

" The tyme appoyntit fer the solempnitie of his funerallis being 
cum, quhilk wes upone Settirday the elevint day of Maij 1661, his 

^ In the Hax leian Manuscripts, vol. vii. p. 298, there is a long and full account written, it is 
supposed, by Sydserff. See Appendix. 



PKRSKCUTION. 233 

bones wer brocht bak agane from the Abbey Church to St Geillis 
Kirk of Edinburgh at the bak of the tomb quhair his grandschir wes 
buried, and thair buryed him in the manner following. In the first 
the haill inhabitantes of Edinburgh, Cannogait, Potteraw, and West 
Port, being all in armour to the number of 23 companyes, with thair 
displayit banneris, gairdit the toun of Edinburgh and Cannogait, on 
both sydes of the streit from the kirk of Holyrudhous to the kirk 
of St Geillis in Edinburgh. His majesty's leiffgaird of hors in the 
first place, ryding alongs on thair horsbak with thair carbines at 
thair sadiUis, and thair drawin swordis in thair handis to the number 
of 160 ; nixt unto thame 26 young boyis all cled in muming habites 
from thair crounes and top of thair hedis to thair bellis, careying his 
airmes and uther branches of his familie ; thairefter marched up the 
provist, baillies, and counsell of Edinburgh all in muming habites ; 
and nixt unto thame the burrowis and barones that wer memberis of 
Parliament; then cam a gentillman aU cled in bricht armour on 
horsbak, with a trumpittoir befoir him, ryding in a new sute of the 
Marques livray, and ane led hors behind him ; thairefter come 18 
gentilmen, sum of thame careying in thair handis long banneris of 
honor, and utheris carrying his spures, gloves, breist, and bak pece, 
all of armour on the poyntes of long staves ; thairefter come ane led 
hors covered with his ryche broydered mantle, quhairwith he and 
his predecessoris were wont to ryde at parliamentis, and his allakay 
richlie cled with liveray and airmes on breist and bak ; then come 
the flour of the nobilitie all in good order ; then the haill heraldis 
and pursevantis in thair koates of airmes, many of thame careying 
several! honoris in thair handis ; eftir thame came ane led hors all 
covered in blak ; eftir him cam the Lord Lyoun with his koat of 
airmes ; thaireftir come many of the Marques friendis, all of thame 
in muming, and every ane of thame careying sum honoris in thair 
handis, ane of thame haifand his parliament rob careying, ane with 
a croun on a velvet cushion under a craip, and sum utheris with 
severall soirtes of honores in thair handis ; then come the corps and 
bones in a coflBn, careyed under a riche paill careyed by many 



234 PERSECUTION. 

honorable lordis and gentillmen, with sex trumpetis all sounding 
befoir ; then came many noble ladyes cled all in muming behind the 
paill ; eftir thame cam the Erie of Middletoun, his majesteis 
Commissioner, in a koatche with sex hors all cled in murning, and 
his koatche all cled over in blak, none being in koatche but himself 
and the Lord Ramsay, sitting in the bute bairheidit, careying his 
commission; the hail belles of Edinburgh and the Canongate 
ringand all the tyme. Then come ten gentilmen careying each of 
thame in thair handis long flages, and uther peces of honor on the 
endis of long staves befoir the bones of the Laird of Dalgatie, quhais 
bones wer raisd with the said Marques from the Burrow Mure, quho 
wes also layd in the Abbay Kirk as being beheadit for being in 
airmes with the Marques for the lait king ; then nixt to these honors 
come two trumpettoris sounding ; efter thame come the bones in a 
coflBn careyed by many honorabill gentillmen with many epitaphes 
and uther paynted paperis thair upone, and so wes carreyedinto said 
yle of St Geillis Kirk, and layd on the rycht syde of the said noble 
Marques." 

So the gallant nobleman was laid in the old chapel of St John 
the Evangelist, built by Chepman the printer many years before. 
The morning of the funeral day had been stormy and dark, but 
during the ceremony the sun shone out, and lighted up the dark 
arches of St Giles. There seems to have been no religious service 
at the burial, though there was a feast after, and none of the 
ministers of the church apparently were present. Probably they 
were with those who, to use the words of one who describes the 
ceremonial, *' were howling in dark comers like owls." " Some say," 
he adds, "that there was then a collective body or sort of spiritual 
judicatory in town, that would not be present at the funeral lest the 
bones of both should bleed." ^ 

It was a friend and old companion of the nobleman whose ftmeral 
solemnities were thus honoured who came as bishop to St Giles. 
George Wyshart had accompanied the marquis to foreign parts as 

1 Harleian MSS., ante. 



PERSECUTION* 235 

chaplain, and had written in elegant Latin a history of the war in 
which Montrose had distinguished himself. He was consecrated 
Bishop of Edinburgh on 1st June 1662, and Robert Douglas, who 
had declined the mitre, was removed to Greyfriars, " in order that 
the bishop might be provided."^ The appearance of a prelate in the 
cathedral soon brought about great changes. One, himself favour- 
able to Episcopacy, describes them : " All the ordiner ministris of 
Edinburgh wer dischargit preaching because of thair non-confermitie 
with, and obedience to, the bischopis. And thaire wes nane sufferit 
to teache except Mr Robert Lowrie, being now Deane of Edin- 
burgh ;* all the sermondis taught in Edinburgh wer by strangeris, 
quho wer not much lykit by the auditoris, bot fled thair kirkis and 
wanderit to uther kirkis. Lykewise, the Mondayis preaching, 
quhilk wes in use and custome these many yeirs by past, wes 
dischargit or at least negleckit. Thair wes much haitred of the 
bischopis among the pepill, favouring still thair awn ministeris and 
thair doctrine, and baiting Episcopacy. *'* 

There seems to have been little change in the form of worship 
followed in the church from that which prevailed under Presby- 
terian rule. The prayers were extemporary, perhaps in some cases 
those of the Booh of Common Order. The Lord's Prayer was 
enjoined to be used once at least in the service, also the Doxology, 
or " Glory to the Father," and the Creed repeated at baptism ; but 
beyond this, there appears to have been little alteration.* Daily 
service was once more observed, and morning and evening prayers 
were ordered to be said in the church.* 

" The instabilitie of church government," says Nicoll, " for many 
yeris by past hes beene observit in my paperis ; and amang utheris 
how that the reiding of the Scriptures by reidairs, and singing of 

1 Scot's Fasti. ' This worthy was popularly called the " Nest Egg." • NicoU, p. 380. 

* So little difference was there between the Episcopal and Presbyterian form of worship, that 
we read in the Ochtertyre MSS. of a gentleman leaving the Scottish Episcopal Church after the 
Revolution, when it adopted the liturgy, and joining the Established Church as nearer his 
own. 

* Wodrow, vol. L p. 281, e^ infra, Wodrow seems to think that daily prayer, though ordered, 
was never carried outb 



236 PBRSBCUTION. 

Psalmes, did cease, and in place thereof the examining brocht into the 
church by two boyes, and thairefter lectures by ministeris, quhilk 
did not satisfy the peipU; quairfere the singing of Psalmes wes 
brought in agane in the kirkes of Edinburgh, in the beginying of 
October 1653 ; and in this yeir (1662) the reiding of Scriptures 
wes broucht in againe, and the Psalmes sung with this additioun, 
* Glory to the Father/ &c. This now broucht in by the auctoritie of 
the bishops with greater devotioun than evir befer." There was 
little innovation in all this, and if rigid attendance at the Episcopal 
services had not been insisted upon, and a course of persecution by 
the civil power had not been inaugurated, general conformity might 
have been attained. Episcopacy had once more a chance of winning 
Scotland, and again lost it by foolish and ill-advised measures. A 
synod was held in the church by the bishop, and attended by the 
king's advocate, some of the lords of council and session, with the 
magistrates of Edinburgh, and the bishop preached from the text, 
"Let your moderation be known unto all men." The text was 
good, but the practice that followed it was not in much accordance 
with its sentiment. Ministers whom the people respected were 
silenced by parliament, and it was intimated to others that they 
were to submit to the same censure and punishment if they did not 
submit to their ordinary. Three new ministers were appointed 
by the bishop, and though after their election they were feasted and 
had double stipend allotted them, the people thought them very 
inferior to those who had been turned out to make room for them. 
On Sundays the congregations thronged the roads to country 
churches, where they could have ministers more to their own 
mind. 

Christmas Day was again observed with all due solemnity, and . 
there appears to have been a good congregation, attracted probably 
more by the novelty of the event than by any regard for the 
observance. '* This day being Yule day, wes solemnlie keepit in 
Edinburgh. The bishop tacht that day in the Eister Kirk, quhairin 
wes much pepill assembled. The honourable commissioner fer the 



PERSECUTION. 237 

parliament, the chancellar, and haile nobles being then in Edinburgh, 
were present. The sermon being endit, command wes given by 
tuck of drum that the remanent of the day should be spent as an 
holie day, that no work nor labour should be usit, and no mercat nor 
tred on the streetis, and that no merchand buith should be opned 
under the payne of 20 lb. in cais of faiUie ; be ressoun quhairof the 
haill registeris, sealles, and signet were closit up, and not opined 
for the space of four or fyve days thairefter."^ 

So ended 1662, more peacefully than might have been expected. 
There were troubles many and great in other parts of Scotland 
in the succeeding year, but Edinburgh, so far as ecclesiastical 
matters were concerned, was comparatively quiet, and we have 
little to notice in connection with St Giles, beyond two funerals 
which were celebrated there with considerable pomp. The first was 
that of Sydserff, Bishop of Orkney, and the other that of Fairfoul, 
Archbishop of Glasgow. NicoU, in his diary, gives particulars of 
both these obsequies. 

''September 29, 1663. — Mr Thomas SydserflF, Bishop of Orkney, 
departed this lyff within the toun of Edinburgh, in his awin dwell- 
ing house, and wes buryed upon the fourth day of October next, 
thairafter, being ane Sabboth day. The bischops had appointed that 
day to be a day of commemoration to the pepill of his lyff and con- 
versation in their severall sermondis taght that day in the Eist Kyrk of 
Edinburgh, quhair his corps did lye in the yle. Mr William Annand 
taught beforenone, and the Bishop of Edinburgh in the efternone ; 
quha descry vit his birth and progeny, of quhat faimlie he descendit, 
his pietie, his learning, his travellis abroad, his lyff and conversation, 
his sufferings for the gospell and utheris, his giftis and graces to the 
full. His funerallis wes very honorablie celebrat, and his corps 
convoyed to the grave by all sortis of pepill, both of nobles and 
bischoppis, gentilmen and commoners." 

The archbishop's funeral was even more imposing. His body 
was 'transported to the Eist Kirk of Edinburgh, callit St Geills, 

^ Wodrow, vol. i. p. 297. 



238 PERSECUTION. 

quhairintill his corps did ly till 11th day of November next, 
thairefter, being the day appointed fer his fimerallis. AU things 
necessar being prepared for that end, his corps wes laid doan 
upon a buird jist beforis the pulpit, coverit with muming. The toun 
bell rang fer convening the pepill to his funeral sermond jist at four 
in the eftimune, quhair numberis of pepill being convenit, rather to 
behold the ceremony than the preaching, thair wes ane sermond 
made by Mr Johnne Hay, persone of Peblis, and now archdeane of 
Glasgow. His text wes the 12th cap. of Ecclisiastes, in the latter end 
of the fyft vers. The sermon being endit, the corps wes laid in the 
bottom of a kotche, coverit above with muming, and careyed with 
twa horses, all cled in murning apparell, were transportit from the 
New Kirk of Edinburgh, to the Abbay Church of Halyrudhus, four 
trumpets sounding, &c." 

So Mr NicoU, at fuller length than we have given, describes the 
parade. " Quhat ellis," he says, " could contribute to the honour of 
such a man's funerallis?" There were those, however, who were of 
a different opinion, and thought the honours ill bestowed. "The 
loathsome Archbishop Fairfoul,'* says one, "finished his stinking 
office of a bishop." It shows how violent was the feeling existing, 
when such words could be spoken of the dead.^ 

The worthy NicoU is fond of chronicling funerals, and at great 
length describes that of the chancellor of the kingdom, the Earl of 
Glencairn, who, on the 28th July 1664, was buried in the east end 
of St Giles. His funeral, in regard to ceremonial, was similar to 
that of the Marquis of Montrose. All the nobles then in Edinburgh 
were present ; the Archbishop of Glasgow preached the sermon, and 
the arches of the church echoed to the sound of trumpets. " Aucht 
trumpetoires sounding at the graves mouth endit the solempnitie." 
In what spot of the choir this distinguished nobleman was buried is 
not told us, and no monument remains to mark his grave. He was 
a man of eminence, and had done his best to induce the king to 
prevent the "overdriving of the archbishop and other prelates." 

^ Kirkton's History, where there is a very gross description of the archbishop. 



PERSECUTION. 239 

XJnliappily, his advice was not listened to, and a court of high com- 
mission was instituted by the king, of which the Bishop of Edinburgh 
and other prelates were members, with plenary powers to punish by 
"fining, confining, committing to prison, and incarcerating" all 
ministers and others who should dare to oppose the authority of the 
Established Church. Such harsh measures proved as unavailing as 
they generally do. Conventicles abounded, the Covenant was here 
and there solemnly renewed, and when any of the ousted Presbyterian 
ministers came into Edinburgh, the people touched their caps to 
them, a mark of respect which they were careful not to pay to the 
clergy of the prelatic establishment. 

Persecution terminated in insurrection. General Dalzell sur- 
rounded a wretched band of Covenanters, "weary, drenched, 
undisciplined creatures," at Bullion Green on the Pentlands. He 
conveyed his prisoners into Edinburgh, and the magistrates crowded 
them together into the chamber in St Giles where Sir John Gordon 
had been confined, and which now had come to be called after his 
name. Haddo's Hole was a small place, and the prisoners were 
almost suffocated for want of air. It is to the credit of Bishop 
Wyshart that he pled for their release and supplied them with food ; 
he had known himself the hardships of imprisonment, "having 
himself been immured by the Covenanters for seven months in a 
dark, loathsome dungeon, and had like to be devoured with rats, 
the marks of whose voracity he bore on his face to the grave." 
From Haddo's Hole most of the miserable prisoners were taken 
first to torture, and afterwards to execution. One of them, M'Kail, 
was long remembered lovingly in Scotland as a martyr, and his last 
words cherished with affection. They are exceedingly touching and 
pathetic. Mr Bobert Laurie, the Dean of Edinburgh, however, 
declared from his pulpit that M'Kail and his fellow-sufferers had 
gone down into the pit with a lie in their right hand. The verdict 
of the Scottish people was truer than that of the dean. 

The next few years, so ftdl of incidents in regard to the rest of 
Scotland, are barren in reference to St Giles, though now and again 
2a 



240 PEESECUTION, 

we catch glimpses of actors in the drama, or rather tragedy, that was 
being enacted throughout the country. Lauderdale came to church 
" in great pomp on 29th May 1678, and the day was celebrated with 
lusty drinking and feasting." The Duke of Rothes died and " his 
body was brought up to the Hy Church of Edinburgh, and in great 
state and splendour conveyed hence to the Abbey Church."^ It 
was an imposing ceremonial, and an engraving of it has come 
down to us. A committee of Privy Council ordered the Bishop of 
Edinburgh "to con vein all his ministers in the Old Church, with 
their elders, deacons, and bedells, and churchwardens, and caused 
them to swear what irregular persons they knew were within their 
respective parishes and bounds." 

In 1682 a poor demented creature attacked Mr Bamsay, one of 
the ministers. " Christina Fyfe confesseth," so runs her declaration, 
'^ that on Sabbath last she did beat Mr Kamsay in the Old Kirk, 
at the ending of his sermon, and the reason was she thought he 
was profaning the Sabbath. She declares she thinks the king is not 
a lawful king, nor the judges lawful judges, otherwise they would 
never have murdered Mr Donald Cargill and Rathillet. Since Mr 
Cargill's death, she thinks there is not an honest minister in 
Scotland. That she thinks it very good service to kill all the 
bishops present, and all in Scotland, and declares the reason she 
went to church was to beat and not to hear the minister. She went 
not to kirk to beat a lawful minister, but one whom she thought 
a Judas and a devill." This poor woman, evidently a lunatic, was 
for her temerity sentenced to be hanged in the Grassmarket. 

The Earl of Argyll was executed under the shadow of the church. 
In his last hours he was attended by Mr William Annand, the 
dean, and after his execution his head was placed on a spike on the 
east gable of the church looking down the High Street.* 

These are slight links between St Giles and the troubled history 
of the time. In 1685 the king's seat in St Giles was again draped 

1 FountainhairB Observer, p. 46, July 2, 1681. 
3 Chambers's Traditioru of Edinburgh, p. 217. 



PERSBCUTION. 241 

in black, and on the 10th February of that year King James VII. 
of Scotland and II. of England was proclaimed king at the Cross 
of Edinburgh. 

The accession of King James brought toleration for the Presby- 
terians in order that Roman Catholicism might have toleration 
likewise. Fair-play was to be meted to both. The result was 
curious. Episcopalians now joined with Presbyterians in bewailing 
the threatened inroad of popery, and they did so with some cause. 
There were many signs of its advent. All kinds of rumours were 
afloat. St Giles was to be used for high mass again, and the pope 
was once more to regain his power in Scotland. The ministers had 
reasons for their apprehensions. Kamsay, Bishop of Boss, preached 
a sermon in St Giles to the members of parliament. His Pro- 
testantism "scandalised the papists exceedingly," and he was brought 
to book by the chancellor. "On 2d November 1686, the kings 
yacht arrived from London at Leith with the popish altar, vest- 
ments, images, priests, and other dependers for the popish chapell in 
the abbey. "^ Mr John Robertson, minister, who had been king's 
almoner, was deprived of his office, and a priest, Father Dunbar, 
appointed in his stead. Holyrood Abbey was taken for Cathohc 
purposes, and the parishioners of the Canongate were turned out. 
" This,*' exclaims a writer of the time, " is the first Protestant church 
tane away from us."^ St Giles might speedily follow, and there 
was little doubt it would. The Presbyterians, while they thanked 
his majesty for his toleration, said " if they behooved to take away 
the laws against popery, it were better to want it."' In the 
tolerated Presbyterian meeting-house, and in the cathedral hard 
by, were heard wailings for what was likely to happen. In this 
case what happened was not what was expected. On the 5th 
November 1688 William of Orange landed at Torbay, and a new 
order of things began. 

During the long period covered by this chapter, there was, so far 
as we can learn, Uttle change in the fabric of the church, beyond 

* Fountainhall's Historical Notices, p. 818. ' Ibid, * Ibid, 



242 



PERSECUTION. 



making the choir one place of worship. The Great Kirk remained 
as it was, and the Tolbooth was still divided into two churches, as 
during Cromwell's time. One of them was called Haddo's Hole 
Church from its proximity to the prison where Gordon had been 
confined. 

In 1681 the town oflfered to buy a peal of bells for St Giles with 
a portion of some money that had been bequeathed to them by a 
certain Thomas Moodie : '* The toune offers to buy a pale of bells 
to hang in St Geills steeple, to ring musically and wame us to 
church, and to build a tolbuith above the West Port of Edinburgh, 
and to put Moodie's name and armis thereon. Some thought it 
better to make a stipend for the Lady Tester's Kirk."^ The money 
lay by for a time, and the interest was applied to pay house-rent 
for the bishop. Finally it went to building a church in the Canon- 
gate after the parishioners had been expelled from the Abbey 
Church of Holyrood 

' Foantainliairs Historical Notices, vol. i. p. 325 ; see also vol. \L 




CHAPTER XXV. 
Peaceful e:(me*-1688-X745. 




After the foaming cataract, how still 
The level pool that mirrors heaven's peace. 

HE advent of "Dutch William" caused a rapid 
change to take place both in the political and 
ecclesiastical drama. There was much speculation in 
Edinburgh as to what would be the result of his 
accession in matters affecting the church, and those 
who speculated were not long left in doubt. The Bishop of 
Edinburgh, Dr Rose, an able and amiable man, was sent up to 
London to look after the interests of his church, and other 
divines were deputed to look after those of the Presbyterians. 
Both had interviews with the new king, who said, " I hope you 
will be kind to me and follow the example of England." The 
bishop, with a candour which it is impossible not to admire, replied 
to his majesty : " Sir, I will follow you so far as law, reason, or 
conscience shall allow me." The answer was a brave and honest 
one, but it sealed the fate of Episcopacy in Scotland. 

On the 14th March 1689 the Convention of Estates met, and the 
Bishop of Edinburgh opened it with a prayer, in which he asked 
God to restore King James. This was the last time he officiated 
in the capacity of chaplain. The Convention resolved to offer the 
crown to William and Mary, and the ministers were ordered to read 
from their pulpits a proclamation to that effect, and to pray for the 
new sovereign and his consort. The ministers of Edinburgh did not 



244 PEACEFUL TIMES. 

receive the proclamation till Saturday night, and some of them not 
till Sunday morning. They being Episcopalians refused to read it, 
and when in one of the churches of St Giles the clerk began to do so 
in opposition to the minister, the whole congregation got up and left 
the church. The ministers were at that time very able men, and 
had attracted large congregations who were much attached to them. 
The peoi^le of the city had almost all conformed to Episcopacy. 
Mr Annand, the dean, was much respected, and it was said of him 
''there was scarcely a more innocent man in Great Britain." 
Dr Monro, the Principal of the University, was an eloquent and 
admired preacher, and so was Dr Jardyne of the Tolbooth. Upon 
these men, in company with many of their brethren, the heavy 
hand of the law was laid, and they were " ousted " as their Presby- 
terian predecessors had been. The persecuting spirit which has 
apparently always pervaded Scottish ecclesiasticism was abroad, 
and it had as in former times many victims. There were some 
few of the dominant party who pleaded for toleration, but their 
voice was not listened to, and, like Leighton in the old time, they 
spoke in vain. 

On 15th June 1690, the Eev. David Williamson,^ minister of 
St Cuthbert s, preached in St Giles before His Grace the King's 
Commissioner and the three Estates of parliament. In his sermon 
he narrates with eloquence and pathos the sufferings which he 
and his fellow-Presbyterians had undergone, but it is too evident 
that those sufferings had not taught him meekness and charity. 
He turns from their narration to make light of those hardships 
which the Episcopalians were then bearing, with the statement 
of which, he says, they were "deeved," and which were only 
'* flea-bite sufferings" compared with what they themselves had 
borne. Toleration the preacher scoffed at. It was "under pre- 
tence, forsooth, of tenderness of conscience. It was to love our 
ease more than God." So the preacher urged, and he had many 
hearers who were easily persuaded. The death of the Dean of St 

1 « Dainty Davie," as he waa called. His sermon was published. 



PEAOEFUL TIMES. 245 

Giles anticipated his removal from his charge, and on his death-bed 
he referred with tears to the state of ecclesiastical affairs, " saying he 
never thought to have outlived the Church of Scotland." The other 
Episcopalian ministers were cast out to live as best they could. 
" Meeting-houses,** ^ as they were then called, were set up in Edin- 
burgh for the first time, and Episcopacy, notwithstanding constant 
annoyance from both the civil and ecclesiastical authorities, entered 
on a new career. A large number of inhabitants accompanied their 
ministers into dissent from the establishment. There were no less 
than eleven " meeting-houses ^ in Edinburgh, and shortly after the 
Revolution their contributions for charitable purposes came close in 
amount to those collected in the parish churches." For a time the 
Episcopalians used no liturgy, and their service had Uttle to dis- 
tinguish it from that used in the Presbyterian churches. There 
was a strong effort on the part of some of the best Scotsmen of 
the time to make provision for the dispossessed clergy from the 
bishop's rents,* but the action of men hke the preacher above 
noticed prevented the proposal being given effect to. The change 
in St Giles occasioned by the transference of the building once 
more to Presbytery seems to have taken place very quietly, though 
it was marked by the appearance of several polemical pamphlets, 
one of them bearing this curious title, ** New High Church turned 
old Presbyterian. Newer a barrel, the better herring/' 

On the occasion on which the Rev. David Williamson preached in 
St Giles against toleration to Episcopalians — though curiously enough 
the most eloquent part of his sermon is plagiarised from one by an 
English bishop* — a strange circumstance is said to have occurred. 
The Duke of Hamilton, commissioner from the king to the Estates 
of parUament, sat in the church in great pomp. While the service 
was proceeding, a black cat suddenly appeared and walked across His 

1 CcJamy's Works. ' Scots Magazine. 

* Carstares did his best, and so did others of the wisest among the Presbyterians. Snch 
men did all in their power to help and maintain kindly intercourse with the '* ousted " Episco- 
palians. — See Calamy's Life of Carstares, 

* The conclusion of his sermon is borrowed from Bishop Browning's sermon at the inaugura- 
tion of Charles L 



246 PEACEFUL TIMES. 

Grace's cushion. It was a curious intruder in such a place, and the 
general belief was that puss was none other than Lady Stair, wife of 
the president of the Court of Session, who was popularly regarded 
as a wicked witch. She was commonly known as Aunty, Dame 
Maggie, or Maggie Ross, and had made, it was said, a paction with 
the Evil One, who enabled her to assume different shapes at will 
What object her ladyship had in coming to church on this occa- 
sion we do not know, but that she was there most people had 
no doubt. In one of the pasquils of the time we have the incident 

alluded to : 

So pouse in majestic from death of state, 
St Geills saw throun by huffie duke of late.^ 

This extraordinary woman, the original of Lady Ashton in the 
Bride of Lammermoor^ died soon after her reputed visit to the church. 
Her distinguished husband was buried in St Giles in 1695, with the 
solemnities usual for one in his station. His funeral was the last of a 
public character that took place within the building for many years. 
In what part of it he was laid it is impossible to say. There is 
nothing to mark the grave of the founder of Scottish jurisprudence. 

The union between Scotland and England was finally ratified by 
the Scottish Estates of parliament on the 16th January 1707. It 
was violently opposed for a time by many of the clergy, but they 
finally acquiesced, and a solemn religious service was held in St Giles 
to commemorate the event. " There was a very great congregation, 
where was present many members of parliament, and the work 
continued till two of the clock very public and solemn, but without 
any of the excesses which some people flattered themselves to find 
there."* What these excesses that were apprehended were, we do 
not know. It is pleasant to think that the religious service 

^ Maidment^B Pasquils, In an elegy on Lady Stair, these woi-ds occur : 

Johnstoan rejoice with your friend Ormistoim, 
And you Sir William and Duke Hamiltoun, 
That the cat that crost the cushion in the church. 
Is dead and left her kittens in the lurch. 

Maokat'b Life of Stair, p. 267. 
• Defoe's History of the Union. 



PEACEFUL TIMES. 247 

consecrating a union from which so many happy results have 
followed, took place in our great historic building. 

One who, more perhaps than any other, had brought about that 
union, came to St Giles in 1707 as minister of the High Church. 
This was William Carstares, famed no less as a statesman than as 
a scholar and divine. He was one of the most noble of those who 
in any age and under any form of worship or church government 
officiated in St Giles. His life has been fully given elsewhere,* 
and we can only say here that during his incumbency the church 
prospered and was largely attended by the citizens of Edinburgh. 
We get a glimpse of what it was in his time in the life of Calamy, 
a leading Nonconformist divine, who visited Scotland in 1709, and 
whose account of Edinburgh is deeply interesting.^ This gentle- 
man was hospitably entertained by the clergy of the Scottish 
metropolis, and both attended service and preached in St Giles. 

" The first Lord's day after I reached Edinburgh I was an hearer 
in the New Church. There were many noblemen present, the magis- 
trates of the city, and members of Assembly. The auditory was 
much crowded, as was the case also in Glasgow and Aberdeen. It 
was a very common complaint that they wanted more places for 
public worship. The ministers even in the most solemn auditories 
preached with neckcloths and coloured cloaks, which a little sur- 
prised me.' It was their common way, unless they were professors 
of divinity, or persons remarkable for age and gravity. It was 
their usual way to expound some portion of Scripture during about 
half an hour, which they called lecturing. After a short prayer, a 
sermon followed of the same length. They usually take as much 
pains in studying for lecturing as for sermons, and some a great deal 
more." 

The distinguished stranger who thus describes the sermons says 
nothing in regard to the devotional part of the service. So far 
as Carstares was concerned, we know that propriety and solemnity 

* Life of William Carstares, by Rev. Dr Story. ' Calamy's Life and Times, p. 177. 

' In his portrait Carstares is represented in gown, cassock, and bands, wearing the mims- 
terial dress of the present day. 
2H 



248 PEACEFUL TIMES. 

pervaded all he did, but the prayers in use by some of his brethren 
in St Giles were of a strange character. The Booh of Common Order 
had now dropped entirely out of sight, and the devotions were often 
wild and incoherent extemporary effusions. Some of them taken down 
by hearers have reached our time. " Nothing of news here," says a 
letter from Edinburgh,^ " but I '11 oblige you with a fresh piece of 
Presbyterian cant poured out on Sunday last by McLaren in the 
Tolbooth Church, in his prayer after sermon — viz. * Lord, there 
are two great beasts in the world — the great Turk and the Pope of 
Rome ; destroy them both, and bring down that great enemy of 
Christ's Kirk, the tyrant of France. Bless our Queen ; but, Lord, 
take a course with some dangerous and evil counsellors that are 
about her.' "* It was the same divine who, visiting on his sick-bed a 
deformed Edinburgh writer, prayed thus : " Lord, have mercy 
upon this poor crooked worm, thy servant." He was singularly 
outspoken, and on one occasion, seeing a set of spruce writers' 
clerks in the galleries, he said, towards the conclusion of his discourse, 
" That whosoever fell into the devil's hands would have their souls 
torn out as ravenously as a set of hungry writers' lads tear out the 
hearts of bawbee rolls."* 

Week-day sermons were kept up in St Giles at this period. The 
kirk-sessions having been deprived of the power they once enjoyed 
of commanding the civil magistrate to carry out their sentences, the 
result of the relaxation of discipline and the disappearance of the 
" cutty-stool " was a great increase of open scandal. A *' Society for 
the Reformation of Manners" was in consequence instituted, and 
a weekly sermon held in the High Church. For a time the novelty 
attracted many, and a distinguished and even fashionable audience 
filled the building; but afterwards the congregation became very 
scanty. The weekly sermon, a contemporary tells us, took the 
place of a public entertainment, of which there were few ; * but as 
public amusements multiplied, and especially when the theatre 

1 February 7, 1712. « Historical MSS. Reports, p. 190. 

' Ochtertyre MSS. (Blackwood, 1880), where various stories of this divine are given. 
* Ochtertyre MSS. 



PEACEFUL TIMES. 249 

came to Edinburgh, the attendance at the church fell oflf. One 
of the ministers, the learned and able Dr Wallace, pleaded for 
a reformed theatre, but his colleague, Mr M'Laren, replied 
that ''he was not so well read in those matters as his young 
friend seemed to be, but he would venture to foretell that as soon 
as the playhouse should be thoroughly reformed, it would be as 
ill attended as the week-day sermons."^ The High Church was 
the most fashionable of the four churches within St Giles. Here 
the magistrates came to hear sermon before election, in their 
*' formalities." All the public officers of the crown attended officially 
on Sunday, and there was usually a large congregation. One of the 
ministers, however, is reported to have said, with a little peevish- 
ness, " that even were the Apostle Paul to preach in his church, not 
more than five of the Lords of Session would attend in the after- 
noon."* In this church Whitfield preached to an overflowing con- 
gregation on one occasion during his visit to Edinburgh.* Many of 
the ministers of the churches in St Giles during the period sub- 
sequent to the Revolution were able men, though probably none of 
them for influence in church and state equalled Carstares. Dr 
Wallace probably came next to him in this respect. He was a man 
of learning, the friend of Bishop Berkeley, and famed for his scientific 
attainments.* 

With two remarkable incidents which took place within St Giles 
we may close the narrative of this period. The first is the escape 
of Robertson, which was followed by the celebrated Porteous riots, 
of which, of all writers, Sir Walter Scott has given us the most 
graphic account. An eye-witness tells us the story of the prisoner's 
escape. 

" I was witness, ** says Dr Carlyle of Inveresk, " to a very extra- 
ordinary scene that happened in the month of February or March 
1736, which was the escape of Robertson, a condemned criminal, 
from the Tolbooth Church of Edinburgh. In those days it was 

1 Ochtertyre MSS. > Ibid. 

' Scots Magazine. * Ochtertyre MSS. 



250 PEACEFUL TIMES. 

usual to bring the criminals who were condemned to death into the 
church to attend public worship every Sunday after their condemna- 
tion, when the clergyman made some part of his discourse and 
prayers to suit their situation ; which, among other circumstances of 
solemnity which then attended the state of condemned criminals, had 
no small effect on the public mind. Robertson and Wilson were 
smugglers, and had been condemned for robbing a custom-house 
where some of their goods had been deposited; a crime which at that 
time did not seem in the opinion of the common people to deserve 
so severe a punishment. I was carried by an acquaintance to 
church to see the prisoners on the Sunday before the day of execu- 
tion. We went in early to the church, on purpose to see them come 
in, and were seated in a pew before the gallery in front of the pulpit. 
Soon after we went into the church by the door from the Parliament 
Close/ the criminals were brought in by the door next the Tolbooth, 
and placed in a long pew not far from the pulpit. Four soldiers 
came in with them, and placed Robertson at the head of the pew, 
and Wilson below him, two of themselves sitting below Wilson, and 
two in a pew behind him. 

*' The bells were ringing and the doors were open while the people 
were coming into the church. Robertson watched his opportunity, 
and suddenly springing up, got over the pew into the passage that 
led to the door in the Parliament Close, and no person offering to 
lay hands on him, made his escape in a moment. So much the more 
easily, perhaps, as everybody's attention was drawn to Wilson, who 
was a stronger man, and who attempting to follow Robertson, was 
seized by the soldiers, and struggled so long with them, that the 
two who at last followed Robertson were too late. It was reported 
that he had maintained his struggle that he might let his companion 
have time. That might be his second thought, but his first was 
certainly to leap over himself, for I saw him set his foot on the seat 
to leap over when the soldiers pulled him back. Wilson was 

^ The south porch, which had heen opened up as the entrance to the Tolbooth Church, in the 
south-west comer of St Giles. 



PEACEFUL TIMES. 251 

immediately carried out to the Tolbooth, and Robertson getting 
uninterrupted through Parliament Square, down the back stairs 
into the Cowgate, was heard of no more till he arrived in 
Holland."^ Those who know the Heart of Midlothian (and who 
does not?) will be interested in the account of this scene from 
the pen of one who witnessed it. 

In 1745 another occurrence took place within the New or High 
Church, which is worthy of being noted here. " Prince Charlie " 
was on his march towards Edinburgh, and a meeting of the inhabit- 
ants of the city was called to consider what should be done. They 
met first in the Goldsmiths' Hall, and that place being too small, 
they adjourned to the church. Here they debated what should be 
done in the circumstances, and whether the town should be defended. 
Only three or four answered in the aflSrmative, and it was " agreed 
to capitulate on the best terms that could be got." This resolution 
had just been come to, when a startling circumstance occurred. A 
letter was handed in at the door of the church, and passed on to the 
Lord Provost, to whom it was addressed. It began with these 
words, " Whereas we are now ready to enter the beloved metropolis 
of our ancient kingdom of Scotland." It was tolerably evident from 
whose hand the letter had come, but the reader was stopped, and 
many voices asked by whom the letter was signed ; the answer was, 
*' Charles, Prince of Wales." The Lord Provost would not hear it 
read, and the meeting broke up, the magistrates to deliberate else- 
where, and the people to gossip about what was to happen.* The 
Highlanders soon entered Edinburgh, where they behaved them- 
selves exceedingly well. On the first Saturday that they were 
there, a message was sent by the prince to the dwelling-houses of 
the city ministers, desiring them to continue public worship next 
day as usual. On Sunday, the bells were rung, but none of the 
ministers appeared, and there was no sermon in any of the 

* Autobiography o/Dr A, Carlyle, p. 33. 

^ Scots Magazine, voL vii. p. 443, where there is the best account of the Highland ai-my in 
Edinburgh. 



252 PEACEFUL TIMES. 

churches.^ St Giles for the first time during many years was 
silent. Probably the ministers were in doubt as to which king 
they should pray for, and solved their difficulty by remaining 
away. Their fears soon passed, Culloden was fought, and the 
musical bells of St Giles rang out a merry peal in honour of the 
Duke of Cumberland. 

These musical bells were hung in the steeple in the spring of 
1700. In 1698 the city authorities entered into a contract with 
John Meikle *'for making a good and sufficient cheme or sett of 
musical bells, exactly tuned, conforme to the rules of musick, to be 
placed and fixed according to arte, upon the High Church steeple of 
St Jeills, for the decorment of the city, after the fashion and 
manner of other cities abroad." * John Meikle accordingly bound 
himself " to make a good and sufficient cheme or sett of musical 
bells, according to the rules of musick, for the use of the good toun 
of Edinburgh, consisting of fifteen in number, and to be of different 
notes of musick, rising or falling gradually, according to the scheme 
or scale condescended on by the said committee. So that the upper- 
most bell of the highest note be C, sol-fa, and about six pound weight, 
and all the rest of the metall to descend gradually conforme to the 
said scheme, till they come to the lowest or largest bell." The work 
was done to the satisfaction of Mr George Barclay, minister, and 
Francis Toward, music-master, who were to be judges, and the best 
musicians declared the work to be " extraordinary well doun." The 
" nobility, gentry, and the whole nighboors of the good toun " were 
" also well pleased and satisfied therewith." 

With the exception of the hanging of these musical bells, nothing 
was done for or to the church during the period covered by this 
chapter. The four churches still remained as the alterations during 
the Protectorate left them. The door through St Anthony's Chapel 
was the entrance to a large vestibule, from which the Old or central 

^ It is generally said that the minister of St Cuthbert's and the morning lectorer at the Tron 
preached as usual, but they were not ministers of the city. I take my account from the 
Scots Magazine, 

' Proceedings of Antiquarian Society ^ vol. iii. p. 198. 



PEACEFUL TIMES. 253 

church was entered, and was a common lounge of the idlers about 
Parliament House. This passage was generally called the Moray 
Aisle/ from the Regent's tomb standing there. As in old times, 
the high altar of the church had been the place for stipulated pay- 
ments of money, so in times succeeding the Reformation, the tomb of 
the Regent was fixed on for that purpose. Bills were made payable 
there, and in legal documents it is mentioned as the place of assig- 
nation for those who proposed entering on any mutual agreement.* 
In Sempill's poem, "The Banishment of Poverty,'' there is an 
aUusion to this vestibule where the monument stood, and a hungry 
man is represented as saying : 

Then I knew no way how to fen, 

My guts rumbled like a hurle-barrow ; 
I dined with saints and gentlemen, 

Ev'n sweet Saint Giles and Earl of Moray. 

We close this chapter by a description of the building by Defoe, 
who visited Edinburgh in 1727 : 

" About midway between the Nether Bow and the Castle Hill is 
the Great Church. Formerly it was called the cathedral, and was all 
one church, dedicated to Saint Giles ; but since the abolishing of 
Episcopacy, and that the Presbyterian church is now established by 
the Union, so as never legally to suffer another change. I say never 
legally, because it cannot be done without dissolving the Union, 
which I take to be indissolvable. Since this Establishment, the 
cathedral church is divided into four parochial churches. 

*' In one of those churches, which they call the New Church, were 
seats for the parliament, high commissioners, and the nobility, when 
the parliament was assembled, though that occasion is now over. 
In a room, formerly a kind of consistory room, on the south side of 
the church, the General Assembly hold their meetings once a year, 
as also does the Commission of Assembly in the intervals of the 
general meeting, as occasion requires. In the great tower of this 

1 The present Moray Aisle is a misnomer. The ** Moray Aisle " was St Anthony's Chapel, 
where the organ now stands. 

« Wilson's Memorials, voL ii p. 170. 



254 



PEACEFUL TIMES. 



church they have a set of bells, which are not rung out as in 
England, for that way of ringing is not known here ; but they are 
played upon with keys, and by a man's hand, like a harpsichord, the 
person playing has great strong wooden cases to his fingers, by 
which he is able to strike with more force, and he plays several 
tunes very musically, though they are heard much better at a 
distance than near at hand ; the man plays every day, Sunday and 
fast days excepted, at twelve o'clock, and has a yearly salary for 
doing it, and very well he earns the money/' Those bells have been 
for some time silent. 




North View of St Giles, before 1830. 



ft 



? 

^ 



Si 




CHAPTER XXVI. 



l»«trtitt£on— 1745-X834. 




Oh, be his tomb as lead to lead 
Upon its doll destroyer's head. 

Scott. 

|FTER the rebellion of 1745 the history of Scotland 
becomes very dull, and that dullness extends to the 
annals of St Giles. There is for some time but little 
to chronicle. Scotland had no political life of its 
own, and " an air of gloom and depression pervaded 
the city." The High Church, which was graced by the ministry of 
Dr Hugli Blair, was always crowded with a fashionable audience.^ 
Dr Blair became minister in 1758. Never at any time, probably, 
has there been a preacher who in his day was more popular than 
this divine, and no sermons ever published have had a wider circu- 
lation. They were translated into almost all the languages of 
Europe, and gained the preacher a pension from the Crown. To 
hear him there came all the men of taste and letters who resided in 
Edinburgh, and the Scottish poet, Robert Bums, was often seen 
in the crowd, during his visit to the city. Being asked from 
which of the public places he had received the greatest gratification, 
he named the High Church.^ Blair was regarded as one of the 
outstanding men of the city. *'I love Blair's sermons," said Dr 

^ It was propoeod in 1758 to make this church an auditory, in >yhich the ministers of the city 
should preach in turns. ' Xt/e ofBumSy by R. Chambers, voL iL p. 61. 

21 



256 DESTRUCTION. 

Samuel Johnson, "though the dog is a Scotchman and a Presby- 
terian, and everything he should not be. I was the first to praise 
him ; such is my candour. Let us ascribe it to my candour and his 
merit."^ 

Dr Johnson, who thus expressed his admiration of Blair's 
seiinons, made the acquaintance of the preacher during his visit to 
Edinburgh, on which occasion he came on a week-day to view the 
place where the sermons of world-wide fame were delivered. 
Boswell * gives us an account of his visit : 

" We went next to the great church of St Giles, which has lost 
its original magnificence in the inside by being divided into four 
places of Presbyterian worship. ' Come,' said Dr Johnson jocularly 
to Principal Robertson, ' let me see what was once a church.' We 
entered that division which was formerly called the New Church, 
and of late the High Church, so well known by the eloquence of 
Dr Hugh Blair. It is now being elegantly fitted up, but was then 
sha,mefully dirty. Dr Johnson said nothing at the time ; but when 
we came to the great door of the Royal Infirmary, where upon a 
board was this inscription, ' Clean your feet,' he turned about slyly 
and said, * There is no occasion for putting this at the doors of 
your churches.' " 

The state of dirt which Boswell describes as belonging to the 
High Church pervaded the whole building. Of the Tolbooth we 
have a similar tale. " The walls were dingy in colour, and seemed 
to have dust resting on every place. On one occasion, when either 
Whitfield or Mr Simeon preached, he noticed a large cobweb which 
had been placed at a height above the reach 'of ordinary besoms, 
and remarked, "That is the very cobweb which I saw when I 
was last here I"* A minister filled the pulpit of the Tolbooth 
Church, of equal popularity with Dr Blair, though he drew 
a different audience. This was Dr Alexander Webster, who 
came here in 1737. He was an eloquent preacher of the 

* Chambers^s Traditions of Edinburgh. ^ Boswell'a Life of Johnson, 

* Notes and Recollections of the Tolbooth Churchy by Mr Brown. 



DESTRUOTION. 257 

Evangelical type. He was of a social disposition, and was equally 
famed for conviviality and orthodoxy.^ The other churches 
within St Giles had from time to time ministers of acknowledged 
ability, such as Dr Maeknight, the author of The Harmony of 
the Gospels, and Dr Henry, the historian, of both of whom Lord 
Cockbum, in the Memorials of his Time, gives an interesting 
account. 

The preaching in each of the churches had a character of 
its own, and attracted different types of hearers. "The High 
Kirk had a sort of dignified, aristocratic character, approaching 
somewhat to Prelacy, and was frequented only by sound church- 
and-state men, who did not care so much for the sermon as for 
the gratification of sitting in the same place with his majesty's 
Lords of Council and Session and the magistrates of Edinburgh, 
and who desired to be thought men of sufficient liberality and 
taste to appreciate the prelections of Blair. The Old Kirk, in 
the centre of the whole, was frequented by people who wished to 
have a tough sufficient sermon of good divinity, about three-quarters 
of an hour long, and who did not care for the darkness and 
* goustiness ' of that dungeon -like place of worship. The Tolbooth 
Kirk was the peculiar resort of a set of rigid Calvinists from the 
Lawnmarket and the head of the Bow, termed the 'Tolbuith 
Whigs,' who loved nothing but extempore apostolical sermons, and 
would have considered it sufficient to bring the house down about 
their ears if the precentor had ceased for one verse the old hill-side 
fashion of reciting the lines of the psalm before singing them. Dr 
Webster, of convivial memory, was long one of the clergymen of 
this church, and deservedly admired as a pulpit orator; though 
his social habits often ran nigh to scandalise his devout and self- 
denying congregation."^ This description of the congregations 

^ Many stories of his conviviality have come down to us in the pages of Dr Carlyle and the 
Ochtertyre MSS. He was called familiarly " the Magnum Bonum ; ** and on one occasion when 
a belated traveller found him on the street " rather the worse," and said to him, ** What would 
people say if they saw you, Doctor?" "They wadna believe their ain een I" was the reply. 
He waa the founder of the Widows* Fund of the Church of Scotland. 

> Chamben's Traditions of Edinburgh, p. 213. 



258 DESTRUCTION. 

is not only graphic but correct, as all contemporary writings 
show. 

While the interior of the church was as it is thus described, the 
exterior was considerably changed. The grand Norman doorway, 
by which Haddo's Hole Church was entered from the High Street, 
was taken down and destroyed. It had survived many changes, 
and was the oldest part of the church existing.^ Happily, a drawing 
of it was taten before it was removed, from which we can see that 
it was very beautiful. The south porch door, which formerly 
afforded an entry into the church from the churchyard, and latterly 
from Parliament Close, was also meddled with, for we find in the 
town accounts the following entry : 

^^ August 1758. — To taking down all the building within the outer 
arch of the south door of the Tolbooth Church, carting away the 
rubbish, and fiirnishing and laying all the steps without the door 
and two flatts vnthin, and building a stone wall at ye west end of 
the stair, per estimate given in, £5, lOs.** 

It was probably about this time the outer chapels at the south- 
west end of the church were swept away.* In 1817 the booths 
which surrounded the church were removed, and the building stood 
^' naked and bare." A writer in the Scots Magazine in that year 
says, '*the Luckenbooths have been safely carted away to Leith 
Wynd (would it had been done some dozen years ago 1) The 
irregular and grim visage of the cathedral has been in great measure 
unmasked. There yet remain, however, the vile booths, with their 
still more execrable chimneys, to disfigure the south side of the 
cathedral in the Parliament Close; but Whitsuntide will come 
anon, and the existence of these aged deformities will be no more.'* 
The removal of these *' aged deformities " seems to have awakened 
public interest in the cathedral, and plans for its " improvement" were 
put forward. The writer we have quoted urges that something 

^ Wilson Bays this doorway was destroyed in 1760 ; Laing, in 1708. There is no notice of 
the work in the Dean of Guild's accounts beyond what is given in the Appendix. 

' We have no account of their demolition, but they do not appear in the views of the church 
At this period. 



DESTRUCTION. 259 

should be done to " embellish the exterior/' and recommends above 
all things that those in authority should study " that cardinal virtue 
prudence." If they had taken his advice in that particular, what 
unfortunately happened would not have taken place. 

An impulse to the *' restoration " of the building was probably 
given by the visit of King George IV. to Scotland. His 
majesty went to the High Church in state. Edinburgh accorded 
him an enthusiastic loyal reception, and his attendance at St 
Giles is represented as giving great satisfaction to his Scottish 
subjects. 

" To join with his people in their devotions was the next most 
truly popular act of our king. Nothing done by him gave more 
genuine satisfaction to the Scottish people. He had in a dignified 
and eloquent answer from the throne assured the nation of his 
maintenance of * those rights and privileges inviolate to which the 
Church of Scotland is entitled by the most solemn compacts;' but 
there would have been a defect which all would have felt if he had 
not entered its temples and joined in its simple worship. To St 
Giles' Church, where kings have sat before, and where a throne has 
remained, came in regal state, on the 25th August 1822, King 
George the Fourth — an event well worthy of a place in the history 
of the Church of Scotland. On his way from the palace he passed 
through many thousands of his subjects, who stood uncovered ; but 
respectful to the day and their monarch's frame of mind, they stood 
silent. The sound of the horses' feet and carriage alone broke the 
stillness of the scene. It is not doubtful that nothing was finer than 
this, nothing in better feeling and better taste, nothing more 
indicative of a dignified national character, nothing more gratifying 
to the king himself in all his meetings with the Scottish people. 
The officiating clergyman,^ feeling himself to be in higher presence 

' Dr Lamont, Moderator of the General Assembly. It is said that this divine, on his way to 
church, was overtaken by Dr Inglis, minister of Greyfriars, who suggested that his majesty, 
accustomed to the English ritual, would expect to hear the Lord's Prayer. Dr Lamont was very 
doubtful of being able to repeat it correctly, as he was not accustomed to say it in public. The 
two divines therefore stept into a neighbouring close, and Dr Inglis did not leave his friend till 
by rehearsal he was sure he could say the prayer properly. 



260 DESTRUCTION. 

than the king's, acknowledged no difference in the duties and 
spiritual interests of the monarch and the humblest of his hearers. 
He neither preached to the king, nor at the king, but he preached 
the imcompromising truths of the book which lay before him, in 
which there is no preference of created being. But when he gave 
forth the extemporaneous prayer which the Scottish ritual enjoins, 
there was a special blessing invoked on the sacred head of our king, 
as new and striking to him, accustomed to a set form of prayer, as 
it was solemn and pathetic to every one who heard and joined in its 
fervid import."^ 

The visit of the king, of which an eye-witness thus writes with 
such enthusiasm, brought St Giles into notice, and hopes were enter- 
tained that a grant might be obtained from the public funds to 
restore the building. Previous to this, plans had been prepared by 
a Mr Elliot, and in Blackwood! s Magazine there is a report by '* a 
committee appointed by the Society of Dilettanti to examine them." 
This report is on the whole judicious. " Relics such as those," it 
says, '* are to be touched with a delicate hand. Looking around upon 
the prison-houses with which this building has been polluted, the 
incongruous repairs which it has suffered, and the paint with which 
its tower has been disfigured and its fading inscriptions obliteluted, 
the committee confess it was not without alarm that they heard of a 
new alteration extending to all its parts being in progress ; nor 
has the examination of the plan for this repair tended to remove 
these feelings." They deprecate the proposed sweeping away "of 
the numerous niches and rich canopies in the outer wall of the 
cathedral." They think it unadvisable to remove " the Tolbooth 
Church ; they recommend that there should be no galleries, and that 
if seats of dignity are wanted, these might be formed by means of 
something elevated, as stalls in cathedrals, and that the ancient 
ornamented gate of Haddo's Hole should be restored, and that 
especial care should be taken that every ornamental stone now 

^The above somewhat gashing deecription is from '< Letters to Sir Walter Scott, Bart, 
1822," said to be by James Simpson, advocate. 



DESTRUCTION. 261 

• 

existing in any part of the building, and removed in the course of 
the repair, should be preserved."^ It is sad to relate that not only 
were the wishes of this committee disregarded, but every distinctive 
feature of the plan against which they protested was rigidly carried 
out. 

Views have come down to us of St Giles before the hand of the 
" restorer " was laid upon it. It was a quaint irregular building 
with many gables and turrets — ^its diflFerent parts clustering closely 
round the central steeple. One who was most competent to do so 
describes it on the eve of the change : ^ 

" St Giles, or the High Church, Edinburgh," says Mr Rickman, 
" is divided for four congregations, and some smaller portions are 
separated for other purposes. The plan of the edifice is a nave, 
choir, and transepts, with aisles and chapels, both north and south ; 
a large portion of the building is of a decorated character, with later 
additions and insertions, and much modem alteration. The choir is 
the principal church, and has good groining ; some of the piers have 
flowered capitals, and some of the arches have good mouldings ; a 
few of the windows have the tracery remaining, but from most of 
them it has been cut away. On the south side a large chapel, 
perhaps the ancient chapter-house,' is used for the meetings of the 
General Assembly. It has octagonal piers with good flowered 
capitals, and is richly groined. The south transept is separated for 
another congregation, and is galleried and otherwise arranged, so 
as to make a very awkward place of assembly, the pulpit being 
immediately opposite, and within a few feet of a pier ; this portion 
has some good groining. In the nave and aisles two congregations 
are accommodated, and on the north side are several rooms used for 
various purposes.* The exterior appearance of the church is much 

^ BlcLckwowJPs MagazinCy 1819. 

' Rickman, in his Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of Architecture. There is a description 
of the church at this period in Arnot's History of Edinburgh. 

8 The Preston Aisle. 

^ A police office among them. A writer in the Scots Magazine, 1817, speaks '' of that vile 
interpolation the police office, with its cabinet cTaisance in front, and the deep damnation 
incm-red by placing it under the hallowed roof of the cathedral." 



262 DESTRUCTION. 

deteriorated by its windows being despoiled of tracery, the destruction 
of battlements, parapets, and pinnacles, and various modem 
alterations ; but it is in contemplation to restore it, and of this it is 
very capable, as the substantial part of the building is not much 
injured, and if the interior divisions were cleared, it would make one 
or even two very fine churches. There are several ancient monu- 
ments in this church." 

No one was more competent to form an opinion of the capabilities 
of St Giles for restoration than Mr Rickman, himself the pioneer 
of the Gothic revival. Had the "restoration" been delayed a 
very few years, that revival might have saved it. Unhappily 
the work of St Giles fell into the hands of a very different 
man from Rickman. In 1829 government made a grant to the 
city of £12,600 for the ''restoration" of the building. The 
plans of a Mr Burn were approved by the authorities, and that 
architect received full power to carry them into effect. What 
ensued was deplorable, and can scarcely be conceived by those 
who have not themselves seen what was done. The three inner 
chapels on the south of the nave, with the re- vestry, south porch, and 
part of the Holy Blood Aisle with its beautiful dividing pillar, were 
cut oflF, to make a wider entrance into Parliament Square. The 
chapel adjoining the north porch, with a quaint turret, was taken 
down. All the niches outside the building, with the rich canopies, 
were swept away. The picturesque steep roof " theikit with stane " 
disappeared. 

In the interior the pillars of the nave were removed, and replaced 
by thin fluted columns, and the stone roof taken down to give 
way to a lath and plaster clerestory. Mouldings and capitals were 
ruthlessly cut into, to form rests for the beams of unsightly 
galleries. The stone roof of the choir and aisles was plastered over, 
to give it a smooth appearance. The side chapels that remained 
owed their preservation to being taken for vestries and coal cellars. 
The place where Montrose was buried was turned into one of the 
latter repositories. St Eloi's Chapel had its stone roof taken down, 



DESTRUCTION. 



263 



and was formed into an upper and lower chamber. All this may 
have been the result of ignorance and incompetency, but there were 
other things done that cannot be so excused. The ancient monuments 
to distinguished ecclesiastics and statesmen, that adorned the walls, 
were broken to pieces to make bedding for the floor. Even the 
monument erected by his countrymen to the Regent Moray was 




Brass Plate of Moray Tomb. 

destroyed,^ the sepulchres of the dead were desecrated, tombstones 
broken to pieces, lead coffins were taken away, and it is believed 
sold ; and cartloads of ornamental stones were removed, some of 
which still adorn the rockeries of suburban gardens. Nothing can 
excuse this wanton and heedless destruction. It was a pitiful 
biisiness, and when it was closed and the work finished in 1833, 
there remained very little to all appearance of the old cathedral. 
The exterior of the building was ruined irretrievably, the object of 
the architect having apparently been to have as smooth and regular 
a surface as possible. The interior was so cut up, plastered over, 
and divided as to be unrecognisable. It formed two churches, a 

^ Happily the brass plate was saved. The broken pieces of the Earl of Athole's monument 
wore found under the floor used as rubble 1 
2J 



264 DESTRUCTIOir. 

central vestibule, and an assembly hall. The latter was found 
unsuitable, and changed into a place of woi-ship. The windows were 
filled with slim tracery, and the building was amply supplied with 
massive oaken galleries, cutting in two the pillars that were left. 
By the public generally the restoration was thought " extraordinar 
fine/ but there were not wanting some who lamented bitterly 
the coarse hand that had been laid on Edinburgh's historic 
fane, while they " thanked God that the steeple had been left 
alone." 

The following extract from the City Chamberlain's accounts shows 
what money was expended in this business by the ever to be 
remembered Mr Burn. Surely never was money more senselessly 
wasted. 

Note as to Expenditure on St Giles' Church, 
in the years 1828 to 1834, for exterior and interior improvements. 

The whole expenditure amounted to £20,939 G 

Towards which Government gave £12,600 

Drawback of duties on timber and glass 

was obtained to the extent of 797 12 1 

And there was realised by the sale of old 

lustres 34 12 

Deduct 13.432 4 1 

Leaving £7,506 16 5 

the net charge on city's funds. 




Old Eilinbnigli Ti.lliootli. 




CHAPTER XXVIL 

Eater »as*-X834-1888* 

I will now Bay, 
Peace be withhi thee. 

Pbalmoxxil 

UR story is almost tolA After the dreadful work 
which is described in the last chapter, the history of 
St Giles became entirely imeventfuL It took its 
place among the other parish churches of the city, 
of which there were now many, and ceased to be 
regarded with any special interest. There was nothing venerable 
in its character. It might have been whitewashed or painted red 
for all that anyone cared. It was looked on merely as the meeting- 
place for three congregations. Able ministers,^ and ministers who 
were not so, ministered to these. The High Church alone retained 
somewhat of its prestige as the parish church of the city, where 
the magistrates and judges of the Court of Session came on Sundays, 
and the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly attended 
service during his annual visit to Edinburgh. It was the lot of the 
present writer to preach in the days of his youth before this eminent 
personage. His text chanced to be the words, '* How dreadful is this 
place ! " and his Grace was reported to have remarked that whatever 
might be said as to the sermon, certainly the text was most 
appropriate. The church was indeed dreary in the extreme — a 
dreariness that seemed only intensified by the dingy pageantry of the 
personages who filled the faded arm-chairs of the official pews. The 

1 Among these may specially be mentioned Drs Gordon and Buchanan of the High Church 
who**wentout"in'4a 



266 LATER DATS. 

pulpit was a lofty structure reared against the eastern window. 
Huge galleries flanked it on either side, and in a " loft " at the west 
end stood the royal pew with the throne, only to be compared to a 
four-posted bed with a blue painted canopy. The woodwork was of 
plain deal. A sense of dirt and mustiness pervaded everything. 

A frequent visitor to St Giles, William Chambers, then Lord 
Provost of the city, conceived the idea that something might 
be done for this faded and disreputable place of worship. William 
Chambers was a man to whom Edinburgh owes much. He loved 
Edinburgh, where he had spent so many years, and to which 
he had come as a boy in search of fortune. With his no less 
distinguished brother Robert, he was the first to introduce a 
cheap and wholesome Uterature, and his efforts were put forth in 
many directions for the benefit of his fellow-citizens. These efforts 
had been successful, and in his success he did not forget the place 
where it was achieved. It was a fortunate day for St Giles when 
its forlorn condition touched his heart. With the energy that 
was a leading feature of his character, he placed himself at the head 
of a committee of citizens, the object of which was to restore, so far 
as could be done, the High Church. He met with a wonderful 
response from the public, wonderful considering the apathy and 
indifference with which they had regarded for so long their historic 
church. He was fortunate also in his architect and coadjutors.^ 
The result of his first attempt is thus narrated by himself.^ 

''The galleries which disfigured the building were wholly 
removed, thereby developing the fine old pillars, which were mended 
with stone to resemble the original. The baldachino and the 
furniture of the royal pew were taken away as crown property. All 
the pews and pulpit were removed. The passages were laid with 
Minton tiles bearing antique Scottish devices. A pulpit of Caen 

^ The architect was Mr W. Hay, and the unwearied secretary of the committee, L. 
Mackersy, Esq. W.S. The first gentleman carried on the whole restoration; to the exertions 
of the latter the present state of the church, more than to any other except Dr Chambers^ 
is owing. 

« History of St Giles' Cathedral Church, by W. Chambers, LL.D. 



LATER DATS. 267 

stone exquisitely carved was placed against the pillar on the south 
side nearest the east window. All the seatings were of oak. The 
seats for the magistrates and for the judges bore appropriate 
carvings. The royal pew at the west end, raised above the general 
level, was a highly ornamental structure, with appropriate devices. 
According to appointment, the choir in its renovated form was 
opened for public worship on Sunday, March 9, 1873."^ 

Certainly no one could have recognised the choir after the 
operations alluded to in this extract were closed. It was a clean, 
bright, yet venerable place of worship. Interest in St Giles revived 
— the windows were filled with stained glass, instrumental music was 
introduced, and also an order of worship which continues to the 
present day.* 

The success of his first attempt made the generous restorer feel 
that it was possible to do still more for the old building. The 
Preston Aisle, which Mr Burn had " restored '* as a meeting-place for 
the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, was separated 
from the choir by a thick stone waU, filling up the arches with heavy 
masonry, and entirely obscuring the beauty of the pillars with their 
richly carved capitals. This part of St Giles had been found 
unsuitable as a hall for the Assembly, and had been occupied by the 
congregation of one of the parish churches of the city, called the 
Old Church. This charge had been suppressed by an act of parlia- 
ment, and the space occupied by it was now disused. In 1879 Dr 
Chambers resolved to restore this part of St Giles, and he set about 
the work with vigour, doing it all entirely at his own cost. 
Again the work of taking down partitions, removing floors and 
staircases, sweeping away galleries and pews, commenced. The state 
in which Mr Burn had left the Chepman Aisle, where Montrose was 
buried, is described by Dr Chambers as *' revolting," and it certainly 
was so. " The arch between it and the Preston Aisle had been built 

1 The cost of this restoration was £4490. The subscriptions actually realised fell short of that 
sum to the extent of £650, which deficiency was mside good by the chairman and several 
members of committee. The pulpit was carved by Mr John Rhind, an Edinburgh sculptor. 

• This was done by my esteemed predecessor, Dr Amot 



268 LATER BATa 

up. It was divided into three floors. The lower floor was degraded 
into a coal -cellar; in the middle floor was placed a tall iron stove for 
heating by means of flues ; and the upper floor formed an apartment, 
with a fireplace and other accessories." When the work was 
finished, the Preston Aisle, with its adjuncts, presented a wonderfully 
fine specimen of fifteenth-century architecture, and stands to-day in 
almost all respects as it did in the old Catholic time. We again 
draw on the narrative of the restorer for a description of the result 
of his loving labours. 

" The work on the Preston Aisle was the heaviest and lengthiest 
part of the second restoration, for the aisle, which abounds in artistic 
beauty, was in a sadly deteriorated condition. The finest carvings 
had been recklessly broken. The groined roof was so thickly 
covered with whitewash as to have no appearance of stonework. 
The first thing done was to clear the groined roof of its odious 
coatings. Months were occupied on these repairs. When the roof 
was finished, repairs were made on the pillars which stand in a row 
betwixt the aisle and the choir. These pillars had been seriously 
damaged by the insertion of beams and otherwise. In some instances, 
the bases and the ornamental capitals, with portions of the shafts, 
had to be replaced. The wall part of the aisle was also repaired in 
a manner as nearly as possible to resemble the original A small 
arched recess or shrine, which possibly had some connection with the 
altar set up to conunemorate Preston's munificence, was opened up 
in a creditable style of art** 

This restoration was in every way most successfiil. Dr Chambers 
with his usual modesty does not give an account of the cost, but it 
must, from the nature of the work, have been very large indeed. 
His generosity was not exhausted, and in 1881 he commenced the 
last and final work. The nave of St Giles was used as a parish 
church under the name of West St Giles. Dr Chambers now offered 
that, if the keys of this part of the building were handed to him by 
a certain date,^ he would do for it what he had done for the other 

^ WhitBunday 188a 



LATER DATS. 269 

parts, and so open up the whole interior. It was a generous offer, 
and though much had to be done before it could be taken advantage 
of, there was not wanting an eager response to it. Public interest 
in the old cathedral had now fully revived, and from many quarters 
there came offers of help. A committee composed of all denomina- 
tions of citizens was formed. An act of parliament was passed 
sanctioning the removal of West St Giles parish church to 
another locality, and naming the sum for which, on payment to 
certain specified parties, the congregation in possession were to 
vacate the nave of St Giles.* This sum was raised, though not by 
the day mentioned in Dr Chambers's offer. He, however, gener- 
ously extended the time, and finally, before the new date that he 
had named, the keys of the nave were handed to him, and he began 
operations. He undertook the work with eagerness. He was 
now in advanced years, and laid aside by bodily weakness, but full 
of interest in the work going on, of which reports were daily made 
to him in his sick chamber. It was the privilege of the writer, 
who had become incumbent of the High Church in 1877, to see him 
frequently. He will long remember the old man, with feeble 
voice and wasted body, but full of intelligence, and how his eye used 
to brighten up when the approaching completion of the restoration 
was spoken of. " If God," he once said to me feelingly, as he 
clasped my hand in parting with him, "enables me to finish this 
work, I will sing my Nunc Dimittis.'' That was not to be, but he 
saw enough to make him thankful that he had begun. 

On a day in the early spring of 1883, when there was a gleam of 
sunshine, the old man was borne from his carriage into the nave of 
St Giles, and seated on a chair looked around on the work then 
rapidly approaching completion. ''I never could have believed," 
he said, " that the interior was so fine." Much had then been done. 

> The Right Hon. the Lord Justice- General of Scotland took an immense interest with others 
in endeavouring to raise the sum required. I may mention also the ncunes of T. G. Murray, 
Esq., Lord Corriehill, and Sheriff Thoms. The Lord Provost and magistrates did all in their 
power, and many piivate citizens of all churches came forward to help. The sum needed and 
raised was £10,500. 



270 LATER DAYS. 

All the woodwork had been removed, the broken carvings repaired, 
the floor repaved, the thin fluted columns of Mr Bum replaced 
by pillars of the old form, and a great interior was opened to view. 
The Albany Aisle in all its beauty was revealed, the dividing wall 
alone remained, shutting off the choir and transept. The old man 
looked around on it all, expressing his deep satisfaction, and then 
departed. He never saw it again. 

The cathedral, restored from end to end, was opened with a 
public service on the 23d May 1883. Her Majesty the Queen 
was represented by a Scottish nobleman,^ and representatives 
of all the chief corporations in Scotland attended. The cere- 
monial was fitting the occasion, and three thousand persons filled 
the immense building. The whole scene recalled the brilliant 
pageants of an earlier day. But there was sadness in the hearts of 
all present, for three daj's previous to the ceremonial Dr William 
Chambers had passed away. The words of the preacher received, 
and still receive, a response from many. " So long as these stones 
remain one upon another, will men remember the deed which 
William Chambers hath done, and tell of it to their children," Two 
days after the reopening of the church, the funeral service of the 
restorer was conducted within the building his patriotism had 
beautified and adorned, and amid a vast and solemn crowd his body 
was borne forth from the place he loved so well, and for which he 
had done so much, to his burial. 

It is not necessary here to describe St Giles as it is now. All that 
it was possible to restore has been restored. In the destruction of 
1827 a great deal was swept away which it was impossible to 
replace. The exterior of the cathedral, with the exception of the 
tower, had been irretrievably defaced. In the interior few carvings 
and monuments belonging to the pre-Reformation period had been 
left. The armorial bearings of Preston are still seen in the Preston 
Aisle, also those of Sir Patrick Hepburn of Hailes. In the Chepman 

^ The Earl of Aberdeen. Her Majesty bestowed a baronetcy on Dr ChamberB, but he died 
before the honour reached him. 




y\^]u-h"<^ Imy ■\ t.v 



LATER DATS. 



271 



Aisle are those of the printer and his wife, and an eagle, the emblem 
of St John the Evangelist, to whom the chapel was dedicated. In 
a recess that constituted part of the Holy Blood Aisle there is an 
ancient monument built into the south wall. It is generally 
supposed to be a mural tomb, and bore at one time the name of the 
Caithness monument. I have little doubt, however, that it forms 
part of the '* Altar of the Holy Blood/' from the symbols of our 
Lord's passion that are represented upon it. The shields of Albany 
and the Earl of Douglas, and those already described connected with 
the east end pillars of the choir, still remain. There is also a very 
old rendering of the arms of the city, let in over the door of what 
was lately the vestry of the High Church. On one of the bosses 





Boss in Clicir. 
Old City Arms over Vestry Door. 

of the choir there is the following inscription which, from its 
height, had evidently escaped notice at the Reformation : " avb gra. 
PLA. DNS. TECu" (Hail, Mary, full of grace; the Lord be with 
thee). 

On the north side of the choir, as also in the Preston and Albany 
aisles, are recesses in the wall, probably the remains of mural 
tombs, of which in the olden time there were doubtless many in 
the church. In St Eloi's Chapel there is an interesting sculptured 
stone forming the keystone of the roof. The ancient stone roof 
had been removed, and replaced by a flat ceiling by Mr Burn, but 
the stone had been taken to the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum. 
The authorities of the Museum gave it up to Dr Chambers, who 
replaced it, and from its form was able to reconstruct the groining 

2K 



272 LATEE DATS. 

of the roof. In this stone there is an iron hook from which a lamp 
used to be suspended. There were found among the rubbish two 
sculptured stones, one representing the hilt of a sword, the other 
was part of a tombstone which had been covered with brass. 
These stones are built into the west end of the church. One vault 
was discovered in the church, in which the body of the Regent 
Moray had been laid. There were found at the restoration by 
Dr Chambers three lead coflSns,^ but no trace of the remains of the 
Regent. Neither in the Montrose Aisle were there any of those of 
the Marquis discovered.* 

On the outside wall of the choir, on the north side, there is a 
stone tablet with the following inscription : 

SEP 

FAinLI^ NAPERORV INTERIVS 

HIC SITVM 

EST. 

This inscription is surmounted by the arms and crest of Napier, 
with the Wrychthousis shield. The tablet is evidently connected 
with the burying-place of the ancient family of Napier of Merchiston, 
who, in old times, were closely associated with the church.' 
Whether this tablet occupies the original site where it was first 
placed is open to question. At one time it is mentioned as having 
been " in front of the church," at another as occupying a position 
inside ; and Amot, in his History of Edinburgh^ says that " in 
difierent quarters of the church there are monuments of the celebrated 
Lord Napier of Merchiston." These monuments have disappeared, 
and the slab on the outside of the choir was inserted where it is 
by Mr Bum. There is evidence to show that the Napiers of 
Merchiston long buried in St Giles, but it is not certain whether the 

* See Dr Chambers's account. 

' While these pages are passing through the press, a monument has been erected to the 
great Marquis of Montrose, of the clan Graeme, over the spot where he was buried. 
*Seean^ 



LATER DATS. 273 

celebrated member of the family, Baron Napier, the inventor of 
logarithms, who died in 1617, was laid there or not^ 

Little remains to be said of what has been done to the church 
since the renovation by Dr Chambers. A managing Board of a 
representative character, which he, before he began the work,* 
stipulated should be appointed, has control over the placing of 
monuments and other matters of a similar nature. Under their 
supervision several very elegant memorials, chiefly of a military 
character, have been aflSxed to the walls. The windows of the 
church are gradually being filled in with coloured glass. An 
expensive organ has been erected, and it is in contemplation to place 
a chime of bells in the steeple. The whole building is now used 
as one place of worship, and is capable of seating three thousand 
persons. On the 1st of January 1884, the daily service, which had 
been suspended for so many years, was renewed.' 

The cathedral has been the scene of various celebrations of a 
national character since its restoration. The old colours of many of 
the Scottish regiments were placed here with great ceremonial on 
the 14th November 1883.* The university of the city held here the 
opening service of its tercentenary ; and a service in commemoration 
of the jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen was celebrated at the same 
time with that in Westminster Abbey, and was also national in 
its character. These and similar functions are too recent to need 
description here. 

Our story is finished. We have traced the story of this great 
historic building from earliest times, through many vicissitudes, 
down to the present day. What changes it may yet witness it is 
impossible to forecast. May the hand of time deal gently with it. 
No church in Britain perhaps, if we except Westminster, is richer 

1 See Maitland and Amot's histories of Edinburgh, Napier*s Memoirs of John Napier of 
Merehiston; Arehasologia Scotica, voL iv., p. 214; Wilson's Memorials of Edinburgh, voL 
ii, p. 173. 

' See Dr Chambers's narrative. The constitution of this Board is given in the Appendix. 

' See ante. It is right to say that this renewal is owing to the generosity of J. R. Findlay, 
Esq., by whom a beautiful pulpit to commemorate the resumption of daily service has also been 
gifted. * See Appendix. 



274 



LATER DATS. 



in historic association. Brave men have acted their part there ; 
brave words have been spoken there ; brave men lie buried there. 
It has been the home of all the shades of faith our country has 
seen — Catholic, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Independent, Bishop, 
Priest, Minister, stern Covenanter, wild Sectary, have each had their 
turn, and acted their part there. To guard that church carefully, 
and to maintain it as a cherished and venerated possession, will be 
the earnest desire of all who believe the past to be a mighty 
element in a nation's greatness. What a strange story its old gray 
crown, as it towers high above the city, tells out day by day to all 
who have ears to hear. It is the story of Scotland's poetry, 
romance, religion — the story of her progress through cloud and 
sunshine, the story of her advance from barbarism to the culture and 
civilisation of the present day. 




New Pulpit for the Side Chapel. 



APPEN^DIX 



VICARS OF THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST GILES, EDINBURGH. 

1893. Master James Ltoun. 
1461. James Methuen, D.C.L. 
1465. Nicholas db Ottibbuen. 
1460. Thomas Bully. 
1464. William Forbes. 



124a 


John. 




1247. 


Alexander. 




1268. 


Robert. 




1306-29. 


Alexander op 


Rbclynetoun. 


1362-3. 


Sir Bricius. 





PROVOSTS OF THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST GILES, EDINBURGH. 

1476. William Forbes. i 1621. Robert Crichtoun. 

1602-3. Gawin Douglas. | 1666. James Chisholmb. 



MINISTERS OF ST GILES AND THE CHURCHES THEREOF.* 

ST GILES, THE OLD, or GREAT CHURCH. 

1660. John Knox, bod of William K. , bom at Giffordgate in 1606, educated at Haddington, 
Btndiod at the Univ. of Glasgow, and entered into priest's orders about 1630. By perusing the 
works of Augustine and others of the Fathers, a few years after, he was led to adopt views 
inimical to the prevalent faith ; and in 1646 avowed himself a Protestant, and adherent to the 
sentiments of the celebrated George Wishart. In 1647 he entered the castle of St Andrews, 
as a place where he might be free from Popish persecution, and received a call to the ministry, 
on which he was ordained in the end of May that yeai* ; but was carried off as a prisoner by the 
French galleys in a month after. He was imprisoned in Rouen for nineteen months in 1648-9, 
and after his release established by the Council of England as minister at Berwick, but removed 
to Newcastle at the close of the following year. In Dec. 1661, he was named as one of six 
chaplains to Edward VI. ; and declined an appointment to the See of Rochester, Oct. 1662. 
He likewise declined accepting the charge of All-Hallows, London, April 1663. In 1664 he was 
called to Frankfort on the Maine ; but demitted his charge, and went to minister at Geneva, 
1666; but subsequently returned to Scotland in the same year. He was summoned to a 
meeting of the Romish clergy, 16th May 1666, but returned to his former charge at Geneva. 
While there, his former prosecution was renewed, and was followed by his condemnation and 
excommunication. This he braved, however ; abandoned the charge 7th Jan. 1669, returned 
home, was elected to this congregation 7th July following, and was one of the constituent 
members of the First General Assembly, 20th Dec 1660, and is supposed to have been 
Moderator of the Assemblies, June and Dec. 1662. By the Assembly, June 1664, he was 
appointed to visit the churches in the North; and Dec, thereafter, those in the counties 
of Fife and Perth. At the coronation of James VI. in Stirling, he preached, and gave his 

1 from Soott*B SaiU EcelmtB Seoticana. 



27 G MINISTERS OF BT GILES. 

assistance, 29th July 1667. He was seized with apoplexy, Oct. 1570, and preached for the 
last time in St G., sist Aug, ; but from his voice getting weaker, was obliged for a few weeks 
to discharge his pulpit duties in the Hall of the Tolbooth ; finishing his public services by the 
admission of a successor, on the 9th, and at length, worn out by labour and trouble, closed his 
eventful life, 24th Nov. 1672, aged 67, having been styled by Beza "the apostle of the Scots, 
Great Master Knox," and by the Regent Morton "a man who in his life never feared the face 
of man : who had been often threatened with dag and dagger, yet ended his days in peace and 
honour." He marr. in, or before, 1663, Marjoiy, daugh. of Richard Bowes, of Aske, Yorksh. ; 
she died end of 1660, leaving two sons, Nathaniel, A.M., and Eleazer, B.D., both of St John's 
Coll. Cambridge, who died without issue; 2dly, March 1564, Margaret, daugh. of Andrew, 
Loi-d Ochiltree (who subsequently marr. And. Ker of Faldounside), and had three daugh. : 
Martha, who marr. Alexander Fairlie, eldest son of the laird of Braid ; Margaret, who marr. 
Mr Zach. Pont, min. of Bower ; and Elizabeth, who marr. Mr John Welsh, min. of Ayr.— 
Publications— Works, Collected and Edited by David Laing, 6 vols. (Edin. 1846-1864), 8vo.— 
M'Crie'9 Life, Reg, Min.y Edin, Coune. and Test, Beg., Works i-vL, Booke of the Kirk, Keith, 
Cedderwoody Fetrie, Spotswood, Chambers's Biog, Diet, 

1672. James Lawson, Sub-Principal of King's ColL , Aberdeen, was elected, after long reason- 
ing, by the Superintendent and Knox, with other ministers and members of Session ; and being 
sent for, arrived and preached, 19th Sept., and was admitted by his venerable colleague, 9th 
Nov. 1572. On the demission of the Superintendent in 1673, the Assembly appointed him and 
others to apply to the Regent [Morton] for his sanction and authority to their proceedings 
In the following year they appointed him one of six for the inspection of such works as 
were proposed to be printed. He was in 1676 named one of those for drawing up the Second 
Book of Discipline; elected Moderator by the General Assembly, 12th July 1580; and was 
generally one of the assessors to the Moderator for preparing the business of the Assemblies. 
He attended the Earl of Morton to the scaffold as his spiritual adviser in 1581 — was zealous 
in supporting the authority of the Church in the excommunication of Archbishop Montgomery 
in 1582 ; and was called before the Privy Council regarding his opinion of the Raid of Ruthven 
same year. Foreseeing that the Church would be deprived of much of her power from the 
acts passed by Parliament in 1684, he declared openly against them from the pulpit on the 
24th, which caused the Earl of Arran, who had great influence then at court, to assert '* that 
if Lawson's head were as great as an hay-stack, he would cause it leap from his hawse 
[throat]." A warrant was issued for his apprehension on the 26th, but he and his colleague, 
Balcanqual, escaped, and travelling by night reached Berwick early in the morning of the 27th 
May. These proceedings, and the conduct of some of Ms flock arising out of them, had such a 
depressing influence on his spirits, though several friends endeavoured to divert him by visiting 
the Universities in England, that he was seized by dysentery, and died at London, 12th Oct. 
1584, in his 46th year and 12th min., "chieff for learning, holiness, power in doctrine, and 
all guid vertues amangis the haill ministeris ; " and by his solid learning and judgment, peace- 
able disposition, and pious deportment, greatly esteemed and beloved by all classes of citizens. 
His utencills and domicells, with silver wark and abulzements of bodie, wob estimat at j"* /tL, 
bulks and cairts [maps] iij« li, Frie geir and Inventar vij« IxvijW. xi*. viijrf. He marr. 
Janet Guthrie, who died eight years after him, by whom he left three children, James, 

Elizabeth, and ^.—Publications— Heads and Conclusions of the Policie of the Kirk 

[jointly], small 8vo, Letters to their Flocke in Edinburgh [jointly], [Calderwood's Hist. iv.]. 
Account of the life and death of that illustrious man John Knox [Knox's Works vi., Christ. 
Mag. y\,y-Edin, Coune, and Test, Reg,, Reg, Assig,, Petrie and Calderwood's Hist,, Wodroufs 
MS. Biog, i 

1587. Robert Bruce, second son of Sir Alex. B. of Airth, bom in 1554, was destined by 
his parents for the profession of the Law, and sent to Paris to acquire the principles of juris- 
prudence, and on his return, conducted his father's business before the Supreme Court, and had 
a patent even secured for his seat on the bench. His prospects were relinquished, however, for 
the study of theology, which he prosecuted at St Andrews, under the famous Andrew Melville. 
He was a member of the Gen. Assembly, 20th June 1587, was "found meitt and apt for the 
Burgh" 30th following, entered during July, and was elected Moderator of the Assembly 6th 



MINISTBRS OP ST GILEs'. 277 

Feb. same year. Yet near the close thereof, had not declared acceptance of his charge. His 
stipend was fixed by the Town Council, 15th Aug. 1589, at j"^ merks, or £55, Us. Id. sterling. 
So popular was he at the time, and so gratified was his Majesty by his services that, on leaving 
the kingdom for his marriage with the Queen, 22d Oct. following, he nominated him an extra- 
ordinaiy Privy ConncUlor, and requested him to oversee the affairs of the nation, which he did 
so judiciously and effectually, that the royal thanks were tendered to him, 19th Feb. 1590. He 
engaged with others, 17th March thereafter, in crowning Her Majesty, was again nominated 
Moderator of Assembly, 22d May 1592, and is understood to have had great influence in getting 
the Act of Parliament, 5th June following, passed, which secured and ratified the privileges of 
the Scottish Church. By change in the Court policy, he sunk much in the royal estimation, a 
charge was issued for his apprehension, and committal to the Castle with others, 20th Dec. 
1690. On the division of the city into parishes, he waef brought into much vexation and trouble 
in not having previously passed through the solemn form used in ordination, which was got over 
by his admission to a charge in the New or Little Kirk in 1598.— Pre^d. and Edin, Covnc. Reg.j 
Semuma (Wodrovfs Life), Beg, Assig,, Petrie and CalderwoocTs Hist,, Scots Mag, Ixiv., 
Madaren*s Ann, Tax, Chambers's Biog, Diet. L, Acts Pari. iii. iv. 

The Colleagues, or those to whom no parochial district had been allowed, or has been 
discovered. 

1563. John Craig, trans, from Holyroodhouse, entered after 18th June. He proclaimed 
or rather denounced the marriage of the unfortunate Queen Maiy and the notorious Earl of 
Bothwell, in May 1567, was chosen Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 2d March 1569, and 
translated to Montrose in 1671. When minister of the King's House, the Town Council, 13th 
Nov. 1584, desired his Majesty to concur with them that he may assist the Kirk of this burgh 
at sic tymes as his Majesty may spair him, and 19th March following, they agree with him for 
his service.— j^flftn. Coune. Beg., M^Crie's Knox iL, Spotswood, Petrie, Bow, and CaMenooocTs 
Hist., Edin. Christ. Inst. iiL, Chambers*s Biog, Diet. 1, Lee*s Lett., Maclaren's Ann. Tax, 

1573. John Dubie, trans, from Leith, entered before 6th Aug. In the Assembly, Oct. 

1580, he was appointed Visitor of Teviotdale. For inveighing against the Court in a sermon 
he was imprisoned in the Castle tiQ he produced his manuscript. With his colleague Balcan- 
qual, he attended the Earl of Morton previous to his execution, June 1581. Reflecting on the 
Duke of Lennox and others in a sermon, 23d May 1582, he was called before the Privy Council 
on the 30th, charged to remove from the city and abstain from his ministry. At the solicitation 
of the Gude town he was permitted to return, when he was triumphantly met and welcomed by 
a great concourse of people, 4th Sept. following, who, in going up the High Street, sung in 
parts the 124th Psalm. In Nov. thereafter, he was again discharged by his Majesty from his 
place in the City and confined to Montrose, the Town Council declaring, 21st Feb. 1583, " the 
King vrill nocht that Mr John return againe to serve or mak ony residence heir for causes 
moving his Majesty." While here he attended the greater part of the Assemblies held in his 
time, and continued enrolled as in the City, in the Book of Assignations for 1585.— .S^^. Assig,, 
MelvilVe AtUob., Wodrow*s Miseell. Biog. i, and MS. Biog. L, Petrie, Spotswood, Bow, and 
CalderwoocTs Hist, iii., Edin. Coune. Beg., Edin. Christ. Inst, v., New St. Ace. ix. 

1574w Walter Balcanqual, entered Whitsunday. He got L merks 23d July, as stipend 
for that term. He was "desyrit by other towns and large stipend promeist, yet he consentit 
to stay, and accept what they pleased," when they gave 8th Oct. j** li., and an eik, 13th Jan. 
following of xxxiii/t. vj«. viiid He was elected to the Chaplaincy of the Altar called Jesus, 
20th Nov. 1579. Having had a sermon mainly directed against the influence of the French 
at Court, 7th Dec 1580, he was called before the Privy Council on the 9th following, and 
discharged. He attended the Earl of Morton while in prison under condemnation, 2d June 

1581. Reflecting on the Court in a sermon, 24th May, and protesting next day at the Cross 
in name of the Church against certain Acts of Parliament then passed, a warrant was issued 
for Ms apprehension, on which he fled with his colleague, Lawson, to Berwick, on the 29th 
and 4th Jan. thereafter, his house in the Parliament Square was offered to another, while that 
fonnerly occupied by Durie was given to him, 25th May. In 1586 he was one of eight to 



278 MINISTERS OF ST GILES*. 

whom was committed the discipline of Lothian by the Gen. Assembly. The house formerly 
occupied by his colleague, Watson, was bestowed on him, 28th July 1587, and his stipend 
augmented to v* merks, £27, 15^. G^d sterling. He was appointed to attend the coronation 
of her Majesty, 17th May 1500. In consequence of a tumult, 17th Dec 1596, for giving 
rise to which the ministry were blamed, a warrant was issued for his apprehension, with other 
brethren on the 20th ; but he escaped to Yorkshire, was put to the horn, and only relaxed 22d 
April, and demitted his charge in May, so as to allow a parochial division of the city which for 
some time had been proposed. In July they were permitted to return to their ministry till 
the division was carried into effect. He returned accordingly, 24th of said month, and in 
1598 was admitted to the Trinity College Church for the North-east quarter of the city.— 
Reg, Assig., Preab, andEdin, Caunc, Beg,, MelvilVs Autob,, Petrie, Spotswood, BoWy CalderwoocPs 
Hist i. ii. 

1568. John Cairnis (probably son of Henry C, skipper in Leith, who was forced to leave 
the country, being denounced as a fugitive and condemned for heresy, in 1538) was one of those 
who privily held meetings in maintenance of -the Protestant faith in the city in 1555, and was 
Reader there in 1561. In 1566 application was made to the Assembly, 26th June, that he 
might be admitted to the ministiy in the city ; they remitted, however, the consideration of 
his fitness and sufficiency for the place. Yet as four ministers are mentioned in 1577, his 
sufficiency had been sustained, and he must have been included, as he is expressly mentioned 
as a fourth minister, 23d Jan. 1578. A half-year*s stipend as minister was ordered to be paid, 
15th Dec 1585, and 9th March following, he was ordered *'to get payment of his stipend 
nochtwithstanding his absence furth of this burgh." Having been " banisht and put in exile 
as also be reason of present dearth," his stipend was augmented L merks, being in all 
ii« merks, £11, 28, 2id. sterling, 15th July 1586. A further addition of 1. merks was given with 
the other three, making it iii** merks, £16, 13^. 4d. sterling, 6th Dec 1588. It was again raised 
to iii* Ix. merks, £20 sterling, 15th Jan. 1590. While thus stated as a minister by the Town 
Council, he only appears in the Books of Assignation as Header to 1588, and at his death in 
159o, still continued as Clerk to the Session, the Town Council having allowed Jonet Wilson, 
relict of Mr John C, min. v9 merks, 25th Oct. 1596, ordained her to remove from the house, 
and to deliver up the "buiks of marriages and baptisms." — Knox's Works ii., M* One's Knox iL, 
Edin. Counc, Keg,, Reg, Assig,, Wodrow's Biog, L and Miseell,, Books of the Kirk, Keith, Spots- 
wood and Caiderwood^s Hist,, Bannatyne Miscell, vL, Lee*s Lett,, MaclarevCs Ann, Tax, 

1584. James Hamilton, min. of Kenmure, or Daliy, in Galloway, elected 27th Nov., with 
a stipend of iij<> merks, £16, IZs, 4d sterl., and the house formerly occupied either by Durie or 
Balcanqual, admitted for a tyme at his Majesty's command, 16th April 1585. He does not again 
appear, but returned to his former charge — Edin, Counc, Reg, 

1585. William Watson, entreated by the Council to remain and teach fifteen days, 5th 
March 1584, adm. 13th April 1585. One of his colleagues was appointed to notify to the Con- 

.vention of the Ministers at Dunfermline, 23d Nov. following, "that beand destitut of their awin 
Min., throw the trubill that arease in the Kirk, and beand visite with the Pestilence, Mr 
William exercit the office of a Pastor in all sincerity of doctrine and conversation to the comfort 
and contentment of the godlie, desyring he may be associat to their ministry in the Burgh." 
He was warded for a time in the end of that year, for comparing his Majesty to Jeroboam, adm. 
(by the Presb. Adamson, the Archbishop being present) 27th Oct. 1589. By the tumult, 17th 
Dec 1596, for which he and his brethren were blamed, a chaige was given on the 20th for his 
apprehension, but he withdrew to Fife, made an apology, and was released from the horn 22d 
April 1597, permitted to return, and re-entered on duty, 24th July following. On the division 
of the city, he was admitted to the South quarter as stated below. — Presb, and Edin, Counc 
Beg,, Reg, Assig,, MelvilVs Autob,, Row and CalderwoocTs Hist. 

1584. John Edmistoun, formerly of Crail. In the great want of ministerial service, the 
Town agreed with him 4th Jan., and two days after they allowed him a stipend of iiijo merks, 
£22, 4s. 6d. sterl., with the house of Balcanqual. He was preferred to Dunning in 1586.— J^dtn. 
Counc, Reg,, Maclaren's Ann, Tax, 

1686. John Cowper, son of John C, merchant tailor in the city, and brother of Mr Will., 
afterwards Bishop of GaUoway, supplied the want of a min. in the Hie kirk for which he got 



MINISTERS OF ST GILES'. 279 

i« merks for stipend 22d Jane 15S6, and was elected by the Town Council, 23d Not. following, 
with ij* merks of stipend, commencing at Lammas last. Refusing to pray for Queen Maiy in 
terms of his Majesty's command while she was under sentence of death, he was ordered by the 
king to leave the pulpit, that his place might be supplied by Patrick, Archbishop of St 
Andrews, 3d Feb., and was imprisoned in the Castle of Blackness, on which the city gave him 
xl/t., £3, 6s. Sd. sterl., as a remuneration of the expense to which he had been subjected: 
trans, to Glasgow, Feb. 1587. He was probably in the High Church.— PrM6., Test., and Edin, 
Counc Reg.y Booke of the Kirk, Melviirs Autob., Spotswood, Petrie, How, CcUderwood, and 
Coolers Hist., Reg. Astig., Wodro%d*s MS. Biog. iL 

1589. John Davidson, formerly of Liberton, ordained to continue till he be provided as 
the Kirk and Council crave, 13th May, chosen 3d June, elected Moderator of Synod 16th Sept., 
and was a member of the Gen. Assembly, 3d March 1589, but afterw^ard settled in Canongate, 
2d charge. — Booke of the Kirk, Presb, Beg., CcUderwoocTs Hist. 

1589. James Balfour, trans, fr. Id vie. The Commissioners travel with him for his 
acceptance, 25th June 1589; which, "after lang communing," was accepted, 8th Oct. there- 
after. He was appointed one of the Visitors for Angus, 27th March 1596. Blamed with his 
brethren as being the instigators of a tumult in the city, 17th Dec following ; a chaige was 
issued on the 2(yth for his apprehension, but after being taken, he escaped to Fife by the assist- 
ance of the citizens, was put to the horn, made an apology, was released therefrom 22d April 
1597» and returned to his charge 24th July following. On the division of the city he was 
admitted to the North-west quarter in the East or Little Kirk in lS9S.—Edin. Counc. Beg., 
Beg. Assig., Booke of the Kirk, Melviirs Autob., CalderwooiTs Hist., Acts Pari. iv. 

1607. Patbick Galloway, Minister or Chaplain to his Majesty, who had been on the leet, 
11th Aug. 1588, was supplicated for by the Town Council to the King, 3d June 1606, the four 
Sessions concur 12th Sept. following ; having accepted a general ministry, he was appointed 
end of June 1607, elected Moderator of the Synod 27th October same year, was a member of 
the courts of High Commission, 15th Feb. 1610, 21st Dec 1G15, and 15th June 1619. He 
is mentioned as in the Great Kirk, 2l8t Feb. 1610. He signed the Protestation for the 
Liberties of the Kirk, 27th June 1617, but subsequently withdrew it. Had ij« merks, £11, 
2«. 2\d. sterl. allowed for house meall 18th Nov. 1618, and was ever eager in support of the 
Five Articles of Perth. On the division of the city in 1625, he was nominated to the North- 
west quarter in the Hie or Great Kirk, 25th Nov., and his admission appointed for 24th Jan., 
which illness prevented, and he died before 10th Feb. 1626, in 50th min., when his son James 
(founder of the noble family of Dunkeld ) was adm. a burges in right of his father. His librarie 
and buikis were estimat at iiij*" merks, utencils &c. at i™ merks ; and the Inventar and detts 
at zi*" ix« Ixxx/t. iif. ix^. He was called <*a man of manie pensions," and possessing the 
royal favour, was zealous in gratifying his Majesty's humour, irrespective of his former 
character and support of Presbyterian discipline He married, May 1583, Matillo Guthrie, 
who died June 1592, and had two sons and two daugh., James, already noticed, Williame< 
Dorathie, and Cristianc — Publications — Catechisme (Loud. 1588), 8vo. A Short Discourse of 
the good ends of the higher Providence, in the late attempts at his Majesty's person (Edin. 
1600), 12mo. Letters to the Presb. of Edinburgh, and to James VI. [Orig. Lett.]. Apology 
when he fled to England— Discourses on the Gowrie Conspiracy [Bannatyne MiscelL L, 
Pitcaim's Cr. Trials, iL^—Edin. Guildr., Counc., and Test. Beg., Douglas* Peer., Bollock's Works, 
MdvilVs Autob., Bann. Miscell. L, Scot's Apolog. Narr., Bow and Calderwood's Hist., Wilson's 
Pr. Perth. 

1611. Thomas Sydserff, A.M., eldest son of James S., merchant in the city, studied and 
took his degree at the Univ. thereof, 22d Feb. 1602. Town Council advise with Session anent 
his fitness, 14th Nov. 1610, adm. (by the Archbishop) 30th May 1611. His stipend and house 
maiU were fixed 14th Aug. following at vij« merks, £31, 10s. sterl., which was raised 28th 
Sept. 1614, to j^, or £55, Us. Id. sterL He signed the Protestation for the Liberties 
of the Kirk, 27th June 1617, and on the division of the city in 1625, was fixed to 
the North-east quarter, or Trinity College kirk. Probably in Old previous to tlua.— Edin, 
Guildr. and Counc. Beg., Beg., Law's U. Edin., Orig. Lett., Calderwood's Hist., Wodrow's 
Biog. L 

2L 



280 MINISTERS OF THE OLD CHURCH. 

1614. Andrew Ramsat, A.M., trans, fr. Arbuthnot. On the leet 23d Dec 1613, elected 
28th April 1614, placed aftei-waid, and had his stipend fixed at j™ merks, £65, Us. Id. sterl., 
15th June following ; nominated a member of the Court of High Commission 21st Dec 1615 
and 15th June 1619, signed the Protestation for the Liberties of the Kirk, 27th June 1617, but 
withdrew it — was socht both by the Earl MarischaJ and the Town to the Principality of his 
College at Aberdeen in 1620, when his translation was refused. He was appointed with others 
to visit the New College, St Andrews, 29th Nov. 1621, and on the division of the city in 
1625, fixed to the South-west quarter, or church of Greyfriars. — Edin. Counc and Guild. lUg.^ 
Bow and CalderwoocTs Hist., Scot*s Apolog. Narr., Burgh Bee. Aberd. iL 

1614. William Struthebs, A.M., trans, fr. Glasgow. On the leet 23d Dec 1613, elected 
28th April 1614, adm. after 15th June, and had a stipend of j™ merks, fixed 22d July thereafter. 
He was one of four appointed by the Gen. Assembly, 1616, to answer the books and pamphlets 
written by the Papists, and to revise the new Confession of Faith previous to its being printed. 
He signed the Protestation for the Liberties of the Kirk, 27th June 1617, but afterwards with- 
drew it ; was named a member of the court of High Commission, 15th June 1619 ; Moderator 
of the Presb. 4th Aug. 1621 ; and on the division of the city in 1625 nominated to the North- 
west quarter, or High Church.— ^e^m. Guild, and Counc Beg., Spotswood, Bow, and Colder- 
wood^ s Hist., Scot's Apolog. Narr., Orig. Lett. \i.. Acts Pari. iv. 

1621. John Guthrie, A.M., trans, fr. Perth, elected 26th March 1620, but refused to 
accept. The Council again dealt with him 9th May 1621, he was adm. 15th June following, 
and promoted to the Bishopric of Moray in 1623. — Edin. Counc. Beg., Spotswood, Bow, and 
Caldervfood's Hist, Orig. Lett. ii. 

1622. William Forbes, D.D., trans, fr. Aberdeen, elected by the Town Council and 
Session, 19th Dec 1621, adm. 2l8t March 1622, with a stipend of xij« merks, £66, ISs, 2id. sterl. 
On the division of the City in 1625 he was nominated to the South-east quarter, as mentioned 
heiow.-— Edin. Counc Beg., Spotswood, Bow, and CalderwoocTs Hist., Orig. Lett. iL, Wodrow's 
MS. Biog. iL 

OLD CHURCH (Resumed). 

1598. William Watson, above mentioned, was adm. 18th April. Having doubts respect- 
ing the circumstcmces of the Gowrie Conspiracy, he and three of his brethren refused to give 
thanks for his Majesty's deliverance in the terms which had been prescribed ; for this they were 
summoned to appear before the Privy Council, 9th Sept. 1600, and commanded to be imprisoned, 
but recanted on the following day. The king was resolved, however, they should no longer 
retain their ministry in the city, and with this view he was transported by the Gen. Assembly, 
16th May 1601, and adm. to Burntisland.— Pre«6. and Edin. Counc. Beg., Spotswood, Bow, and 
Calderwood^s Hist. , Booke of the Kirk, The next being 

1626. William Forbes, D.D., above mentioned, was adm. 27th Jan. He craved to be 
transported, however, ** on account of weakness of body," 14th Aug. thereafter, and was accord- 
ingly re-trans, to his former charge about Michaelmas following. — Edin. Counc Beg., Bow's 
Hist., Wodrow^s MS. Biog. iL 

1626. John Maxwell, A.M., trans, fr. 2d charge, demitted on being prom, to the Bishopric 
of Ross, 26th April 1633.— ^rftTi. Counc Beg., Bow and Caldenvood's Hist. 

1634. David Mitchell, A.M., trans, fr. 2d charge in 1634, deposed 3d Dec; 1638, for 
Arminianism and declining the Gen. Assembly. He survived the Restoration of Charles XL, 
and had ij^ It. allowed by parliament from vacant stipends, on account of his sufferings, 21st 
June 1661.— ^c?«n. Counc. Beg., Acts of Ass. 1638, Feterkin'sBec, Kirkton's Hist., Acts Pari, vii 

Andrew Ramsay, A.M., trans, fr. Greyfriars. Had this parish allotted by the Town 
Council, 24th Dec. 1641, and a protection from the celebrated Marquis of Montrose, after 
the battle of Kilsyth in 1645, was elected Rector of the Univ. 1646 and 1647, and deposed 
27th July 1649 for maintaining the lawfulness of the expedition into England; which was taken 
off 8th Nov. 1655. He retired to Abbotshall, where he died, 30th Dec 1659, aged 85. Ho 
acted a conspicuous part in ecclesiastical affairs, yet a degree of inconsistency is shown in 
his character, that can only be accounted for by his desire for peace, and the versatility of his 



MINISTERS OF THE OLD CHURCH. 281 

opinions changing with the times in which he lived, but marked by upright intentions, pure 
morals, and respectable and scholarly attainments: being "a guid, modest, learned, and 
godlie man, full of pietie and learning; who for eminence in learning, diligence in his 
calling, and strictness in his conversation," says Bishop Gnthrie, ''was an Ornament to 
the Church of Scotland." He mortified iij* xxxiij/t. vj«. yiijd, for four Borsers of Divinity 
at the Univ. of Edinburgh, the patronage of which is vested in the Town Council and 
ministers of the City. He married Marie Fraser, by whom he had four sons, Sir Andrew 
of Abbotshall, Lord Provost; Eleazer; David; and William (a preacher), who was pres. 
to Pencaitland, 16th Aug. 1641, but gave way to Calderwood, the ecclesiastical historian, 
and subsequently was proprietor of Woodstoun. — Publications— Oratio (1600). Parsenesis et 
Orationes de Laudibus Academiee Salmuriensis ; Poemata Sacra ( Edin. 1633 ). Miscellanea et Epi- 
grammata Sacra (Edin. 1633) [Del. Poet. Scot. ii.]. A warning to come out of Babell, a Sermon 
(Edin. 1638), 4to. A Treatise (1646).— £(/tn. Gen, Sess., Guild,, Counc Reg,, and Reg, (Bapt), 
Beg. Sec, SigUl, and Freab,, Mem, of Montrose iL, Peterkin's Bee,, New St, Ace, ix., Niooll 
and Lamonf 8 Diaries, Bow and Stevenson* s Hist,, Univ, Evid, L, Edin. Christ, Inst, vii., BaUlie^s 
Lett., Acts Pari, vL, Guthrie's Mem,, Bower* s Univ, L, Wodrow*s Anal, and MS. Biog. iii 

1649. Thomas Garvek, A.M., trans, from Colinton, elected 3d, and adm. 28th Dec. or 
Jan. following. With two others he declined the authority of the Sheriff, 22d Aug. 1655, in 
praying for his Majesty contrary to an order from the civil power. Deprived 1st Oct. 1662, 
by the Act of Privy Council at Glasgow for not submitting to Episcopacy. He died Feb. 1669, • 
aged about 65, in 30th min. His whole librarie being estimat at y merks, and the insicht 
at j<' merks. He marr. Catherine Whyte, who survived him, and had issue, Jean, David, 
(died Aug. 1672), Anna, Margaret, and James, besides Barbara and Katherine, who died young. 
^Edin, Counc,, Gen, Sess., Guild,, Test. Beg, (Bapt, and Bur.), and Cupar Beg. (Deaths), NicoU^ 
Lamont, and Brodie's Diaries, Kirkton and Wodrovfs Hist., Blair*s Autob,, Peterkin*s Bee 

1662. Archibald Turner, A.M., trans, fr. North Berwick, elected by the Town Council, 
22d Oct., and adm. (in the High Ch.) 15th Nov. 1662, appointed Sub-Dean of the Chapel 
Royal, 4th June 1663. The Privy Council, 2d July 1674, being informed "of some insolent 
expressions of his at a meeting of Presbytery" for a National Synod or Convocation, he was 
removed to Glasgow by his Majesty's command, 10th following; but having expressed his 
sorrow for so doing, he was allowed to return in the following year. The degree of D.D. 
was conferred on him, and he died suddenly, 30th March 1681, aged about 59, in 34th min. 
His librarie, besides what was given away by him, was estimat at iiij< merks, and the insicht 
at ijo merks. He marr. Rebecca Cupar, who died 2d Dec. 1675, aged 47. His brother, 
Sir James Turner, was served heir, 10th May 1681.— ^c?»n. Counc, Guild,, and Test, Beg,, 
Lamont, Nicoll, and FountainhaWs Diaries, Kirkton and Wodrovfs Hist, Nisbet*s Her, i.. Beg. 
Sec Sigill, viL, Inq. Bet. Fife 1196, Haddingt, 342, and Gen, 6298, Blair*8 Autob,, MonteitJCs 
Mort. iL 

1681. Alexander Ramsay, trans, fr. Greyfriars, pres. by the Town Council, 18th March 
1681, and adm. soon after. A poor woman was condemned to death for beating him in Church, 
28th March 1682. He was suspended 16th Feb. 1686, for expressing fears of Popery, but after- 
wards reponed. Deprived by the Privy Cooncil 10th Sept. 1689, for not praying for their 
Majesties, William and Mary, and praying expressly for the late King and Bishops, after they 
were abolished by Act of Parliament. He died of gravel, 17th Aug. 1702, in his 64th year. A 
son Robert, merchant in the city, died in Nov. 1716. — Test, and Edin, Counc Beg,, Fountain- 
halVs Diary and Dec i.. Beg, Bur., Peterkin*s Const, Kirkton and Wodrow*s Hist iii, Bule*s 
Sec, VindiaUion, Monroes Apol,, MS. Ace. of Min, 1689. 

1691. David Blair, A.M-, eldest son of Mr Rob. Blair of St Andrews, bom in 1637, studied 
at the Univ. of that city, and attained his degree, 28th July 1656. He emigrated to Holland, 
and took up his abode at Leyden. On the erection of a second charge in the Scots Church at 
the Hague, in 1688, he was called unanimously and ordained 20th June following, elected to 
Rotterdam in the following year, but refused, having been called unanimously, 28th June 1689, 
to Edinburgh (New Meeting-house) ; was appointed chaplain to his Majesty, let Aug. 1690, and 
was a member of the Gen. Ass. 16th Oct. 1690, adm. 9th Aug. 1691, called to Inveresk, Feb. 
1693, elected Moderator of the Assembly, 2d Feb. 1700, and died 10th June 1710, in his 74th 



282 MINISTERS OP THE OLD CHURCH. 

year and 23d min. He was highly accomplished as a divine, an exact preacher, with a grace- 
fulness and carriage superior to most of his brethren. He married Eupham Nisbet, who died 
2d June 1740, aged 75, and had two sons who became min., Mr Robert of Athelstanford, and 
Mr Archibald of Garvald, and a daugh. Eupham, who marr. Mr Robert Hunter, min. of Living- 
ston.— -BtotV* -4 tt<o6., HiWs Life of Blair, Blair's Serm., Steven's Ch. Botterd,, Ediru Counc,, 
Fresb., Syn., NE, Sees,, and Test Beg., Beg, Bur,, and Friv. Seal v., Peterkin*s Constitution^ 
Wodrow's Anal, and MS,, Hamilton's Lanark, Hist, Gen, Ass, 1690, Leven and Melv. Pap,, 
Acts Pari, ix. xi. 

1713. James Nisbet, A.M., trans, fr. Innerwick, called 23d May, appointed by the Presb. 
2d, and entered (or was admitted) 27th Sept. ; died from having fractured his skull by a fall 
on the stair two days previous, 8th Aug. 1756, in 80th age and 54th min. He marr. June 1707, 
Mary, daugh. of Mr Dav. Pitcaim of Dreghom, who died 10th Jan. 1757, by whom he had 
William and Mary ; Mary, who marr. her cousin Principal Robertson ; Philip, min. of Hutton ; 
and Janet, who died 23d April 1775. — Publication— The Perpetuity of the Christian Religion, 
a Sermon (Edin. 1737), Svo,—Presb,, Syn,, Innerwick Sess., and Edin, Beg, {Bur,), Murray's 
Biog, Ann., dbc, 

1758. Daniel Macqueen, trans, fr. Stirling, called 13th Aug. 1756, adm. 15th June 1758. 
Had D.D. conferred by the Univ. of Edinburgh, 12th April 1759, and died 22d Oct 1777, in 
42d min., ** equally distinguished by the vigour of his understanding, and the extent of his 
literature. His information on every subject to which he applied his mind was so exact and 
minute, that in matters of research his literary friends had frequent intercourse to him, to give 
them confidence in their own investigations.** He marr. 10th Sept. 1762, Warburton, daugh. 
of Ronald Dunbar, Esq., W.S., who died 7th Sept. 1766, and had a son Daniel, min. of Pres- 
tonkirk, and two daugh., one of whom marr. John Moir, Esq., W.S., and the other, James 
Wilkie, Esq., of Gilchreston.— Publications— Observations on DanieVs Prophecy of the 
Seventy Weeks (Edin. 1748), 8vo. Letters on Mr Hume's History of Great Britain (Edin. 
1756), 8vo. A Sermon on Coloss. L 23 (Edin. 1759), 8vo.— PrwJ., Syn,, and Test, Beg., 
Moncre^s Life ofErskine, Sec. Serm, 1780, <fcc. 

1778. James Macknight, D.D., trans, fr. Lady Yester*s, adm. 26th Nov. 1778; unani- 
mously appointed Joint Collector of the Ministers* Widows' Fund, 17th Feb. 1784, and died 
Idth Jan. 1800, in his 79th year and 47th min. Distinguished as one of the most able 
commentators and divines which tlie Church of Scotland has produced. Favoured by a 
good constitution, he was indefatigable in theological study, and not less in pastoral duty ; 
while his judicious counsel was uniformly tendered in support of the ecclesiastical polity 
which guided the measures of the Church. To him she is mainly indebted for the Declar- 
atory Act of the Assembly, 1782, concerning Moderation of Calls ; and it has been well said, 
** that deep learning, sound judgment, and great respectability of character, rendered him 
one of the brightest ornaments of our Church.** He marr., 30th April 1754, Elizabeth, eldest 
daugh. of Sam. M'Cormick, General Examiner of Excise, who died 10th March 1813, by 
whom he had four sons, of whom Dr Thomas was after^vards settled in the same church. — 
Publications — A Harmony of the Four Gospels, Avith a paraphrase and notes (Lond. 1756), 
4to; 2d edit. 2 vols. (Lond. 1763), 4to. The Truth of the Gospel History (Lond. 1763), 4to. 
A Literal Translation from the Original Greek of all the Apostolic Epistles, with a Life of 
the Apostle Paul, 4 vols. (Edin. 1795), 4to ; 2d edit. 7 vols. Svo,— Presb. Beg., Scots Mag. Ixix., 
Chambers's Biog, Did, iiL, <lrc. 

1800. Andrew Brown, D.D., trans, fr. New Grej'friars, elected by the Town Council, 
19tli Feb., and adm. 24th July 1800; also adm. Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres 
in the Univ., 14th Nov. 1801, which he held in conjunction; elected Moderator of the Gen. 
Assembly, 20th May 1813; died 19th Feb. 1834, in his 7l8t year and 47th min., character- 
ised by the eloquent composition of his writings, the unobtrusiveness of his manners, and the 
kindness of his feelings. He marr. a daugh. of Mr Cranston of Harvieston, by whom he ]iad 
a son; 2dly, 7th March 1805, Mary, eldest daugh. of Dr Gregory Grant, physician, Edin., 

who died 17th Jan. 1826; 3dly, 10th March 1830, Mary Ogilvie, relict of Pearson, 

Esq., who died 18th April 1852,— Publications— [Two single Sermons (Edin. 1801, 1810), 
8vo]. Notice of the Life and Character of Alex. Christison, A.M., Professor of Humanity 



MINISTERS OF THE OLD CHURCH. 283 

(Edin. 1820), 8vo. An elaborate Histoiy of America was prepared by him for the Press, but 
has not been published. — Presb. and Syn. Beg,, ike, 

1835. John Lee, D.D., LL.D., M.D., trans, fr. Lady Tester's, pres. by the Town Council, 
July 1834, adm. 22d Jan. 1835, was proposed as Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 18th May 
1837, but defeated by a majority of 262 to 69, adm. Principal of the United College, St 
Andrews, 12th June 1837, which he resigned in November following. On the establishment 
of a Board in Scotland for printing and publishing Bibles in 1839, he was named Secretary, 
which he declined to accept ; adm. Principid of the Univ. of Edin., 12th March 1840, a Deanery 
of the Chapel Royal of Stirling being annexed. He demitted his parochial charge in May, 
which was accepted 30th Sept. same year— was unanimously elected Moderator of the 
Assembly, 16th May 1844, and died 2d May 1859, in his 80th year and 52d min. With his vast 
stores of varied and minute information, it is to be regr&tted he had much ill health, which 
destroyed his energy, and prevented him accomplishing much of his literary projects, which 
would have given additional lustre to his memory, and benefited society. He marr. 5th July 
1813, Rose, daugh. of the Rev. Dr Mason, min. of Dunnichen, who died 23d Oct. 1833, by 
whom he had William, min. of Roxburgh, and several others ; 2dly, 30th June 1841, Charlotte 
E. Wright.— Publications— Dissert. Med. Inaug. De Viribus Animi in Corpus Agentibus 
(Edin. 1801 ), 8vo. Six Single Sermons ( Edin. 1809-1829), 8vo. Memorial for the Bible Societies 
in Scotland, and Additional Memorial (Edin. 1824-1826), 8vo. Letter relating to the Annuity 
Tax, and the Ecclesiastical arrangements proposed for Edinburgh (Edin. 1834), 8vo. Refuta- 
tion of the Charges brought against him by the Rev. Dr Chalmers and others, two parts ( Edin. 
1837), 8vo. Lectures on Church History, 2 vols. (Edin. 1860), 8vo. Inaugural Addresses (Edin. 
1862), fcap. 8vo. Pastoral Addresses of the General Assembly ( Edin. 1864), fcap. 8vo. He 
contributed a number of articles to Brewster's Edin. Encyclopoedia— edited Vita Rob. Rollock 
for the Bannatyne Club (Edin. 1826), 4toj Wodrow's Life of James Wodrow, A.M. (Edin. 
1828), 12mo — contributed Introduction to the Edinburgh Academic Annual for 1840 — edited 
Joceline's Mother's Legade to her Unborn Childe (Edin. 1852), 18mo. — and contemplated editing 
the '* Tracts of David Fergusson," which has since been done for the Bannatyne Club ( Edin. 
1860), %YO.—Presb. Reg,, Hogg's Instruct,, Anderson's Sketches, dsc 



Collegiate, ob Second Charge. 
UncoUegiated by the Fresh., 27th April 1836, with a view to the erection of Greenside. 

1596. John Hall, trans fr. Leith. It is stated by Calderwood that he was adm. 18th April 
1598, but the Town Council only appointed to travel with his Majesty for getting him, 26th 
May, his acceptance is intimated 10th Nov. , and he was adm. 7th Dec. same year ( in the New 
kirk). Hesitating to believe in the Gowrie Conspiracy, and to offer thanksgiving for his 
Majesty's deliverance on 5th August 1600, he and his brethren were, on the 6th, discharged 
from preaching, under pain of death, in his Majesty's dominions, so they left the city on the 
14th ; but Hall and another were called before the Privy Council 10th of the following month, 
and declared themselves satisfied of its truth ; Mr H. was therefore reponed to his charge by 
royal authority in October. He was elected Moderator of the Assembly by a majority, 12th 
May 1601. He was seized with the pestilence April 1604, but recovered. Being unfavourable 
to the views of the brethren who held an Assembly at Aberdeen in 1605, he consented to their 
imprisonment, and would join in no steps for their relief. In 1606 he was nominated by the 
Assembly as constant Moderator of the Presb., and they were charged by the Privy Council, 
17th Jan. 1607, to receive him within twenty -four hours after notice, under pain of rebellion. 
He had a gift from his Majesty, 17th Feb. 1605, of an yearly pension for lyff of ij« li, from the 
priory of Quhithom ; to which was added another, 12th April 1608, of ij« li, from the same 
source ; was also named a member of the court of High Commission, 15th Feb. 1610, but was 
removed to the East, or Little Kirk, at his Majesty's request, after 2l8t of same mon%\i,^Edin, 
Coune,, Presb,, Syn., and Privy Counc. Beg,, Booke of the Kirk, Bow, Spotswood, and Colder 
wood^s Hist,, Orig, Lett L, Beg. Assig, and Presb., Melville's Autob. The next was 



284 MINISTERS OF THE OLD CHURCH. 

1626. John Maxwell, A.M., trans, fr. Trinity College, elected by the Town Council, 14th 
Dec 1625, adm. 27th Jan. following, trans, to 1st charge same year.— J^c^tn. Counc Beg. 

1628. David Mitchell, A.M., trans, from Garvock, presented by the Town Council, 25th 
Jan., and adm. before 9th April thereafter, with a stipend of i» ij** merks, £66, IBs. 4<i, and 
was trans, to Ist charge about 1634. — Edin. Counc, Beg,, Raw's Hist, 

1635. David Fletcher, A.M., second son of And. F., merchant, Dundee, studied at the 
Univ. of St Andrews, and attained his degree in 1625, elected by the Town Council, 29th 
April, and adm. 22d May 1635. In 1638 he was assaulted and maltreated by several women 
for no other reason than hesitating to obey the populace of the day. Deposed by the Com- 
mission of Assembly, 1st Jan. 1639, for declining the Gen. Assembly at Glasgow in the preceding 
year, and reading and defending the Service Book, It was taken off, however, by the Gen. 
Assembly, 27th Aug. thereafter. His younger brother. Sir John, rose to be Lord Advocate 
in leQi,— Act. Beet. U. St And., Edin. Counc Beg., Feterkin's Bee, Acts Gen. Ass. 1638, 
MonteitKs Mort. ii, Baillie's Lett. L, Stevenson* s Hist,, Wodrow's MS, Ixiii., Beatson's Pol, 
Index. 

1647. James Hammiltoun, trans, fr. Diunfries, pres. by the Council and G«n. Session, 
13th July, and adm. 26th Nov. 1647. He was a member of the Assembly, 1648, when he 
and Mr James Guthrie were appointed to draw up an account of the duties of Elders, and a 
form for visitation of families. In 1649 he was appointed one of the Visitors for the 
Univ. of St Andrews, 16th Jan. and likewise for that of Edinburgh, 31st July. He was 
also nominated by the Estates, May 1650, for examining the celebrated Montrose after his 
capture. In Jan. 1651 he was one of a committee who met with the Protestors at St 
Andrews to accommodate their differences, but it was without effect. While sitting with 
a committee of the Estates at Alyth, 28th Aug. thereafter, he was seized, with many others, 
by the English army, carried to England, and detained prisoner nineteen months. He 
was discharged by Parliament, 7th Aug. 1662, for declining to join the Bishops in church 
discipline, and died 10th March 1666, in 66th age and 41st min. "A learned and diligent 
man, whose preaching was doctrinal, rather than exhortatory." He marr. Elizabeth, daugh. 
of Mr Dav. Watson, min. of Killeavy, Ireland, by whom he had fifteen children ; of whom Mr 
Archibald, min. of Killinchy, Jane, Mary, and Elizabeth, arrived at maturity.— -ffrftn. Counc,, 
Canongate (Bur,), Sees., Gen, Sess., and Test. Beg., Livingstone's Life and Charac., Nicoll, 
Lamont, and Brodie's Diaries, Beid's Ireland, Acts of Ass., and Pari. MSS,, Beg, Sec SigilL, 
Peterkin's Bee, Baillie's Lett. ii. iii., Stevenson and Wodrow's Hist, and Select Biog, i. 

1663. Andrew Kynneir, A.M., trans, fr. East Calder, elected by the Town Council, 28th 
Oct. Died 1682, before 24th March, aged about 42, in 19th min., having marr. 10th Sept. 
1668 Marion Mason, and had Alexander, Jean, Andrew, Barbara, James, William, and 
Andrew.— ^fl?m. Counc, Guild,, and Beg. (Marr. and Bapt.) 

1683. John Farquhar, trans, fr. Tron Ch., elected by the Town Council, 24th March, 
deposed by the Comiss. of Assembly, Jan. 1691, for declining the authority of the Church.— 
Edin. Counc Beg., MS. Ace. of Min. 1689. 

1690. George Campbell, A.M., trans, fr. Dumfries, called said year, holding in conjunc- 
tion the Professorship of Divinity in the Univ. He was also named on the commission for 
visiting schools and colleges the same year, and died 3d July 1701, aged about 66, in 43d min. 
Joined to great and universal learning, piety, and prudence, he had prodigious application and 
diligence, and A\as withal very modest, humble, and bashful. He is said to have read as much 
as some forty ministers had done. From a habit of rising early, in opposition to that of his 
friend Principal Rule, he was called " the Morning Star," so that on hearing of the death of his 
esteemed associate, only twenty-six days before his own, he quaintly observed, ** The Evening 
Star has now gone down, and the Morning Star will soon disappear." He marr. Marion Fyfe, 
by whom he had James, Marion, and Christian, who marr- Mr Geo. Chalmers, min. of Kilwin- 
ning ; 2dly, 4th Feb. 1697, Catherine, daugh. of Mr Rob. Blair, min. of St Andrews.— Presb. 
and Edin. Beg. (Marr. Bapt. and Bur.), Edin. Grad., Edin. Christ. Inst, xxv., Leven and Melv. 
Pap., Calamy's Ace ii., Wodrow's Anal, iii, and Hist, iii iv., Acts Pari, ix., Bower's Univ. 

1703. John Orr, trans, fr. Bothwell, appointed by the Presb. 9th Dec. 1702, adm. next 
year, died 25th Jan. 1707, in 44th age and 19th min. He had books lent valued at £8, 8*. 



MINISTERS OF THE OLD CHURCH. 285 

The Inventar amoxinted to ij»v« lzxiiij7i. ij*. vrf. Grizell Myreton, his widow, died after 1745. 
He had three sons and four daugh., Mr Andrew, min. of Carluke, John, David, Jean, Elizabeth^ 
Grizel, and Janet. — Fresb, and Test {EdUn. Glasg, and Lan,), andEdin. Beg. {Bur,). 

1708. William Mitchell, trans, fr. Canongate, called 17th May, appointed by the Presb. 
23d and entered 27th June, elected Moderator of the Gen. ABsemblies, 26th April 1710, 6th May 
1714, and 2d May 1717 ; and appointed one of his Majesty's Chaplains in Ordinaty in 1710 ; 
trans, to the High Church, 11th Jan. 1721,— Presb, and Syn, Beg. 

1721. James Craio, A.M., trans, fr. Dunbar, called 17th Nov. 1720, adm. 16th March 
following, and died 31st Jan. 1731, in his 62d year and 30th min., *' a very grave, modest man, 
and a fervent and distinct preacher, highly valued by his people," with a kind of burr in his 
speech, which, as he warmed in his discourse, was not much obser^^ed. The time spent in 
Church Judicatories he regretted as, from heat and contention, to him it was a source of uneasi- 
ness, and dispeace of mind. He marr. Margaret Oswald, who survived him, by whom he had 
fifteen or sixteen children, of whom only two survived him. — Publications— Spiritual Life, or 
Poems on Divine Subjects (Edin. 1727), 12mo. Sermons, 3 vols. (Edin. 1732-1738), 8vo [of 
which two in the first vol. were published singly (Edin. 1732), 8vo].— Pre»6. and Yester Sess. 
Beg., Wodrovfa Anal. 

1732. Patbick Cuming, A.M., trans, fr. Lochmaben, called 18th Nov. 1731, adm. 20th 
Jan. following, elected Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 11th May 1749. Had D.D. conferred 
in 1752, was again elected Moderator of Assembly by a great majority, 14th May 1752, a third 
time, 20th May 1736, and died 1st April 1756, in his 81st year and 56^ min. Distinguished by 
erudition, liberality of sentiment, and extensive benevolence, not less than by his talents as a 
public speaker, he acquired such influence in the Church as to have the chief management in 
her affairs from almost the time of his settlement in the dty till 1751, through the support of 
the noble family of Argyll, then holding in their hands the Government of Scotland. After 
that period he allied himself to a certain extent in opposition to the measures and policy of the 
celebrated Dr Robertson. He marr. Anne, eldest daugh. of Mr David Lauder, of the family of 
Fountainhall, who died 24th Nov. 1769, and had five sons and a daugh. Robert the eldest, and 
Patrick the third, were both Professors in the Univ. of Edinburgh and Glasgow ; Thomas the 
youngest, was a surgeon, and died in India in 1776 ; Jean, the daugh., died in the year preced- 
ing. — Publications — (Three Single Sermons, 8vo) 1726-1760, 8vo. — Fresh, and Syn. Beg., 
Wodrow*s Anal.y Moncreiff*s Life of Erskine, MorretCs Ann., MackenMa Life of Home, 
Carlyle*s AtUob., Douglas* Bar., Erskine's Disc. L, dkc 

1776. Robert Heney, D.D., trans, fr. New Greyfriara, adm. 19th Dec A pension of 
£100 yearly was bestowed on him by his Majesty, 28th May 1781, '*m consideration of his 
distinguished talents and great literary merit," on the solicitation of Lord Chief Justice 
Mansfield. Died 24th Nov. 1790, in his 73d year and 42d min. No man was more steady 
or active in pursuing his purpose, or sought the means of attaining it with more integrity. 
As an ecclesiastic he followed the dictates of his own mind, and persevering in his principles 
was generally ranked with the minority in the Gen. Assembly. But the great masterpiece and 
work of his life was the EEistory of Great Britain. During the early period of its publication it 
was attacked with hostility and venom, almost unequalled, by the celebrated Dr Gilb. Stuart, 
yet of which the elegant and accurate historian Hume observed, ''his historical narratives 
are as full as those remote times seem to demand, and at the same time his inquiries <of the 
antiquarian kind omit nothing which can be an object of doubt or curiosity. All superflu- 
ous embellishments are avoided ; and the reader will hardly find in our language any perform- 
ance that unites together so perfectly the two great points of entertainment and instruction." 
He devised and carried into effect in 1762 a scheme for the widows and orphans of Dissenting 
ministeTS in the north of England. And a few days before his death bequeathed his library 
to the Magistrates, Town Council, and Presbytery of Linlithgow, as the foundation of one for 
the use of the public He marr. in 1763 Ann Balderston, who died 15th Feb. 1800, without 
issue.— Publications— The History of Great Britain, 6 vols. The last voL being posthumous, 
was edited by Sir H. Moncreiff Wellwood, and one or two chapters added by Mr Malcolm 
Laing(Lond. 1771-1793), 4to[5th edit. 12 vols. 1823, 8vo, translated into French, 1789-1796]. 
Bevelation the most effectual means of civilising and reforming mankind : a Sermon ( Edin. 



286 MINISTERS OF THE NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 

1773), 8vo. He also translated Gogaet's Origin of Laws, Arts and Sciences, 3 voL (Edin. 1761 ), 
Syo,^Pre3h, Heg., Hist vL, Chambers's Biog. Diet, iii., Nimmo's Stirlingsh,^ Scots Mag, liii, 
Nev) St. Ace. viii., d-r. 

1791. Henry G reive, D.D., trans, fr. New Greyfnars, pres. by the Town Conncil, March, 
and adm. 16th June ; he died 10th Feb. 1810, in his 74th year and 48th min. He laboured to 
insure its success by exhibiting the infallible proofs of his ministry, and inculcating its funda- 
mental doctrines of faith toward the Lord Jesus Christ, of repentance towards God, and a 
perpetual dependence on the operation of Spirit for quickening all good desires, and fulfilling 
all holy resolutions. Through the various judicatories of the church, he laboured to maintain 
the pur6 doctrine delivered in its standards, to secure the learning and piety of its ministers, 
and to guard their independence in the exercise of their function. He also possessed an innate 
and habitual taste for goodness, which being reflected in his appearance, manner, and conversa- 
tion, constituted the charm of his social character. He marr. 14th June 1762, Janet Home, 
who died 14th March 1810 ; by whom he had a son, Henry Home, min. of Crichton, and others, 
the greater part of whom predeceased him. — Publications— {Three Occasional Sermons, Edin. 
1784-1796, 8vo ).—Pr«6. Beg., Brown's Fun, Scrm., &c 

1810. Thomas Macknight, D.D., trans, fr. Trinity College Ch,, pres. by the Town 
Council, March, and adm. 15th May 1810. Unanimously elected Moderator of the Gren. 
Assembly, 18th May 1820, and died 21st Jan. 1836, in his 74th year and 45th min. His great 
learning in various branches of knowledge pointed him out as well fitted for a Professorial 
chair, as he taught both in the Greek and Natural Philosophy classes with no small eelat. But 
though esteemed as a sensible and intellectual, yet he was not ranked as a popular preacher. 
He marr. 18th April 1808, Christian Craufurd, eldest daughter of Thomas Macknight, Esq. of 
Ratho, who died 29th Jan. 1862 ; by whom he had a son, James, W.S., and other children. — 
Publications— A Discourse, addressed to the Volunteers of Leith (Edin. 1795), 8vo. Account 
of the Rev. Dr Macknight. (Transl. of the Epistles, 2d edit,)— Fresb, Beg,, <kc, 

NEW OR LITTLE KIRK, NOW THE HIGH CHURCH. 

1587. Robert Rollock, A.M., Principal of the Univ., was appointed to teach in the East 
Kirk in the morning, 5th Sept. 1587, but 13th Dec. 1589, another was appointed for that duty ; 
in 1596 he took a full charge, was elected Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 10th May 1597, and 
removed to the South-west quarter, or the Upper Tolbooth, probably the West portion of St 
Giles, in 1598. — Presh, and Edin. Counc. Reg., CalderwoocTs Hist,, Craufurd*s Univ, 

1598. Robert Bruce, formerly in the City. It had been resolved he should be admitted 
to this charge, 18th April 1598, with imposition of hands (a ceremony which had not been 
observed at his entry to the City, and which he considered unnecessary from the call of the 
people and his own acceptance), and considering it as throwing a doubt on the reality of his 
former ministry, he hesitated and objected till the 19th May following, when it was effected by 
the Commissioners of Assembly. He was deprived of his pension of xxiij chalders victual, from 
the Abbey of Arbroath by his Majesty, 10th Feb. 1599, but retained it by decree of the 
Court of Session to the high displeasure of his sovereign. Yet it was considerably lessened by 
the royal pleasure, Jan. 1600. The ministers of the city being commanded by the King in 
Council, 6th Aug. following, to offer up thanksgiving for his Majesty's deliverance from the 
Gowrie Conspiracy, on the preceding day five of them, particularly Mr B., hesitated, being 
doubtful of its truth, when, on the 12th, they were discharged preaching in his Majesty's 
dominions, under pain of death, and on the 14th they left the city. In Sept. they were again 
called before the Privy Council, when four declared themselves satisfied of its verity. Bruce, 
however, still maintaining his opinion was confined in the house of Airth, Uth Sept., and ia 
obedience to the sentence of the Priv. Council, sailed on the 3d, and on the 8th Nov. arrived 
in France. He returned to England in March, and was permitted to come to Scotland, 25th 
Sept. 1601, was again confined to Airth, April 1602, and, professing himself satisfied of Gowrie'a 
guilt, he received permission 25th June, to travel in any part of the country, except four 
miles around Edinburgh. The Gen. Assembly, 15th Nov. thereafter, thought it reasonable 
that he should testify his satisfaction from the pulpit, which he refused, on which the 



MINISTERS OP THE NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 287 

Commiesioners of the Assembly, 26th Nov. 1603, declared his re-entry to the charge his own 
fanlt, and deprived him, 27th Feb. 1605, yet in the register 1608 he is still mentioned as in 
the charge. He was confined to Inverness, 18th Aug. 1605, where he remained four years 
in the exercise of his gifts, till he went to Aberdeen and stayed three months, when he was 
charged to retom to his former confinement. On a vacancy, he supplied for a time the charge 
of Forres, after which he returned to his own house at Kinnaird, Aug. 1613. He also officiated 
at Stirling, on a vacancy in the second charge, till he was compelled to remove, March 1619 
to Kinnaird, after which he went for a while to another property in Monkland. Going to 
Edinburgh on important pecuniary business, he was confined in the Castle from 29th Aug. 
1620 till Jan. following, when he was ordained to return to Inverness and four miles around 
during the royal pleasure, to which he submitted, 18th April 1622, and remained till Sept. 
1624, returning to Kinnaird on his private affairs, on condition of returning to Inverness 
when charged. In 1629, having ventured to preach in the vicinity of Edinburgh, he was, by 
his Majesty's order, confined to his own house of K., with only a liberty of two miles around 
it, where he died, 13th July 1631, in his 77th year and 44th min. His buikis were estimat 
at ij^' It, The abulzements at j« /»., and with his pension from Arbroath crop, 1631, amounted 
to xv« lu His firm and energetic mind, inflexible independence, and stainless integrity 
indicated his superior character. To the spirit of a baron, sprung from the greatest warriors 
in the kingdom, he added that of a faithful servant of Christ, and if his language and manners 
seem now irreconcilable with the respect due to his sovereign, yet they show a manliness 
of spirit and principle not uncommon at that period. In person he was tall and dignified, 
with a majestic countenance and venerable appearance in the pulpit, and a knowledge of 
the Scriptures beyond most of the age. He marr., 9th June 1590, Margaret, daugh. of 
James Douglas of Parkhead, who died Nov. 1620, and left a son Robert (whose fifth descendant 
was the explorer and traveUer of Abyssinia) besides others, and four daugh., Anna, Margaret, 
Maria, Jeane, and James.— Publications^ Sermons upon the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, 
(Edin. 1590). Sermons preached in the Kirk of Edinburgh (Edin. 1591), [which, with another, 
and Life by Wodrow, were edited by Will. Cunningham, D.D., and printed for the Wodrow 
Soc. 1843, 8vo.]— <S!er»Mww, Presb., Syn., Edin, {Bapt), CounCf and Test. Beg. {SHrL), Booke of 
Kirk, Petrie, Spotswood, Bow, and CalderufOOcTa Hist., MdvUVs Autob., Scots Mag. Ixiv., Orig. 
Lett, Chambers^ s Biog. Diet, i.. Beg. Assig. 

1610. John Hall, trans, fr. SE. quarter or Great Kirk, in terms of his Majesty's request, 
and adm. after 21st Feb. He was a member of the Gen. Assembly same year, and of the 
court of High Commission, 21 st Dec 1615. In 1616 he drew up with Mr John Adamson, min. 
of Liberton, a Confession of Faith and Catechism. In 1617 he signed the Protestation for the 
Liberties of the Kirk, 27th June, but soon after withdrew it, and demitted, March 1619, in 
respect of his age and infirmity, though, it has been alleged, it was more from fear of giving 
offence regarding the articles of Perth, and the loss of his pension. Suspecting he encouraged 
the populace in resisting these articles, the Privy Council, 17th June following, ordained him to 
remove to the burgh of Montrose within forty-eight hours, which was changed to Perth and 
two mUes around, 12th Aug. thereafter. He died Aug. 1627. The utencils, &c., were valued 
at xl/t., and the Frie Geir, at xiij"» ij« xxiiij/t., while he was awand for hous-mail [rent], 
xxiiij/». He marr. Speir, and had four sons, Mr John, Mr William, Andrew, and Robert. — 
Publication— Catechism (Edin. 1619).— J^rftn. {Bapt), Counc., Guild., and Test. Beg., Orig. 
Lett, Booke of the Kirk, MelvilPs Autob., Scot*s Apolog. Narr., Bow and CaldertooodTs Hist., 
Wodrotc's MS. Biog. iL 

1626. William Struthkb, A.M., formerly in the city, adm. 25th Jan. On the erection of 
the Diocese he was constituted the Dean, and died 9th Nov. 1633, aged about 55, in 27th min. 
His Librarie was estimat at iij"* merks. His books lying at London unbound, ij« merks. The 
utencils, silver work, &c., j» merks. Frie Geir, debts deducit xv« ix« xxxiijW. vj*. viijc?. He 
founded vj^^ merks to the Univ. of Edinburgh and Glasgow for maintaining two Bursars of 
Theology at each, to poor students of the said towns, or ministers' sons in the said presbyteries; 
the Councils and ministers of these cities being Patrons. He also left to the College Library, 
fifty buikis or volumes to be chosen by the Primar, and after him fifty to that of Glasgow to be 
chosen by the Principal ; the rest of his library he bequeathed equally to Mr James Robertoun, 
2M 



288 MINISTERS OF THB NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 

Commissary of Hamilton and Campsie, his brother-in-law, Mr Robt. Baillie, min. of Kilwinning, 
and Mr James Layng, min. of Kirknewton. He likewise left to the House of Correction j« luy 
to the poor of the NW. quarter, j« lu, and further, j» lu to the Trinity Hospital, wliich was 
afterwards recalled, because Sir James Ker of Crelinghall had broken and gone away with the 
lyk soume. He was very pious and learned, and perhaps the most eloquent and renowned 
preacher of his time. He marr. Elizabeth or Elspet, daugh. of Arch. Robertoun of Stonehall ; 
she died Feb. 1641, and had William, Margaret, James and Elizabeth, twins, and Samuel. — 
Publications— Christian ObserFations and Resolutions, 2 vols. (Edin. 1628-1629), fcp. Svo. 
Looking Glasse of Princes and People, with a Looking Glasse for Princes and Pope (Edin. 1632), 
4to. True Happiness, or King David's Choice (Lond. 1633), 4to. Letter to the Earl of 
Airthe. [Grievances of Ministers (1635), sm. Svo.}— Edin, {Bapt) Coufuf,, and Test, Reg.^ 
Bow and Caldertvood^s Hist, Beg. Free,, Fresh, Beg,, Emd, on the Univ. ii, BaUMa Lett, iii, 
Dempsterii Hist. iL, Deeds Coll. of Glaag., Kirk Fap., Bannatyne Miscell. iL, Wodrow'a MS, 
Biog. iL 

1634. Thomas Sydserff, A.M., trans, fr. Trinity College, pres. to the Deanery by 
Charles I., 18th Jan. ; elected by the Council, 12th, and adm. 19th Feb. 1634; demitted 30th 
July following, having been consecrated Bishop of Brechin.— i?^. Fresh., Edin, Couno, Beg., 
Wodrow's MS. Biog. iL 

1635. James Hannay, A.M., trans, fr. Halyroodhouse, pres. to the Deanery by Charles I., 
13th May and 20th Oct. 1634, elected and pres. by the Council, 30th March 1635, and adm. 
soon after. Not being a favourite with his people, he engaged with the Bishop, 23d July 
1637, in attempting to read the Liturgy, and being against subscribing the Covenant, he was 
assaulted in the church, Sunday, 8th March 1638, had his gown torn, and himself beat with 
hands. Deposed Ist Jan. 1639, for declining the Gen. Assembly and reading and defending 
the Service Book. He died before 21st June 1661, when his children had j« li,, allowed by 
Parliament, out of vacant stipends, on account of their father's sufferings. He marr. IssobeU 
Brown, and had Magdalen, John, Martha, William, James, George, Marion, and IssobelL— 
Beg. Fres., et Sec. Sigill., Edin, Counc and Canongate Beg. {Bapt.), Baillie's Lett. L, Stevef^ 
son's Hist., Feterkin*s Bee., Wodrow's MSS., Acts Fori. v. viL, Maitland Miscell, iL, Charters 
of St Giles. 

1639. Alexander Henderson, A.M., trans, fr. Leuchars, elected and pres. by the Town 
Coancil to the City, 4th May 1638, and elected and pres. to this charge 2d, and adm. 10th Jan. 
1639. Nominated by the Commissioners of Parliament, Nov. 1640, one of those for concluding 
a treaty of peace with England at Ripon, which was agreed to at Westminster, 7th Aug. 1641, 
and his services were approved by Parliament, 28th Sept. following. He was elected Rector 
of the Univ., Ist Dec. 1640, and annually re-elected till the close of his life. He was elected 
a second time Moderator of Assembly, 20th July 1641, and same year appointed Chaplain 
in Ordinary to his Majesty (or Dean of the Chapel Royal). A third time he was appointed 
Moderator of Assembly, 2d Aug. 1643, and on the 18th following he and seven others were 
selected to attend the Assembly of Divines at Westminster. The accumulation and pressure 
of so many affairs, however, was too much for his constitation, and his voice was too weak for 
a city church. A proposal was therefore made for his removal to the principality of St Mary's 
College, St Andrews, then held by an aged incumbent, but he rather preferred a quiet charge 
in the country, and though liberty for his translation was given, yet he continued immersed 
in his ministerial and public duties till his labours terminated, 19th Aug. 1646, in his 63d 
year and 33d min. Though bred and fostered in the arms of Episcopacy, yet more mature 
experience led to a change in his opinions, and being pressed to receive the new Book of 
Canons, and Liturgy, he was brought to combine with others, and to his master-mind they 
submitted as their leader and guide till the Hierarchy was put down, and Presbyterian 
Government established on its ruitis. Pre-eminent in discriminating judgment, and judicious, 
moderate, and prudent in counsel, yet fearless in defence of truth, he distingnished himself by 
re-modelling that national covenant which wrought in aftertimes such fearful results to the 
throne and to the country. In speech he was grave, impressive, and eloquent, and ever zealous 
to promote the interests of learning and education.— Publications — ^The Remonstrance of the 
Nobility, &c, within the Kingdom of Scotland, vindicating them and their proceedings 



MINISTERS OP THE NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 289 

from the crimes wherewith they are charged by the late proclamation in England, 1639. 
The Government and Order of the Church of Scotland (Edin. 1641). Speech delivered 
immediately before the taking of the Covenant by the House of Commons and Assembly 
of Divines (Edin. 1643), 4to. [Three single] Sermons preached before the Houses of Parlia- 
ment (Lond. 1644, 1645), 4to. The Bishop^s Doom (Edin. 1762), 8vo. [Peterkin's Rec] 
Declaration upon his Death-bed [concerning King Charles], 1648. — AitorCs Life^ Baillie*s Lett, 
Christ. Mag, x., Wodrow'$ Anal, and Hist, New St, Ace, ix.. Acts Pari, v., Bowel's Univ, L, 
Livingston's Charac,, Burnet, Stevenson, and Cook's Hist., Tombst,, Edin. Counc, and Test, 
Reg,, Reids Westm. Divines, Turner's Scot, Seeess,, Lockerhkfs Life of J, Brown, 

1647. George Gillespie, A.M., trans, fr. Greyfriars, elected by the Town Council, 22d 
Sept 1647, and adm. shortly after; elected Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 12th July 1648, 
and died of consumption, 17th Dec. thereafter, in 36th age and 11th min. His learning, acute- 
ness, and powers of application, illustration, and persuasion, rendered him of vast service in the 
Assembly of Divines at Westminster, as well as in the Church courts. Even Lauderdale and 
other statesmen quailed so much in aiding with him, that the Earl of Glencaim declared 
'* There is no standing before this great and mighty man." He marrt Margaret Murray, who 
had £1000 sterl. given by Parliament immediately after his death, for the support of herself and 
family, on account of his services, but it was never paid. He had three sons and a daugh. 
Robert (who received ordination from the Presbyterian ministers, was imprisoned in the Bass 
for preaching at conventicles, alive at Auchtermuchty, June 1682; subsequently went to 
England, and died, and had his widow and children recommended by Parliament to his 
Majesty's bounty, 17th July 1695), George, Archibald who died in 1650, and Elizabeth, who 
marr. James Oswald, merchant in Edinburgh, afterwards of Fingletonn.— Publications — 
Dispute against the English Popish Ceremonies, obtruded upon the Church of Scotland (1637), 
4to. Assertion of the Church Covenant of Scotland ( 1641 ), 4to. Dialogue between a Civilian 
and a Divine, concerning the present condition of the Church of England (Lond. 1644), 4to. 
A Recrimination charged upon Mr Goodwin, in Defence of Presbyterianism (Lond. 1644), 4to. 
Two Single Sermons (Lond. 1644, 1645), 4to. The True Resolution of a present Controversy, 
concerning Liberty of Conscience (Lond. 1645), 4to. Wlxolesome Severity reconciled to 
Christian Liberty (Lond. 1645), 4to. Aaron's Rod Blossoming; or the Divine Ordinance of 
Church Grovemment vindicated (Lond. 1646), 4to. Male Audis, an answer to Coleman's Male 
Dids (Lond. 1646), 4to. A Treatise of Miscellany Questions (Edin. 1649), 4to. It has even 
been silid that he drew that excellent Manual of Religion the Shorter Catechism, in the course 
of a single night [which does not seem, however to be founded on authority].— £e/m. Coune, and 
Beg. {Bapt,), Wodrow's Anai, and Hist,, Beids Westm, Divines, Livingston's Charac, Sinclair's 
xviiL, and New St. Ace, ix., Butherfurd and Baillie's Lett. m.,Acts Pari, vi ix., Brodie's Diary, 
Chambers's Biog, Diet, it 

1649. Robert Douglas, A.M., trans, fr. Tolbooth Ch., elected by the Town Council, 22d 
Dec. 1648, adm. in 1649. Accompanied by divers commissioners of the Kirk he presented the 
Solenm League and Covenant to Parliament which was subscribed by all the members, 12th 
Jan., and was appointed one of the commissioners for visiting the Univ. of St Andrews, 16th 
following, elected a fourth time Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 4th, and nominated one of 
the commissioners for visiting the Univ. of Edinbui^h and Aberdeen, 31st July same year. 
Had the honour of crowning Charles 11. at Scone, 1st Jan. 1651, was elected a fifth time 
Moderator of Assembly 16th July following. He was seized at Alyth, 28th Aug. same year, 
carried prisoner to London and detained till 29th March 1653. Called to London, with others. 
May 1654, to consult with the Protector regarding the affairs of the Church. He preached 
at the opening of Geo. Heriot's Hospital, 21st June 1659, and after the restoration of his 
Majesty, May 1660, preached at the opening of the first Parliament, 1st Jan. 1661. Refusing 
to accept the Bishopric of Edinburgh, on the establishment of Episcopacy, he was removed 
to the Greyfriars, or SW. quarter, 2d June 1662, that the Bishop might be provided.— JFrfm. 
Coune. and Gen. Sees, Beg., Lamont and NieolPs Diaries, Acts Pari. vL, and MS., Wodrow 
and Cook's Hist. iiL, Baillie's Lett,, Chambers's Biog. Diet, il 

1662. Robert Laurie, A.M., trans, fr. Tron Ch., pres. to the Deanery by Charles II. , 17th, 
and collated 24th Sept 1662, prom, to the Bishopric of Brechin in 1672.— itfm. Book Beg. 



290 MINISTERS OF THE NEW OR LIITLE KIRK. 

Priv. Seal.i Reg, Collat, KetWs CaUU,, Nicoll and Brodie^a Diaries^ Kirkton and Wodrow's 
Hist. 

1672. John Patersone, also trans, fr. Tron Cb., pros, to the Deanery by Charles 11. , 12th 
July, and adm. (before 6th Aug.) 1672, admitted burges and guild-brother, 13th Nov. 1673, 
and prom, to the Bishopric of Galloway in 1674. - Min, Book Beg. Priv, Seal, Edin. Counc and 
Guild, Beg, 

1675. William Annand, A.M., trans, fr. Tron Ch., pres. to the Deanery by Charles II., 
16th, and coll. 19th May. Had D.D. conferred by the Univ. of St Andrews, 1st Oct 1685, 
and died 13th June 1689, in his 56th year and 33d min. ** There was scarcely a more innocent 
man in Britain." He marr. 14th Jan. 1670, Helen, second dangh. of John Lundin of Anchter- 
maimie.— Publications — Fidem Catholicam, or the Doctrine of the Catholic Church (Lond. 
1661-1662), 4to. Panem Quotidianum, in defence of set Forms, and of the Book of Common 
Prayer (Lond. 1661), 4to. A Sermon in the Defence of the Liturgy (1661), 4to. Pater 
Noster, a Treatise on the Lord's Prayer (Lond. 1670), 8vo. Mysteriam Pietatis, or the 
Mystery of Godliness, &c. (Lond. 1671), 8vo. Doxologia, or Glory to the Father, reduced 
to Glorifying of the Trinity in Life, the Christian dutie (Lond. 1672), 8vo. Dualitas, or a 
Twofold Subject on the Power and Honour, &c of Magistracy (Edin. 1674), 4to. — Min. Book 
Beg. Priv, Seal, U, Album St And., Monro's Apology, Woods Ath, Oxon, iv., Test, and Beg. 
(Marr. and Bur.), MS. Ace. of Min. 1689, Lamont's Diary, Chambers* s Biog. Diet. L 

1689. Alexandeb Hamilton, A.M., trans, fr. Dalserf, called (after the Toleration was 
given) 6th Sept. 1687, his appointment was confirmed by the Town Council, 24th July 1689 ; he 
removed to his former par. ( Dalmeny ) in terms of the Act of Parliament, 25th April 1690, but 
returned again same year, and died Dec 1696, aged about 70, in 41st min. He bequeathed 
jo li. to the poor of Dalmeny. His librarie was estimat at ij^ li. Frie Geir iiij<» Ixxxix/t. 
]s. \u}d. Being highly valued among the nobility he was the means of preventing the Duke 
of Hamilton, during the sitting of the Convention of Estates, at the Revolution, bringing 
in a measure which would have comprehended many of the Episcopalian Clergy, when the 
Act was made for restoring the old Presbyterian ministers. He marr. Anna Scott, who died 
1st Oct. 1691 ; secondly Helen Eliot, who marr. John Duncan, merchant, Edinburgh. Sir 
Will. H. of Whytlaw, Lord Justice Clerk, was his brother-german. — Publication— A Cordial for 
Christians travelling Heavenward (Edin. 1696), \2mo.'-Edin. Counc, Guild, Test., Gen. Sess., 
{Marr.), and Cramond Sess. Beg., Wodrow's Anal. 

1697. George Hamilton, A.M., trans, fr. St Leonards, adm. aft«r 27th Jan. ; elected 
Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 20th Jan. 1699 ; demitted 11th (which was accepted 18th) Jan. 
1710, and died 26th May 1712, in his 77th age and 54th min. He was one who preached down 
vice with mighty force, and was proud of his strict discipline, and regard to the constitution of 
the Church. He marr. Elizabeth, sister to Dr John Hay of Conland, who died 2d Oct. 1708. 
His eldest daugh. Margaret, marr. Mr Robert Cleland, min. of Kilrenny.— PrM6. arid Test, Beg., 
Wodrow's Hist, and MSS. 

1710. John Mathison, A.M., trans, fr. Tolbooth Ch., appointed by the Presb. 19th Oct., 
and entered 5th Nov. 1710; appointed one of the Deans of the Chapel Royal, Jan. 1735, and 
died 8th Nov. 1752, in his 73d year and 46th min. It has been frequently stated that he had 
the honour of suggesting, in 1741, the establishment of a fund for supporting the widows and 
children of ministers of the Church. This may be true so far as the fund established in 1744 
was concerned, but justice requires it to be mentioned that a proposal had been made for the 
same praiseworthy object so early as 1716, by Mr Patrick Couper, min. of Pittenweem. Mr M. 
marr. Isobcl Hairstones, who survived him, and had a son Gilbert, and a daugh. Jean.— 
Publications — The Necessity of Divine Revelation, and Knowledge thereof, in order to salva- 
tion, a Sermon (Edin. 1730), 8vo. — Pres., Syn., and Test. Beg., MorrerCs Ann., Chambers's Biog. 
Diet, iv., Wodrow's Corresp. ii., Scots Mag. xxxiiL, <fcc. 

1754. Robert Walker, trans, fr. S. Leith, 2d charge, called 8th March, and adm. 11th 
Oct. ; unanimously elected Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 23d May 1771, and died 6th April 
1783, in his 67th year and 45th min. By the elegance, neatness, and simplicity of composition 
in his sermons, and by the grace and energy of his delivery, he rose to a high and justly acquired 
reputation as an evangelical preacher. He marr. Magdalen Dickson, who survived Lini. — 



MINISTERS OF THE NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 291 

Publications— [Two Single] Sennons (Edin. 1748, 1776), 8vo. Sermons on Practical Subjects, 
4 vols. (Edin. 1765-1796), Svo.—Fresb. and Syn, Beff,, Sermons iii., Kay's Portr., <fec 

1784. Thomas Hardy, trans, fr. Ballingry, called 30th April, and adm. 25th Nov. ; trans, 
to the New North Ch. 29th Nov. 1786.— Pre*6. Beg. 

1787. William Greenfield, A.M., trans, fr. St Andrew's Ch. holding in conjunction the 
Professorship of Rhetoric, pres. by the Town Council 21st Feb., and adm. Ist April, appointed 
Almoner to the King, March 1789, which he resigned in 1798. Had D.D. conferred by the 
Univ., 31st March, and was unanimously elected Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 19th May 
1796. He demitted his charge 20th, and quitted the country, but as there were certain flagrant 
reports concerning his conduct, which his desertion seemed to preclude the Presb. from consider- 
ing as groundless, they unanimously deposed him, 26th Dec 1798, and laid him under a 
sentence of excommunication. He was also degraded by the Univ. from his degrees of AM. 
and D.D., Slst of said month, and died in the North of England, 28th April 1827. He marr. 
Nov. 1784, Janet Bervie, who died 20th June 1827. His family assumed the surname of 
Rutherfurd. — Publications — Sermon preached at the opening of the Gen. Assembly ( Edin. 1797), 
8vo. Essays on the Sources of the Pleasures received from Literary Compositions (anon.) 
(Lond. 1809), 8vo. On the use of Negative Quantities in the Solution of Problems by 
Algebraic Equations (Trans. Roy. Soc, Edin. i.). — Presb. Beg., Scots Mag. Ix., Edin. 
Grad., ike 

1799. James Finlayson, A.M., trans, fr. Old Greyfriars Ch., and holding in conjunction 
the Professorship of Logic, elected by the Town Council, 2d Jan., and adm. 14th March. Had 
D.D. conf. by the Univ., 28th of said month, was unanimously elected Moderator of the Gen. 
Assembly, 20th May 1802, appointed Almoner to his Majesty same year, but resigned it, and 
died 28th Jan. 1808, in his 50th year and 21st min. In him the imperfections incidental to 
human nature were either so few, or so strenuously corrected, that in his life were exhibited a 
rare and animating example of self-promoted merit, unblemished purity of intention, and all 
the elevated and independent energies of a vigorous and virtuous mind that could not be 
otherwise than respected and esteemed ; while to his generous patronage and aid not a few 
were indebted for their promotion in life. He was deeply interested in the welfare of the 
Church, and skilled in the management of her affairs.— Publications— Heads of an Argument 
in support of the Overture respecting Chapels of Ease (1798), fol. Preaching a means of 
promoting the General Progress of Human Improvement, a Sermon ( Edin. 1801 ), 8vo. Sermons 
(Edin. 1809), 8vo. Sermon viii (Scotch Preacher iv.). Life of Dr Blair (Blair's Serm. v.).— 
Presb. Beg.t Tombst., Sennons, Scots Mag. Ixx., Chambers's Biog. Did. iL, Cockbum's Mem. 

1808. William Ritchie, D.D., trans, fr. St Andrew's Ch., Glasgow, pies, by the Town 
Council, June, and adm. 18th Aug., elected Professor of Divinity, 10th May 1809, wliich he 
held in conjunction. Died at Tarbolton, where he began his ministry, 29th Jan. 1830, in his 
83d year and 36th min. As a preacher he was argumentative and popular, while in appear- 
ance he was venerable and commanding.— Publications— (Five single Sermons, 8vo) (Glasg. 
1803, Edin. 1809), 8vo. Statement connected with employing an Organ in Public Worship. 
(Statement in the Presb. of Glasgow, relative to the use of an Organ in St Andrew's Church).— 
Presb. and Syn. Beg., Nelson's Life. 

1830. Robert Gordon, D.D., trans, fr. New North Ch., pres. by the Town Council, 
March, and adm. (in the High School where the congregation were meeting for the time) 9th 
Sept., unanimously appointed Collector of the Minister's Widows' Fund, 11th Aug. 1836, which 
he resigned 28th Nov. 1843, elected unanimously Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 20th May 
1841. By adhering to the Protest, joining in the Free Secession, and signing the Demission, 
he was declared no longer a min. of this Church, 24th May 1843, and died 21st Oct. 1853, 
in 68th age and 38th min. He had talents of the highest order, which in early life were 
cultivated by the careful study of some important departments of science, and he was the 
inventor of a Self-registering Hygrometer. From the time he entered the ministry, however, 
his talents were devoted with unwearied ardour and zeal to the investigation, exposition, and 
application of divine truth. Fidelity to his Master, tenderness for the souls of men, and 
freedom from the spirit of the world, were prominent features in his character. Though others 
made a more conspicuous figure in the lamented Secession, yet none took a firmer stand in 



292 MINISTERS OF THB NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 

those counsels which led to the separation of so many members of the Church from the support 
of the State. He marr. Isabella Campbell, by whom two of his sons, Robert and Donald 
Campbell, became min. in the Free Church. — Publications — The Duty of Searching the 
Scriptures, a Sermon (Edin. 1823), 8vo. Sermons (Edin. 1825), 8vo. Christ as made known to 
the Ancient Church (4 vols. Edin. 18^), 8vo. The articles Euclid, Geography, Meteorology 
(Edin. Encycloppedia ).—PrM6. Reg,, Edin. Encycl, xviiL 

1843. David Aknot, D.D., died 15th May 1877. 

1877. J. Cameron Lees, D.D., translated from Ist chaige, Abbey of Paisley, inducted 
19th Oct. Present incumbent. 

Collegiate, or Second Charge. 

1594. Peter Hewat, A.M., studied and attained his degree at the Univ., Aug. 1588, as 
min. and teacher in the East kirk he was allowed xxli, for his dewty till Beltane, 28th Feb. 
1594 ; and had other xx/». to Lammas, I2th May 1596 ; promoted to Hailes same yeajc.—Eeg. 
Latur, U. Edin,, Edin, Grad, and Counc Beg, 

[Charles Ferme, A.M., James Muirhead, A.M., and George Greir, A.M., were 
severally authorised by the Presb. to preach in the N.W. quarter, 13th Dec 1589— 18th Dec 
1599, "at sic tymes as were necessary."— Pr«6. Beg.] 

1598. James Balfour, formerly in the City, ordained with imposition of hands, 19th May. 
Hesitating to offer public thanksgiving for his Majesty's deliverance from the Gowrie 
conspiracy, in obedience to the royal command, he and four others were dischai^ged from preach- 
ing in his Majesty's dominions under pain of death, and two days after left the city. Being 
called before the Privy Council in Sept. he declared himself satisfied of its truth. By the con- 
tinuance of his Majesty's displeasure, he and two others were transported, 16th May 1601, yet 
he continued notwithstanding. He was summoned to London, with seven others, by his 
Majesty, 2l8t May 1606, where they arrived in Aug. After various conferences and dealings, 
they were handed severally over to the charge of different bishops of England. Mr James being 
consigned to the care of John, Bishop of Norwich, 23d Nov. thereafter. All the means used 
being ineffectual in getting them to resUe from their opinions, and adopt those of his Majesty 
in changing the government of the church, he and five others, 8th March 1607, solicited the 
Privy Council to be sent home. The bishops were no longer troubled with their charge, and 
Mr James was commanded, 1st May, to confine himself to Cockbumspath. In the beginning of 
July it was changed to Alford, but after proceeding so far on his way, he was compelled by 
disease to remain at Inverkeithing. He returned and was preaching in the city, when he was 
again removed by a royal warrant, 20th Jan. 1610. The city continued payment of his stipend 
till Beltan, 1st May 1613, when he died. He marr. in 1575, Barbara, youngest daugh. of Rich. 
Melvill of Baldowy, min. of Maryton, who survived him, and had a son, Andrew, min. of Kirk- 
newton, and a daugh. Nicholas, who was threatened to be banished the city in 1620 for 
entertaining conventicles in her house. — Presb., Syn,, and Edin. Counc. Beg. 

1610. Peter Hewat, A.M.,. trans, fr. S.W. quarter, in terms of his Majesty's request, and 
adm. after 2l8t Feb., was a member of the Assembly same year, and of the Court of High 
Commission, 21st Dec 1615. He had a gift from his Majesty of the Abbey of Croceregall, 29th 
Dec. 1612, which entitled him to a seat in Parliament (which was ratified to him and his 
children for nineteen years after his death, on payment of v. merks yearly, by Charles II., 27th 
Oct., and by Parliament, 17th Nov. 1641), and was a member and one of those appointed by 
the Assembly, 17th Aug. 1616, for revising the Liturgy. He consulted with the ministers 
regarding a Protest for the Liberties of the Kirk in 1617, drew out one of his own, and still 
adhering to it was deprived by the High Commission, 12th July of that year, and confined to 
Dundee. He was still recognised, however, as min. and had his stipend paid by the city to 
Candlemas 1619, but he was charged to remove, and be confined at Croceraguell by his 
Majesty's warrant, 12th, and by that of the Privy Council, 17th June following. He died 
in the par. of Maybole, Aug. 1645, aged about 78, in 51st min. The insicht of the hous, &c, 
was estimat at iij" xxxiij/t. TJ9. viij^., and the inventar and debts v^ Ixxziij/i. He marc 
Isobell, daugh. of Will. SmaiU, merchant in the city, who died Aug. 1644, and had issue. 



MINISTERS OF THE NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 293 

Margaret, John, Lilias, Margaret, William, Elspeth, Margaret, John, and Janet. Another 
daugh. Elizabeth [probably Elspeth], marr. Bryce Blair of Goidring.— Publication— Three 
excellent Points of the Christian Doctrine (Edin. 1621), ^U>.^Edin. Counc., Guild., BapL, and 
Tegt. Reg. [GUug.), Acts Pari, v., Orig. Lett., Bow, SpoUtvood and CaldenpoocPs Hist, Reg. 
Presh., MelvilVs Autob., Morrison's Dec x. 

1022. John Maxwell, A.M., trans, fr. Mortlach, elected by the Town Council and 
Session, 18th Jnly, and adm. soon after. On the division of the City in 1625, he was removed 
to the North-east quarter, or Trinity College.— i?ou7, Spotswood, and CaldenooocTs Hist, Edin. 
Counc Reg. 

1635. Alexander Thomson, A.M., trans, fr. Cambuslang, elected by the Town Council, 
3d July, and adm. same year. Deposed 1st Jan. 1639 for declining the Gen. Assembly, 1638, 
and reading and defending the Service Book. He died in 1646, aged about 53, when there was 
awand to him j™ viij« xxj/». yjs. viijc?. He marr. Margaret Moorehead, and had three sons, 
James, a merchant, his executor; John (who had £100 sterL granted him by Parliament, 
5th July 1661, in respect of his father's sufferings), and William.— ^cftn. Counc, Test, and 
Reg. {Bapt.), Row and Stevenson's Hist., Peterkin's Rec, Wodrow's MSS. IxiL, Acts 
Pari. viL 

1639. Robert Douglas, A.M., trans, fr. Kirkcaldy 2d charge, elected 14th Jan., and adm. 
same year (after 22d August) ; removed to North-west quarter, or West St Giles, 24th Dee. 
1641.— ^<Kn. Counc Reg. 

1641. Harib Rollock, A.M., trans, fr. Greyfriars, fixed on the division of the city into 
six parishes, 24th Dec 1641, died 2d June 1642, aged about 47. He marr. Dame Helen, 
youngest daughter of Alex. Lord Elphinstoun, and relict of Sir Will. Cockbum of Langton. — 
Edin. Counc. Reg., Baillie's Lett ii, MSS., Acts Pari., Douglas' Peer. I 

1650. David Dickson, of Busbie, A.M., Prof, of Divinity in the Univ., which he held in 
conjunction, appointed by the Town Council, 12th April 1660, and adm. shortly after, elected a 
second time Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 21st July 1652. Deprived Oct., and died Dec. 
1662, in his 79th year and 45th min. As a preacher he was the most popular and powerful 
in his day, especially in the earlier part of his ministry, when his services at Irvine were 
crowned with great and wonderful success. He was highly instrumental in promoting the 
notable convereion at Stewarton about 1625, termed "the Stewarton Sickness." Nor was he 
less zealous and useful at the overthrow of Episcopacy in 1638, having taken a prominent 
part in the business of the Assembly at Glasgow. From the frequency of depositions and 
even of decapitations, a few years after, among those opposed to the Covenanters about this 
time, he observed, **the wark gaes bonnilie on," which became a common proverb. When the 
Church unhappily divided into Resolutioners and Protesters, he joined and took a great lead 
in the party of the former. He marr. 23d Sept. 1617, Margaret, daugh. of Arch, Robertoun of 
Stonhall, by whom he had four sons ; Mr Jolm, Clerk to the Exchequer (who predeceased him); 
Mr Arch, at Irvine; David (who also predeceased him) ; Mr Alex., min. of Newbattle, from 
one of whom descended Sir Robert D. of Carberry, a family now extinct. — Publications—A 
Treatise on the Promises (Dublin, 1630), 12mo. Explanation of the Epistle to the Hebre^vs 
(Aberd. 1635), 12mo. Expositio Analytica Omnium Apostolicarum Epistolarum (Glasg. 1645), 
4to. True Christian Love, in verse ( 1649), 12mo. Exposition of the Gospel of Matthew (Lond. 
1651), 12mo. Explanation of the Psalms, 3 vols. (Lond. 1653-1655), 12nio. Therapeutica 
Sacra (Edin. 1656), 4to. [Translated (Edin. 1664), 8vo.] A Commentary on the Epistles 
(Lond. 1659), foL Prselectiones in Confessionem Fidei, fol. [Translated] Truth's Victory over 
Error (Lond. 1688), 12ma Several Pamphlets in the Disputes with the Doctore of Aberdeen, 
4to, and some in defence of the Public Resolutions. The Directory for Public Worship was 
drawn up by him, with the assistance of Mr Alex. Henderson and Mr Dav. Calderwood— and 
The Sum of Saving Knowledge, by him in conjunction with Mr James Durham. Some Minor 
Poems, "The Christian Sacrifice," and "O Mother dear, Jerusalem. "—£rftn. Counc, Test., 
Glasgow (Marr.), Canongate {Bur.), and Reg. {Bur.), BaUWs Lett, Lamont and Nicoll's 
Diaries, Wodrou^s Life, Hist. L iv., and Anal. i. ilL, Livingstones Charac 

1665. James Lundik, A.M., trans, fr. Tron Ch., elected by the Town Council, 1st May, 
and adm. soon after; trans, to the Tolbooth Ch. in 1^12.— Edin. Counc Reg. 



294 MINISTERS OF THE NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 

1672. Alexander Ramsay, trans, fr. Greyfriara, elected by the To^ii Council, Uth Dec, 
and adm. shortly after ; re- trans, to the Greyfriars in 1674. — Edi7i, Counc, and Guild, Hcg. 

1675. Andrew Cant, trans, fr. Trinity College Ch., holding, in conjunction, the Princi- 
pality of the Univ., elected by the Town Council, 29th Sept., adm. soon after; and died 4th 
Dec. 1685, in 27th min. His librarie was estimat at v^ It. The insicht at iy Ixvi/t. xiij«. iiiid. 
Frie Geir iij™ iij« xciij7«. xiij*. iiijrf. He was "ane eminent and solide preacher;" and marr., 
13th July 1663, Jean Cockbume, who died 25th Oct. 1675, by whom he had Jean, Anna, Marion, 
Andrew (his Executor), John (died 14th Dec. 1675), and Alexander.— Publications — Theses 
Plulosophicae, 4to. De Libero Arbitrio. Oi'atio de Concordia Theologorum et Discordia ( Edin. 
(1676), 4to. —^c&'n. Counc. Test, and Reg. (Bapt. and Bur.). 

1685. Alexander Monro, D.D., prom. fr. the Professorship of Divinity, St Mary's Coll., 
St Andrews, holding the Piincipality of the Univ. in conjunction ; elected by the Town Council, 
0th Dec. 1685, and adm. soon after. Befriended by John, Viscount Dundee, he was nominated 
to the Bishopric of Argyle, 24th Oct. 1688, though neither elected nor consecrated. Demitted 
29th April 1689; died in 1698. Universally allowed to have been a good scholar, a judicious 
man, and a person of considerable talent. He marr. 6th May 1673, Anna Logan, in the par. of 
Aberdour, and had issue, Anna, Elizabeth, and an only son, James, who studied at Balliol 
College, Oxford, successively took the degrees of A.M., M.B., and M.D., and became physician 
to the hospitals of Bridewell and Bethlehem, London, and was famous for his treatment in cases 
of insanity; 2dly, Marion CoUace.— Publications — A Memorial for His Highness the Prince 
of Orange. Presbyterian Inquisition (Lond. 1691), 4to. Sermons preached on several 
occasions (Lond. 1693), 8vo. An Apology for the Church of Scotland (Lond. 1693), 4to. 
Spirit of Calumny, &c., Slander Examined, Chastised, and particularly addressed to Mr 
Geo. Red path (Lond. 1693). An Answer to Dr Rule. An Inquiry into the New Opinions 
of the Presbyterians (Lond. 1696), 8vo. Letter to Sir Robert Howard, occasioned by his 
Twofold Vindication of Archbishop Tillotson (Lond. 1696), 4to. — Edin. Counc, ^ Aberdour^ 
Dunferml. and Kinglassie Sees. Beg., MS. Ace. of Min. 1689, Keith's Catal., FountainhalPs 
Diary, Edin. Mag. xvi., Bower's Univ. i. 

1689. John Law, A.M., trans, fr. Campsie, called 22d July 1687, confirmed by the Town 
Council, 24th July 1689, was a member of the Gen. Assemblies, 1690, 1692, and was elected 
Moderator by that of 1694— was appointed Almoner to her Majesty— demitted 12th, which 
was accepted, 26th Nov. 1707, and died 26th Dec. 1712, in his 80th year and 67th min. He 
marr. IsobeU, daugh. of Mr Robert Cunningham, min. of Holywood, north of Ireland, who 
died 8th Nov. 1703, aged 70. Their son, Mr William, was Professor of Moral Philosophy in 
the Univ., and founder of the family of Elvingston, East Lothian.— ^c^m. Counc., GuUd., Presb., 
and Beg. {Bur.), Tombst, Monteith's Mort. ii, Wodrow's Anal, iii, Peterkin's Const., Leven and 
Melv. Pap. 

1707. William Carstares, A.M., trans, fr. Greyfriars, holding, in conjunction, the 
Principality of the Univ. — appointed by the presb. 17th, and entered 28th Dec ; elected 
Moderator of the Gen. Assemblies, 15th April 1708, 10th May 1711, and 4th May 1715, but 
was seized with apoplexy in August, and died 28th Dec. of the latter year, in 67th age and 
35th min. To him Scotland is indebted for the annual meeting of her Gen. Assemblies, and 
for the establlBhment of her Presbyterian form of Church government at the Revolution, as he 
had the most powerful influence, both as chaplain and secretary, with his Majesty in getting 
it accomplished. He wsus against the abolition of patronage ; but equally zealous against its 
restoration in 1712, when, with Prof. Blackwell, of Marischal College, and Mr Rob. Baillie, of 
Inverness, he went as a deputation to London, and drew a representation to the house of Peera 
against it. He was not only the confidant and adviser of King William, but under the two 
successive sovereigns was much consulted on all affairs relating to his native countiy. Though 
a skilful politician, he never forgot his character as a minister ; by the unflinching dischai^ge of 
its various duties, and by his wise and skilful direction, added to his exemplary conduct, he 
acquired general confidence, and directed in a great measure the affairs of the ChurclL 
Having tasted adverse fortune in early life, he did not forget those under her influence when 
his circumstances were prosperous. To many of the deprived episcopal clergy he proved himself 
a father and a friend; some of whom deeply bemoaned their loss at his funeral, 2d Jan. 1716. 



MINISTERS OF THE NEW OR LITTLE KIRK. 295 

He had a profound knowledge of hnman character, abounded in good humour, was deeply read 
in classical learning, delivered his sentiments without hesitation, and spoke Latin as fluently 
as if it had been his native language. He marr. a daugh. of Mr Kekewich of Trehawk, Corn- 
wall, without issue.— Publications— The Scottish Toleration Argued (Lond. 1712), 8vo. The 
State Papers and Letters addressed to William Carstares were published by Principal 
M*Cormick (Edin. 1774), 4to.— Pre*6. and Beg, (Bur.), State Pap., Wodrow*s Hist, Corresp., 
MSS. IxxxiL, and AncU.y Ferrie^s Life of J. Carstairs, Dunlqp's Serm., Burnet* s Hist,, Bawer^s 
Univ., Edin, Mag. and Eev., and Christ. Inst, xxvi., Chambers* s Biog. Diet 

1721. William Mitchell, trans, fr. Old Ch., called 10th Jan. 1718, and adm. 5th Feb. ; 
elected a fourth time Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 10th May 1722, and a fifth time, 5th 
May 1726, though the last was carried only by a single vote. Being one of the deputation sent 
to congratulate his Majesty George II. on his accession to the throne, he died at York, on his 
way to London, from suppression of urine, 8th Sept. 1727, in 33d min. He was a superior 
preacher, a fluent speaker, and being perhaps the most wealthy minister in Scotland, had great 
influence at Court, and had indeed the leading power in the afi'airs of the Church after the 
death of Carstares. An instance of his liberality wa£ given by his paying £100 sterl. to the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, for which he received the thanks of the Assembly, 
4th May 1718. He man*., Oct. 1705, Margaret Cunningham, relict of Mr James Stewart, 
advocate, and had a daugh., who died May 1726.— Pr«6. and Beg. (Marr.), Wodrow\^ Corresp. 
andAncU. Acts of Ass, 1718. 

1728. Robert Kinloch, A.M., trans, fr. Dundee, called 19th April, and adm. 8th Oct., 
chosen Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 7th May 1747. Getting into ill-health, he demitted his 
charge, 24th Feb., and died 3d April 1756, in his 68th year and 43d min., having marr. Lilias, 
third daugh. of Colin Campbell of Monide, who died 12th July 1769. — Publication — The Truth 
and Excellency of the Gospel Revelation, a Sermon (Edin. 1731), Svo.—Presb. Syn. and Beg, 
(Bur,), Morren*s Ann,, Wodrow^s Anal., Carlyle*s Autoh., Playfair*s Bar, iii., <l?c. 

1758. Hugh Blair, D.D. trans, fr. Lady Yester's, adm. 15th June, appointed 27th June 
1760, Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in the Univ., and 14th May 1776 Chaplain to the 
1st Batt. 7l8t Foot, which situations he both held in conjunction, only for a time, when they 
were relinquished. Died 27th Dec. 1800, in his 83d year and 59th min. As a writer of Sermons 
few or none have excelled him in the beauty of composition, or variety of subjects. They recom- 
mended themselves so much to that virtuous monarch, George III., that an annual pension of 
£200 was conferred on him, 25th July 1780. From diffidence, and perhaps a certain degree of 
inaptitude for extemporary speaking, he took a less public part in the contests of ecclesiastical 
politics than some of his contemporaries, though his opinion was eagerly sought by those who 
had charge of these matters. From the same causes he never consented to become Moderator 
of Assembly. He marr. April 1748, his cousin, Katherine, daugh. of Mr James Bannatine, one 
of the min. of the city, who died 9th Feb. 1795, by whom he had a son, who died in infancy, 
and a daugh. who only reached her twenty-first year. — Publications — The Wrath of Man 
praising God, a Sermon (Edin. 1746), 8vo. The Importance of Religious Knowledge to the 
happiness of mankind, a Sermon (Edin. 1750), 8vo. Observations upon the Analysis of the 
Moral and Religious Sentiments contained in the Writings of Sopho and David Hume, Esq. 
(Edin. 1755), 8vo. A Critical Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian, the son of Fingal (Lond. 
1763), 4to. Sermons, 5 vols. (Edin. 1777, Lond. 1801), 8vo. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles 
Lettres, 2 vols. (Lond. 1783), 4to. The Compassion and Benevolence of the Deity, a Sermon 
(Edin. 1796), 8vo. Four Articles in the Edin. Review (Edin. 1755). Translations and 
Paraphrases (used by the Church of Scotland), iv. xxxiii. xxxiv. xliv. xlv. Pastoral 
Admonition addressed by the Gren. Assembly, May 23d 1799, to the people under their charge. 
— Presh. Beg., ffilVs Life, Sermons v,, Carlyle's Autoh,, Mackenzie's Life of Home, Somerville's 
Life, Chambers* s Biog, Diet,, Kay's Portr,, <bc. 

1801. George Husband Baird, D.D., trans, fr. New North Ch., holding in conjunction the 
Principality of the Univ., elected by the Town Council, 27th Jan., and adm. 30th April. Died 
14th Jan. 1840, in his 79th year and 53d min. As a preacher he addressed himself rather 
to the moral sentiments of his audience than to their intellect. His sermons were filled 
with deep feeling, and his prayers highly devotional, which being joined to a solemn and 
2N 



296 MINISTERS OP THE TOLBOOTH CHURCH. 

impressive delivery failed not to awaken a kindred feeling in hia auditors. Amid many 
benevolent schemes into which he readily entered, that of increasing the means of education and 
religious instruction throughout Scotland, particularly in the Highlands and Islands, and in 
populous towns and cities, engaged his greatest attention. At his suggestion the General 
Assembly in 1824 formed a committee in order to carry this object into effect, of which he was 
appointed Convener. Entering into it with the warmest zeal, he corresponded extensively regard- 
ing it and, though far advanced in yeara, travelled not less than seven thousand miles in thcae 
extensive and desolate regions to facilitate its progress, and render it permanently beneficial. 
He stated ** he had found nearly one hundred thousand human beings unable either to read 
or write, and innumerable districts where the people could not hear sermon above once a year, 
and had seen thousands of habitations where a Sabbath bell was never heard, where he had 
now witnessed schools and libraries established, knowledge increased, and greedily received." 
He marr. 8th July 1702, Isabella, daugh. of Thomas Elder, Esq., of Fometh,.Lord Provoat 
of the city, who died 18th Aug. 1826, by whom he had Thos. Elder Baird of Fometh, advocate, 
and others.— A Sennon on the Universal Propagation and Influence of the Christian Religion, 
was in the act of going through the press, but stopt after 48 pp. had been thrown off, in 179i!^ 
8vo. He also edited Poems by Michael Bruce (Edin. 1799), 12mo. —Pr^ft. Beg. 

1840. James Buchanan, D.D., joined the Free Church in 1843. 

1844. Jamks M*Letchie, D.D., died 15th Sept. 1866. No successor appointed. 

THE TOLBOOTH CHURCH. 

1641. Robert Douglas, A.M., trans, fr. the High Ch., had this par. allotted by the Town 
Council, 24th Dec ; elected Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 27th July 1642, named by the 
Assembly, 18th Aug. 1643, one of their Commissioners to the Ass. of Divines at Westminster, 
attended the army in England in 1644, again elected Moderator of the Assembly, 22d Jan. 
1645, and a third time, 4th Aug. 1647 ; re-trans, to the High Church in XHd.—EcUn. Counc, and 
Gen, Sess. Beg., Acts Fori, vi. 

1649. George Hutcheson, A.M., trans, fr. Colmonell, elected and pres. by the Town 
Council, 7th Nov. 1648, adm. 23d March, and appointed by the T. Council to this charge 4th 
April 1649. He was one of those appointed same year for visiting the College of Edinburgh, 
and was appointed by the Commission of Assembly to join with the committee of the States 
and proceed to Breda in 1650, for entering into treaty with his Majesty, which terminated 
happily between the Eling and the Commissioners. He was also one of those who attended 
Arch. Marquis of Argyll after his condemnation, and accompanied him to the scaffold, 27th 
May 1661. Declining to join the Bishop in Church DiiScipIine, he was discharged the exercise 
of his ministry by Parliament, 7th Aug. IG&2.—Edin. Counc. and Si/n. Beg., Acts Fori, vL viL, 
Kirkton and Wodrow*a Hist, L, Blair's Life, BaUlie's Lett, iii., Livingstones Life, Nicoll and 
Brodie*a Diary, if* Ure's Glasg, 

1663. William Annand, A.M., son of Mr Will. A., rector of Throwley, Kent, bom at 
Ayr in 1633, studied and attained his degree at the Univ. and King's Coll. Aberdeen in 1649, 
and entered Student at University ColL Oxford in 1651,' ord. by Thomas, Bishop of Ardfert^ 
Aug. 1656, as Assistant Preacher at Weston on the Green, Oxfordsh., thence promoted to the 
Vicarage of Leighton Budezard, Bedfordsh., and became Chaplain to John, Earl of Middleton ; 
elected by the Town Council 9th Jan., and adm. 1st Feb. 1663 ; trans, to the Tron Ch. in 1675w 
—Edin, Counc, Beg., Beg, Collat,, Fasti Aherd., Woods Ath, Oxon, iv., NicolVs Diary, 

1672. James Lundie, A.M., trans, fr. the High Ch., elected by the Town Council 16th 
Aug. ; trans, to the Tron Ch. in 1675.— jBcfm. Counc Beg, 

1675. William Meldrum, trans, fr. Tranent Pres. by the Town Council, 29th Jan., and 
coll. 16th July. Deprived in 1681 by refusing to take the Test, and died Jan. 1684, in 17tli 
min. His librarie was estimat at iiij*' merks, the insicht at xcvlj/». vj«., and Frie Geir at 
jm iijc \ii, J5. He marr. Jean Colison, and had Christian, bapt. 24th June 1673, and Jean, 12lh 
Nov. 1674, who was served heir to her fath., 14th Feb. 1684, and same day Mr George Meldrum, 
late one of the min. of Aberdeen, was served her nearest agnate ; 2dly at Holyrudhous, 20th 
Sepu 1776, Sarah Lasoun, who died Nov. 1693.— ^rf*». Counc., Tranent Sess, Beg. 



MINISTERS or THE TOLBOOTH CHURCH. 297 

1G81. John Hamiltone, A.M., trans, fr. S. Leith, pres. by the Town Council, 23d Nov. ; 
Remitted in 1686, having been prom, to the Bishopric of Dnnkeld. — Edin, Counc, Reg. 

1686. William Gairdyxe, trans, fr. 2d charge, elected by the Town Council, 24th Sept 
Had D.D. conferred by the Univ. of St Andrews, 6th Nov. following. Deprived by the Privy 
Council, 17th Sept. 1680, for not reading [the pipoclamation of the Estates] and praying; 
absenting himself the day of reading the proclamation; and praying only '*God have mercy 
upon King William and Queen Mary, and the Royal family ; " and for not reading the pro- 
daniation concerning the Fast, which he contemptuously threw down, when offered him. Died 
9d Feb. 1708, in 40th min. He man*. 25th Aug. 1671, Barbara Guthrie, and had Harie (died 
14th May 1673), David, Jonet, and Margaret.— ^cb'n. Counc, Test, and Reg. {Bapt, Marr., 
and Bur.\ Act Red. U. St And., PetcrkirCs Const., Rule's Sec. Vindication. 

1601. James Kibkton, A.M., trans, fr. Mertoun, called (after the Toleration w^as granted, 
22d July 1687) to a meeting-house on the Castle-hill, which was confirmed by the Town 
Council, 24th July 1680, on which he was adm. to this Ch. 25th Jan. 1601. Died 17th Sept. 
1600, aged about 71, and upwards of 44th min. He was one of the visitors for the CoUege of 
Edinburgh, Aug. 1600, is said to have had **a weak voice," and to have been "a minister of 
great zeal, knowledge, and learning, a most curious searcher into the natural, civil, and 
ecclesiastical history of Scotland, and a most successful and sententious preacher of the gospel." 
He marr. Grisel, daugh. of George Baillie, Esq., of Jerviswoode, and had four sons, George, a 

surgeon in Edin., Dr Andrew (died Sept. 1604), captain in the navy, and drowned 

in the Leith, 1676 ; and a daugh. Elizabeth, who died June 1673. His brother Robert died 
25th Jan. 1711.— Publications— Life of Mr John Welch (Edin. 1703), 4to [Sel. Biog. i.]. A 
Sermon, being the last he preached (Edin. 1726). The Secret and true HiBtoiy of the Church 
of Scotland, from the Restoration to 1678, edited [with a biographical notice] by C. K. Sharpe, 
Esq. (Edin. 1817), 4to.— ^rfin. Counc, Guild., Lanark Presb., and Reg. {Bur.), }Vodrow*s Hist., 
Edin. Christ. Inst, xxv., Brodie and FountainkalVs Diaries, M'Crie's Life of Knox ii, 8. Presb. 
Eloq., Lcuen and Melv. Pap., Reg. Gen. Ass. 1600, 1602, Cont. of the Hist. Rel. Gen. Ass. 1600, 
Peterkin's Const, Chambers's Biog. Diet, i.. Acts Pari, ix., Rule's Sec. Vind. 

1706. John Mathison, A.M., studied and graduated at the Univ. of Edinburgh, 26th June 
ICOO. Cliaplain to the Lord Advocate (Sir James Stuart), lie. by the Presb. 3d April 1706, 
called 10th Sept., and ordained 12th Dec. same year; trans, to the High Church in 1710.— 
Edin. Grad., Presb. Reg., d:c. 

1711. John M*Claren, trans, fr. Carstaire, called 20th March, appointed by the Presb. 
13th June, and entered 20th July. He refused to take the oath of Abjuration in 1712, and died 
11th July 1734, in his 67th year and 42d min. He was one of six who protested against 
the Seceders being loosed from their parochial charges, Nov. 1733, and was esteemed as a man 
of solid learning, sound principles, and a great gospel preacher, who had a most fertile inven- 
tion. His sermons abounding in similes which instructed and delighted his hearers, being 
prized for his ministerial abilities, plainness, and integrity, so that his services were acceptable, 
while he was singularly unblameable in his practice. It was said he had drawn up an answer 
to Limborch's System of Divinity. He marr. 25th July 1605, Eupham Park. — Publications— 
The New Scheme of Doctrine contained in the answers of Mr John Simson, Professor of 
Divinity in the college of Glasgow (Edin. 1717), 8vo. The Spiritual Burgess, a Sermon (Edin. 
1735), 8vo. —Prw6., Syn., Glasgow {Marr.), and Edin. Reg. {Bur.), Broum*s Gosp, Truth, 
Wodroto's Anal. iii. 

1735. John Taylour, A.M., trans, fr. Alloa, called 21st Nov. 1734, adm. 27th March 
after ; died 12th Aug. 1736, aged about 54, in 23d min. He was reckoned a legal preacher, yet 
superior to most of his day in originality of genius and depth of thought. He married, and had 
a daugh. who marr. Mr Bennet, brewer, Edinburgh. — Presb. and Reg. {Bur.), Wodrow's Anal. 
iiL, Erskine*s Supp. to Gillies' Hist. Collect., Kay's Portr. L 

1737. Alexander Webster, trans, from Culross, unanimously called 6th Jan., and adm. 2d 
June. His natural abilities as a profound calculator enabled him to be of the utmost service to 
the Church by acquiring information, making calculations, and maturing a scheme for securing 
to the widows and children of Mini:3ters and Professors, often left in destitute circumstances, 
R provision which prevented their being in want, and in the Gen. Ass. 15th May 1744 he 



298 MINISTERS OF THE TOLBOOTH CHURCH. 

received their unanimous thanks ** for the extraordinary pains and trouble taken by him in the 
rise and progress of the scheme," which was the first institution of the kind in Scotland, and has 
proved to be one of the most beneficial, as well as prosperous, of any in Europe. He was 
appointed Chaplain to the Prince of Wales, Aug. 1748, and elected Moderator of the Gen. 
Assembly, 24th May 1753. In 1755 he drew up an account of the people in Scotland, which was 
the iirst time they had been enumerated, for the information of Government. Had D.D. cou- 
feiTed by the Univ. of Edinburgh, 24th Nov. 1760, was one of a deputation sent by the 
Commission of Assembly to present an address to Geoi^e III. on his accession to the throne, 
20th Dec. following; and was unanimously appointed General Collector of the Ministers' 
Widows' Fund, 26th June 1771. Also appointed one of his Majesty's Chaplains in ordinary for 
Scotland, and one of the Beans of the Chapel Royal, Sept. succeeding. He died 25th Jan. 1784, 
in his 77th year and Slst min. Though strictly evangelical in doctrine, he was of convivial and 
social habits, and yet the most loved and popular minister in his day, so that sittings in the 
Tolb. Church were not easily obtained, which led one of the city functionaries to observe, '* it was 
easier to get a seat in the kingdom of heivin than i' the Tolbuith kirk." His talents were also 
directed to the improvement of objects unconnected with liis profession. To him is the nation 
indebted for suggesting the extension of Edinburgh by the erection of the new town. By his 
importunity with the lamented Colonel Gardiner, it has been stated, the fatal encounter at 
Preston in 1745 was hastened. As a philanthropist he was enthusiastic in seeking to promote 
the civilisation of the Highlands by the promulgation of the gospel and stimulating its inhabit- 
ants to industry. He was at all times a father and a friend to the poor, constantly accessible, 
and ever liberal either from pecuniary sources or by interest, when required to further the 
comfort and happiness of those who merited his assistance. He marr. Mary, eldest daugh. of 
Colonel John Erskine, of the Alva family, she died 28th Nov. 1766, in her 72d year, by whom 
he had six sons and a daugh. George became Civil Paymaster in the H.E.I.C.S., and died in 
Bengal, July 1794. Alexander, mate of the Button East Indiaman, died on his passage thither 
in 1782. Ann marr. Captain Eyre Robert Mingay, of the 66th Foot, and died 16th May 1786. 
—Publications— [Four Single Sermons (Edin. 1740-1754), 8vo]. Divine Influence the true 
spring of the extraordinary work at Cambuslang (Edin. 1742), 8vo. [Sec. edit, with PS. 
called forth] Vindication of said postscript (Edin. 1743). Calculations, with the Principles 
and Data on which they are instituted, relative to the Widows' Scheme (Edin. 1748), foL 
Beside these he is said to have been the author of a well-known love song, " Oh, how could I 
venture to luve ane like thee."— Pre*6. and Syn, Beg., Scots Mag, xlvi. Ixiv., Webster's Mem,, 
Morren's Ann,, Douglas' Peer, L, Edin, Grad,, Mackenzie's Life of Home, Somerville's Life, 
Carlyle's Autoh., Kay's Portr, i., Hist, of th& Rebellion, Chambers's Biog. Diet, iv., Struthers* 
Harp ofCaled, i. ii., Bower's Univ, ii., Erskine' s Disc, L, <fcc. 

1785. Thomas Randall, trans, fr. Lady Tester's, adm. 9th June. Had D.D. confeircd 
by Harvard Univ. in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1793. By the death of his maternal uncle, 
Sept. 1794, he succeeded to the property of Muirhouse, assumed the name of Davidson, and 
died 21st Oct. 1827, in his 81st year and 57th min. He was an affectionate and assiduous 
as well as an evangelical minister, attentive in promoting the views of young men studying 
for the ministry, either in directing their studies or bestowing from his fortune, which tended 
much towards strengthening the popular party in the Church. To the various charitable 
institutions of the city he was a liberal benefactor, and stimulated others by his pious example. 
He marr. 29th Jan. 1772, Christian Rutherford, who died 6th July 1797, and had a son, William, 
who succeeded to the estate ; 2dly, 20th Aug. 1798, Elizabeth, daugh. of Arch. Cockbum, 
Esq., one of the Barons of Exchequer, she died 30th March 1850, and had Archibald, an 
advocate, Thomas, Sarah, and Mary.— Publications— [Three single Sermons (Glasg. 177-, Edin. 
1802), 8vo]. A Sketch of the Character of Dr John Erskine, one of the ministers of Greyfriars 
Church (1803), 8vo ; and recommended Ford's Serious Address to Men in Business (Edin. 1815), 
12mo. — Presh. and Syn, Beg,, Muirhead's Fun. Serm,, Kay's Portr., dkc, 

1828. James Marshall, A.M., trans, fr. Glasgow (Outer High Ch.), pres. by the Town 

Council and adm. 12th June. During the struggle in the Church upon non-intrusion, 

he did not relish the extreme height to which it was carried by those maintaining these 
principles, and with whom he had unifonnly acted ; and therefore sought relief in adopting 



MINISTERS OF THE TOLBOOTH CHURCH. 299 

views which led him to embrace Episcopacy, and renounce connection with the Church of 
Scotland. He demitted his charge, which was accepted 27th Oct. 1841. He took orders in 
the Church of England, as curate to the Rev. Dr Gilly, Vicar of Norham, and one of the 
Prebendaries of Durham ; was instituted Vicar of Maryport, Bristol, in 1842, and afterwards 
of Christ Church, Clifton, where he died, 29th Aug. 1856, aged 69, in 36th min. He man*. 
28th May 1822, Mary Catherine, daugh. of the Rev. Leigh Richmond, rector of Turvey, and 
had Hugh Graham, Leigh Richmond, and Mary Richmond (who died in 1863).— Publications- 
Address to the Students of Divinity in the Univ. of Edinburgh (Edin. 1817), 8vo. A Sermon 
preached after the interment of the Rev. Alex. Ranken, D.D. (Glasg. 1827), 8vo. A Sermon 
on Cruelty to Animals ( Edin. 1829), 12mo. Early Piety, illustrated in the Life and Death of 
a young Parishioner ( Edin. 1837), 18mo. Letters of the late Mrs Isabella Graham, of New 
York (Edin. 1839), 12mo. Inwaid Revival (Edin. 1840), fcap. 8vo. —Pre*6. Beg., Anderson's 
Sketches i Kay's Portr, i., d^c 

Collegiate, ob Second Charge. 

Uncollegiated by the Town Council, 26th Nov., and by the Presb. 10th Dec. 1828, with a view 
to the erection of St Stephen's. 

1643. John Oswalde, trans, fr. Aberdeen, pres. by the Town Council, 1st Nov., and aduL 
before the close of the year ; was a member of the Commissions of Assembly, 1644-1646 ; and 
trans, to Prestonpans in 1648. — Edin, Councy Syn., and Gen, Sees. Beg., Acts of Ass. 

1663. Alexander Malcolm, trans, fr. OrweU, elected by the Town Council, 28th Oct. ; 
trans, to Newbattle in 1667. — Edin. Coune. Beg. 

1668. William Gated yne, passed trials before the Presb. of Arbroath, by whom he was 
recommended to the Bishop for license, 23d July 1664, elected by the Town Council, 7th Aug., 
and ordained and collated, 22d Oct. 1668 ; trans, to the first charge in IQ86.—Edin. Counc. Beg., 
Beg. Collat. 

1687. Thomas Wilkie, A.M., trans, fr. N. Leith, elected by the Town Council, 11th Aug. 
He was the only min. of the city not superseded at the Revolution by Civil and Ecclesiastical 
authority, and was appointed to the Greyfriars, 23d Jan. 1691. Being requested by some of 
them to waive his appointment, he replied, "he would very readily obey the good Town, 
provided his legal right, as one of the min. of Edin. was not prejudged." The Council then 
offered him the meeting-house in the Castle-hill, which he declined, as it was not one of the legal 
churches of the city, to which he considered himself to have an undoubted claim. He was then 
trans, to Lady Tester's in 1691.— ^c/m. Caunc. Beg., Cont. of the Hist. Bel. of the Gen. Ass. 1690. 

1693. James Webster, trans, fr. Whitekirk, called 23d Nov. 1692, adm. next year. He 
scrupled to take the Oath of Abjuration in 1712, had a process instituted against him before the 
Lord Ordinary (Grange), July same year, by the celebrated Dr Pitcaim, for calling him a deist, 
which his lordship preiferred to get amicably settled, and was against giving toleration to 
Episcopalians. Died 18th May 1720, aged 61, in 33d min. He was a fen^ent and pathetic 
preacher, extremely popular, and greatly lamented, but chiefly celebrated for the stand he 
made for purity of doctrine in the prosecution of Professor Simpson of Glasgow in 1717, which 
led him, on one occasion, into such an extremity of passion, that there waa a probability of his 
being deposed by the Assembly at the next sitting, had he not then appeared, and tendered an 
apology. He was understood to hold ultra-Calvinistic opinions, and rather to be what is termed 
a Supralapsarian. He marr. Dec. 1698, Mary, daugh. of Dr James Stewart ; 2dly, Sept 1703, 
Agnes, daugh. of Alex. Menzies of Culterallers, and, beside a child who died, had Alexander, 
a son, long distinguished as a minister in the Tolbooth church. — Publications — A Discourse, 
demonstrating that the Government of the Church is fixed, and not ambulatory (Edin. 1701), 
4to. Essay on Toleration (1703), 4to. An Apology for his Sermon (1703), 4to. A Discourse 
on the Government of the Church (Edin. 1704), 4to. Sacramental Sermons and Discourses at 
the Lord's Table (Edin. 1705), 4to. A Sermon at the election of Magistrates (Edin. 1706), 4to. 
The Covenants Displayed (Edin. 1707), 4to. Prejudices against the Union (Edin. 1707), 4to. 
The Author Defended (Edin. 1707), 4to. Second Defence of the Author, 4to. Select Sermons 



300 MINISTERS OF THE TOLBOOTH CHURCH. 

on Several Texts (Edin. 1723), 8vo.— ^rftn. Counc^ Testy and Beg. {Marr, and Bur,), Wodrow's 
Corresp, i., 3ISS. Ixxxii., and Anal, iii., Boston and Webster's Mem,, Bower*s Univ. iL, Edin. 
Christ, Inst, xxiii., Carlyle's Autob.y Kay's Portr. ii. 

1721. William Gusthart, A.M., trans, fr. Crailing, called 30th Aug. ai¥i 17th Nov. 
1720, appointed hy the Presb. 18th, and entered 22d Jan. ; appointed one of his Majesty's 
Chaplains in ordinary, and dean of the Chapel Royal, Nov. 1726, and died 27th March 1764, 
being eminent in his day for taking a leading part in opposition to the Oath of Abjuration, 
and his success in getting such alterations made on it as rendered it more palatable. He 
marr. 24th July 1711, Ann, daugh. of Adam Tait of Howdon; 2dly, 13th May 1718, Ann, 
daugh. of Robert Hepburn of Whitburgh. Two daugh., Elizabeth and Jane, died in 1792 and 
1705.— PrMft., Syn,t Edin. Counc., and St Cuthbert's Sess, Reg,, Wodrow's Corresp. il, Marren*s 
Ann. Li Eraser's Life ofB, Ersldne, CarlyWs Autob. 

1765. David Plenderleath, trans, fr. Dalkeith, pres. by the Town Council, 16th Aug. 
1764, adm. 30th Jan. after; and died 26th April 1779, in 47th min. He marr. 6th Sept. 1743, 
Helen Simson, who died 26th March 1796, and had a son, Robert, hosier in Edinburgh.— 
Publication— Religion, a treasure to men, and the strength and glory of a nation, a Sermon 
(Edin. 1754), ^yo.— Presb. and Edin, Counc. Beg., Kay* s Portr. L 

1779. John Kemp, trans, fr. Trinity Gask, adm. 25th Nov. ; elected Secretary to the Society 
in Scotland for Pi-opagating Christian Knowledge in 1789. Had D.D. conferred by Harvard 
Univ., Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1793, and died 18th April 1805, in 61st age and 36th 
min. His able and successful exertions in favour of the above-mentioned Society well merited 
their respect and gratitude. The tours which were continued by him for successive years were 
essentially useful in producing a body of information respecting their schools and missions in 
the Highlands. He marr., 2d Oct. 1780, Beatrix, daugh. of Mr And. Simpson, merchant, 
Edin., she died 12th March 1796, and had David (who marr. the eldest daugh. of Sir James 
Colqulioun of Luss, Bart.), and Agnes; 2dly, 2d June 1797, Mary Anne, youngest daugh. ol 
Geo., Earl of Northesk, she died 10th Aug. 1798; 3dly, 26th Aug. 1799, Elizabeth, seventh 
daugh. of John, Earl of Hopetoun, she died 17th Sept. 1801, aged 33. —Publications — The Gospel 
adapted to the state and circumstances of man, a Sermon, to which are added Facta serving to 
illustrate the character of Thomas, Earl of Kinnoull (Edin. 1788), 8vo. Account of the Society 
in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (Edin. 1796), 8vo. The character of the 
Apostle Paul in some of its features, delineated (Edin. 1802), Hvo.— Presb. and Syn. Beg., 
Dottglas* Peer,, Soc. Sermons, Kay's Portr. L, <frc. 

1805. John Campbell, trans, fr. Kippen, pres. by the Town Council, 31st July, and adm. 
24th Oct. ; appointed Secretary to the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, 
Jan. 1806. Had D.D. conferred by the Univ. of Edin. 10th Jan. 1807, was elected Moderator 
of the Gen. Assembly, 2l8t May 1818, and died 30th Aug. 1828, in his 71st year and 46th min. 
As a divine he had few equals in knowledge, and though his manner was perhaps dry and 
heavy, yet to those who were acquainted either with his services in the pulpit, or in private 
life experienced his friendly intercourse, he was kind, useful, and instructive. He marr. 29th 
Feb. 1788, Christian, daugh. of Dr Rob. Innes of Giffordvale, she died 23d April 1796; 2dly, 
16th Oct. 1801, Jean, daugh. of Tho. Kinnear, Esq., banker, Edin., she died 1st Jan. 1838, aged 
67, by whom he had a son, Daniel, who died in 1809, and several daughters. —Publications — 
(Four Single Sermons, 8vo), 1801-1818. Account of Kippen [Sinclair's St Ace., xviiL xxL].— 
Presb, Beg., Lorimer*s Fun. Serm., Haidane's Mem., <fcc 



801 



NEW NORTH CHURCH, HADDO'S HOLE, OB WEST ST GILES. 

1694. Samuel Halliday, A.M., translated from Dryfesdale, adm. 7th Nov. He returned 
to Ireland, was settled at Ardstraw, and died in 1724, aged 87, in 62d min. His son Samuel 
was a min. in Belfast, and a great promoter of the Non-Subscription of Creeds and Confessions 
of Taith,—Edin. Counc. Beg., Wodrow*8 Anal, ii., BeicTs Ireland iii. 

1699. George Andreus, A.M., trans, fr. Prestonpans, called 4th Aug., and adm. same 
year. Died 15th May 1705, in 39th age and 17th min. " His conversation with persons of 
every quality and condition was savoury, pleasant, and edifying. As an interpreter he was 
one among a thousand to those who were broken in heart and wounded in spirit. He was very 
useful to the sick and dying, and mighty in the Scriptures, eminent in prayer, diligent in hiB 
work, and frequent and serious in his intercourse with God.*' He man*. Geills Millar, and 
had two sons, George, the younger son became one of the tellers in the Royal Bank, and died 
1st May 1739, aged 44, and a daugh., Rachel.— Publications— Sermons upon the Twelfth Chap, 
of Hebrews (Edin. 1711, posthumous), 4to. —Pre*6., Syn., Edin. Counc., Prestonpans Sess., 
Test, and Beg. {Bur.), d-e. 

1710. John Flint, A.M., trans, fr. Lasswade, had been called to the city in 1695, on 18th 
July 1697, and a second time 6th Sept. ; appointed by the Presb. 7th Dec. 1709, entered 1st 
Jan. 1710. He had not freedom to take the oath of allegiance in 1712, and died 19th Jan. 1730, 
in 71st age and 42d min. A worthy, affectionate, zealous man, and of considerable learning as 
a linguist. As a minister, he was pious, warm hearted, and useful, especially among serious 
Christians, being strict in his principles and practice. He marr. Janet Elphingston, and had a 
son, John. — Publications — Examen. Doctrinse D. Johannis Simson, S.S.T.P. (Edin. 1717), 
small 8vo, and was serviceable in publishing Pool's Synopsis Criticorum. — Presb., Lasswade 
Sees, and Beg. {Bur.), Boston^ s Mem., Wodrovo^s Anal, iv., Corresp, L, and MSS. IxxxiL 

1730. James Smith, trans, fr. Cramond, called 31st March, and adm. 23d July; elected 
a second time Moderator of 'the Gren. Assembly, 6th May 1731, prom, to the Prof essorship of 
Divinity in the Univ., and loosed 27th April 1732, although several *'of the elders and deacons 
appeared, craving he might be continued, there being no inconsistency in discharging both 
offices." — Presb. Beg., Wodrow's Anal, iv., and Corresp. iii. 

1732. John Gowdie, trans, fr. Lady Tester's, adm. 14th Dec. ; elected Moderator of the 
Gen. Assembly, 3d May 1733, and loosed 1st Aug. thereafter, having been chosen Professor of 
Divinity in the Univ. At the meeting of their commission, 16th Nov., when, according to their 
instructions, a motion waa made for proceeding with the four disobedient brethren, and another 
for delay, the former was carried by his casting vote. Being thus released from their benefices, 
and dedared no longer min. of the Established Church, they shortly after founded the Asso- 
ciate or Seceding presbytery. Professor Gowdie had D.D. conferred 13th March 1750, and 
was elevated to the Principality of the Univ. 28th Feb. 1764. He died 19th Feb. 1762, in 
80th age and 59th min., a grave and learned man. He marr. Jean Deas, who died 16th 
May 1736; 2dly, Anne, eldest daugh. of Walter Ker of Littledean, she died 21st April 
1765.— Publications— Sermon preached at the opening of the (xen. Assembly (Edin. 1734), 
8va Propagation of the Gospel, and the blessed effects thereof (Edin. 1735), 8vo. Salvation 
of souls, the desire of every faithful minister (Edin. 1736), 8vo. —Prw6. Beg., JVodrow's Anal. 
iv.. New Theolog. Diet, Fraser's Life of B. Erskine, Ferrier's Mem. of Wilson, Bower's 
Univ. ii 

1733. James Smith, prom. fr. Professorship of Divinity, holding the Principality in con- 
junction, elected by the Town Council, 18th, and re-adm. 25th July. Died at Coldstream in 
returning from Bristol hot-wells, 14th Aug. 1736, in 56th age and 30th min. He was distin- 
guished "for easiness of speaking and distinctness of thought," so that he was highly popular, 
and had great influence in the Presbytery, and other courts of the Church. He was a member 



302 MINISTERS OF NEW NORTH CHURCH. 

of the Society in Edinburgh for the History of the Scottish Church ; and waa supposed to have 
had the interest of James, Duke of Montrose, Chancellor, for the Principality of the Univ. 
of Glasgow, at the last vacancy. His wife, Catherine Oswald, died 6th August 1730 in her 
46th year. — Publications — The Misery of ignorant and unconverted Sinners, a Sermon (Edin. 
1733), 8vo. Sermon after the death of the Rev. James Craig in 1731, and under his auspices 
Craig's Sermons were published (2 vols. Edin. 1732), 8vo. — Presb, and Test, Beg., Wodraio's 
Anal, iiL iv., WoocTs Hist, ofCramond, Bower's Univ. IL, <fec. 

1738. Robert Wallace, trans, fr. New Greyfriars, adm. 24th Sept. according to the usual 
practice of succession from a single to a collegiate charge. The Town Council applied and 
obtained an interdict from the Lord Ordinary against the settlement, but as the city was only 
considered as one parish, and the appointment to the different churches was fixed by the 
Presb., and considering the ** matter purely spiritual,'* he had no hesitation in accepting it, and 
the opposition proceeded no farther. He was elected Moderator of the Gren. Assembly, 12th 
May 1743 ; appointed by the Commission 9th Nov. following to go with Mr Geo. Wishart to 
London, in order to maJwe application to Parliament for an Act to provide for the widows and 
children of Ministers and Professors, in which they were successful, and received the thanks 
of the succeeding Assembly, ''for their faithfulness and diligence." He was one of the 
Beans of the Chapel Royal and Chapledns in Ordinary to his Majesty, June 1744 ; had D.D. 
conferred by the Univ. of Edinburgh, 13th March 1759 ; and died 29th July 1771, in 76th 
age and 48th min. By a change of the Grovemment in 1742, he was entrusted for four 
years with the management of Church business, and consulted in the distribution of 
Crown Patronage, and so successfully did he discharge this duty that no instance occurred 
which prevented a harmonious settlement. To his knowledge as a man of the world, 
were joined an acquaintance and zeal in mathematics, which rendered him of essential 
service in assisting to make the calculations on which were founded the annuities and pro- 
visions to the widows and children in the Act formerly noticed. He marr. Helen, daugh. of Mr 
George Tumbull, min. of Tyningham ; she died 9th Feb. 1776, and left two sons and a daugh., 
all of whom died unmarried, Dr Matthew W., Vicar of Tenterden, Kent, George W., an 
advocate, author of various works, and Elizabeth. — Publications — The Regard due to Divine 
Revelation, and its Pretences to it, considered, a Sermon (Lond. 1731 ), 8vo. Reply to a Letter 
directed to the Minister of Moffat [by Will. Dudgeon] Concerning the Positive Institutions of 
Christianity (Lond. 1732), 8vo. Ignorance and Superstition, a Source of Violence and Cruelty, 
and in Particular the cause of the present Rebellion, a Sermon (Edin. 1746), 8vo. A Sermon on 
James, iii. 18 (Edin. 1746), 8vo. A Dissertation on the Numbers of Mankind in Ancient and 
Modem Times (Edini. 1753), 8vo. The Doctrine of Passive Obedience and Non-resistiuice 
Considered (Edin. 1754), 8vo. Characteristics of the Present Political State of Great Britain 
(Edin. 1758), 8vo. Various Prospects of Mankind, Nature, and Providence (Lond. 1761), 8vo. 
— Presb. and Syn, Beg,, Wodrovo's Anal. iiL iv., and Corresp, iii., Scots Mag, xxxiii. IxxL, 
Carlyle's Autob,, Mackenzie's Life of HoTne, MorrerCs Ann, L, Edin. Grad,, Chambers's Biog, 
Diet, iv., dec, 

1772. William Gloao, D.D., trans, fr. Lady Yester*s, adm., 21st July. He was unani- 
mously appointed Sub-Clerk to the Gen. Assembly 24th May 1781, and Almoner to His Majesty, 
Feb. 1799. Died 27th April 1802, in 44th min. Of pure and unpretending manners, he was 
destitute of ambition, ostentation, or jealousy of others, and ever faithful, affectionate, and 
earnest in his ministration of the gospel. He marr. 30th Nov. 1773, Euphemia, eldest daugh. 
of William Wilson, Esq. of Soonhope, writer in Edin., she died 13th Jan. 1833, and had John, 

merchant and magistrate of Edin., wife of William Kerr, Esq., Secretary to the G. P. O., 

Edin., and Jean, who died unmarried July 1803. — Publications — Two Single Sermons (Edin. 
1792-1800), %vo,— Presb. Beg., Moncreifs Fun. Serm. 

1802. John Thomson, D.D., trans, fr. New Greyfriars, pres. by the Town Council Sept., 
and adm. 16th Dea 1802; re-translated to his former charge 28th Sept. 1814.— Pre^d. Bsg,, 
Kay's Portr, ii 



MINISTERS OF NEW NORTH CHURCH. 303 



Collegiate ChabgEi UncoUegiated in 1814. 

1703. Robert Sandelands, trans, fr. Newbattle, called 9th Sept., and appointed by the 
Presb. 9th Dec 1702, adm. 3d Jan. after ; died 10th Jan. 1732, aged 70, in 4l8t min. He man*. 
6th Nov. 1698, Sophia, daugh. of Sir Mark Carae of Gockpen, and had a son, Mark, and a 
daugh., Agnes, a child, died 17th Dec 1706.— Publication— The Salutation of Endeared flowing 
forth (Lend. 1683), 4to, and edited the Sermons of his Colleague, Mr Andreus, in I7ll,'-Edin, 
Caune,, Fresb., Syn,, Newbattle Sees,, Test, and Beg. {Bur,). 

1732. William Hamilton, prom. fr. Professorship of Divinity, called 23d Maich, and 
adm. 8th Aug., holding in conjunction the Principality of the Univ., but died 12th Nov. there- 
after, aged about 63, in 39th min. Distinguished for piety, learning, and moderation, he was 
well qualified for taking a share in ecclesiaBtical mattera, and co-operated with Mr Mitchell in 
managing the affairs of the Church. In the yarious situations he occupied, consummate 
diligence, candour, and prudence were evinced, so that his loss was generally deplored. He 
man*, at Glasgow, 25th Feb. 1696, Mary Robertson, who died 22d Jan. 1760, aged 85, and had 
nine sons and four daugh., of whom William was a merchant, and Gavin a bookseller, both in 
the city, Robert, Professor of Divinity, Gilbert, min. of Cramond, and Ann, marr. John 
Horsley, A.M., a min. in England, and was the mother of Samuel, the distinguished Bishop 
of St Asaph. — Publication — ^The Truth and Excellency of the Christian Religion, a Sermon 
(Edin. 1732), Svo.— Presb. Cramond Sees., Test ds Beg, (Bur.), }Vodraw*s Anal. iiL iv., <!; Ccrresp. 
L, Anderson^ s House of Hamilton, Bower*s Univ. iL, Edin. Christ, Inst, xxv., Leechman^s [Life], 
Serm. i. Woods Hist, of Cramond, 

1733. John Glen, trans, fr. New Greyfriars, adm. 22d Nov. ; died 8th Jan. 1768, in 49th 
min. He marr. Mary, daugh. of John Osbum, merchant, sometime Lord Provost of the city, 
she died 8th April 1761.— Prwft., Syn„ and Test, Beg,, Carlyle's Autob, 

1768. John Bbown, A.M., trans, fr. New Greyfriars, adm. 24th Nov. ; elected Moderator 
of the Gen. Assembly, 22d May 1777, died 6th May 1786, in 62d age and 39th min. 
He wajB "distinguished not more by his majestic appearance than by his pastoral excel- 
lence, powerful reasoning, and singular attention to the charitable institutions of the city, 
especially that of the charity workhouse." Taking a great interest in the improvement of 
the Translations and Paraphrases of Sacred Scripture, he was appointed, 28th May 1776, 
Convener of the Assembly's Committee for that purpose, and had the happiness of seeing the 
selection which had been made approved of, 1st June 1781, and partially, if not generally used. 
He marr. in 1748 ; 2dly, 13th Nov. 1776, Marion Tod, who died 3d Oct. 1786, by whom he had 

James, min. of Newbum, and wife of Mr William Somerville, merchant, Glasgow.— 

Publications— The Extensive influence of Religious Knowledge, a Sermon (Edin. 1769), 8vo. 
Plan for Regulating the Charity Workhouse, Edinburgh. — Presb,, and Syn. Beg., Bums' Mem, 
of M^ GUI, and on the Poor, dse. 

1786. Thomas Habdy, trans, fr. the High Ch., pros, by the Town Council Oct, and adm. 
3d Dec, appointed professor of Ecclesiastical History, which he held in conjunction, 31st July, 
and had D.D. conferred by the Univ. of Edinburgh, 4th Oct. 1788, was unanimously elected 
Moderator of the Gen. Assembly, 16th May 1793, appointed one of his Majesty's Chaplains in 
Ordinary and Deans of the Chapel Royal Oct. following, and died 21st Nov. 1798, in 51st age 
and 25th min. Possessing an active and vigorous mind he wa£ no mean observer of passing 
occurrences. Soon after his admission he lectured through the gospel of John, with so much 
popular favour that an enterprising bookseller offered to buy them for publication. He warmly 
espoused the moderate side of the Church, but lamented the difference which subsisted especially 
on the law of patronage, which stimulated him to propose a medium measure which was 
allowed to fall to the ground. He was an attractive and eloquent preacher, took a lively 
interest in the beneficent and charitable institutions of the city, and was honoured to be instru- 
mental in the formation of the ** Society for the benefit of the Sons of the Clergy of the Church 
of Scotland in Edin." It is to be regretted so few of his works were preserved for the public, 
which may be ascribed to his delicate health and premature death. He marr. 28th June 1780, 
Agnes, daugh. of the Rev. Geo. Young, min. of Hutton, she died 4th June 1812, and had 
20 



804 MINISTERS OF NEW NORTH CHURCH. 

Charles Wilkie, min. of Dnnning; William, Captain in the H.E.I.C.S. ; Sophia, who niarr. 
Mr Gilb. Bertram, merchant, Leith, 2dly, Rob. Allan, Esq., surgeon, Edin. ; Agnes, Janet, 
and Anne, all died unmarried.— Pablications— The Principles of Moderation (Edin. 1782), 
8vo. Plan for the Augmentation of Stipends (Edin. 1793). The Patriot (Edin. 1793), Sva 
[Five Single Sermons (Edin. 177&-1794), Svo]. Sermon L (Scotch Preacher, iv.)— Pf«9&. 
Beg., Edin. Grad., Bower* s Univ. iii, Kay^s Portr. 

1799. GEORaE Baird, D.B., trans, fr. New Greyfriars, pres. by the Town Council, 28th 
Dec 1798, and adm. 10th Jan. after, holding in conjunction the Piincipality of the Univ. ; 
trans, to the High Ch. 25th March 1801.— Pre«6. Beg., Kay's Portr., Anderaon*8 Sketches. 

1801. David Dickson, of Persilands, trans, fr. Trinity College, pres. by the Town Council 
27th Jan., and adm. 26th Nov. ; died 3d Aug. 1820, in 67th age and 44th min. A diligent and 
faithful pastor, as well aa a pious and good man. From liis habitual exercise of riding on horse> 
back, it was said, there was two things of which he never tired, riding and preaching. He 
man*. 10th Dec. 1777, Christian, daugh. of the Rev. Tho. Wai'drobe, min. of Bathgate, she died 
14th Dec 1832, and had David, min. of St Cuthberts ; James Wardrobe, advocate, sheriff-sub. 
of Stirlingsh. ; Elizabeth Somerville, who marr. John Tawse, Esq., adv., Secretary of the Soc 
for Propagat. Christian Knowledge ; Margaret and Anne died unmarried. — Publications — Four 
Single Sermons (Edin. 1779-1819), 8vo. Sermons preached on different occasions (Edin. 1818), 
8vo. The principal subject, joyful import, and glorious extent of Gospel tidings [Serm. pr. 
before the Lond. Miss. Soc., 1804, 8vo]. Account of Bothkennar [Sinclair's St Ace xvii.].— 
Presb. Beg. Kay's Portr. ii., <fec. 

1821. Henry Grey, A.M., prom. fr. St Cuthbert's Chapel, pres. by the Town Council, Oct. 
1820, adm. 11th Jan. after; trans, to Bellevue (afterwards St Mary's) 29th Dec 1924.— Presb. 
and Syn. Beg., Kay's Portr. ii., Anderson's Sketches. 

1826. Robert Gordon, D.D., prom. fr. Hope Park Chapel, pres. by the Town Council 

and adm. 8th Sept. ; trans, to the High Ch. 25th Aug. 1830.— Pr^d. and Syn. Beg., 

Anderson's Sketches, 

John Bruce, trans, fr. Guthrie, pres. by the Town Council 1830, and adm. (in the 

Methodist chapel) 13th Jan. after; trans, to St Andrew's Ch. 28th Dec 1836.— Pre^ft. and Syn. 
Beg., Kay's Portr. ii., Anderson's Sketches. 

1837. Charles John Brown, A.M., trans, fr. Anderston, pres. by the Town Council 

and adm. (in Brighton St. chapel) 20th April 1837. Joining in the Free Secession, and signing 
the Demission, he was declared no longer a min. of this church, 5th July 1843. He marr. 
Bannatyne Wright, and had issue.— Publications — Church Establishments Defended, with 
special reference to the Church of Scotland (Glasg. 1838), 12mo. Sermon preached before the 
Gen. Assembly of the Free Church (Edin. 1844), Svo. State of Religion in the Land (Lond. 
1844), 12mo. Lecture XL [on Protestantism (Glasg. 1837), 12mo]. X. [on the Revival of 
Religion (Glasg. 1840), 12mo]. III. [on the Conversion of the Jews (Edin. 1832), fcp. 8vo], 
and XL [before the Scottish Reformation Society (Edin. 1851), fpp. 8vo].— Pre*6. Beg., dsc 

1843. Robert Nisbet, D.D., died 22d Nov. 1874. 

1875. Alex. Williamson, present incumbent, translated from Innerleithen, and inducted 
Ist July 1875. In his incumbency the congregation left St Giles, and they now occupy another 
building near the Meadows. 



805 



BISHOPS OF EDINBURGH, 

WHO HAD 8T GILES AS THEIB CATHEDRAL CHUBCH. 

1634. William Forbes, D.D., promoted from Aberdeen, elected Ut Dec 1633, patent from 
Charles I. 26th, and consecrated (at Holyroodhouse) 28th Jan. thereafter. He rigorously urged 
conformity to the Articles of Perth ; and died after taking medicine, vomiting blood, 12th 
April thereafter, aged 49, in 20th min. Though of weak voice, he was esteemed as an 
eloquent and matchless preacher, of very extensive reading, and fully conversant with the 
original languages, who preached with, sucli earnestness and zeal that his sermon not 
nnf requently extended to two oi three hours, which, joined to his studious and rigidly temperate 
habits, reduced his strength, and probably shortened his life. It was said, by no mean judge, 
that he never saw him but he thought his heart was in heaven, and he was never alone with 
him but he felt within himself a commentary on the words of the apostle, " Did not our heart 
bum within us, while he talked with us, and opened the scriptures." He inculcated peace and 
union among Christians so strongly, that he was considered too favourable to the errors of the 
Church of Rome. He was also a Privy Councillor, and left copious animadversions on the works 
of Cardinal Bellarmine, which it is feared have been lost. Sydserf the Dean in his funeral 
sermon called him '* the bright star of IsraeL" His haill buikis and librarie were estimat to 
iiij» merks; utencils, silver work, &c, iiij« Ixvj^t. xiij«. mjcL ; he was awand to Mr John 
Chamberis, his servitour and chamberlane, for his zeiris fie v« merks. Frie gier, debts dedudt, 
amounted to viij™ j« Ixxxiiij/t. xiiij«. vjrf. He marr. Elizabeth Forbes, who survived him, 
and had Andrew (Professor of Humanity at St Jean d' Angel), Patrick (to whom Andrew was 
served heir, 16th April 1666), and Thomas.— Publications— Considerationes modest® et pacifica; 
Controversiarum de Justificatione, Purgatorio, Invocatione Sanctorum, Christo Mediatore 
Eucharista (Lond. 1658), ^yo,— Keith? a Gated. ^ Irving's Scot Writ, ii, Spottiswoode L, and 
Spalding MiscelL iiL, Inq. Bet Gen. 4123, Row, Spalding, and Stevenson*8 Hist., Edin. (Bapt.), 
and Test. Reg., Reg. Fresh., Stark*s Biog. Diet., Baillie's Lett L iiL, Gatal. Scot Writ., 
Wodraw*8 MS. Biog. u. 

1634. David Lindsay, D.D., trans, fr. Brechin, installed 29th July. He had a grant 
of "ane hous at the palice of Holyrudhous," and of the Commissariat of Edinburgh from 
his Majesty, 10th Oct. 1636. When the new Scottish Liturg}% or Booke of Common Prayer, 
was attempted to be read in the High Church, 23d July 1637, he narrowly escaped the fury 
of the populace, both in church and returning to his residence, being put into the Earl of 
Roxburgh's coach and carried home, while it was pelted with stones by the mob. Deposed 
and excommunicated by the Gen. Assembly at Glasgow, with seven other Bishops, 13th Dec. 
1638, for his adherence to Episcopacy. He went to England where he died in Dec. 1641. He 
possessed great learning, and was considered an eloquent orator, de marr. Katharine, daugh. 
of Gilbert Ramsay of Baniif, who survived him, and had a son, John, who succeeded to his 
estate of Dunkeny. — Publications — The Reasons of a Pastor's Resolution ; touching the 
reverend receiving of the Holy Communion ( which led to his promotion to the See of Brechin ) 
(Lond. 1619), 12mo. True Narration of the Proceedings in the General Assembly, holden at 
Perth, 25th Aug. 1618 ; together with a just defence of the Articles therein concluded, against 
a seditious pamphlet ( Calderwood's Perth Assembly) (Lond. 1621), 4to. — Keith's Gatal., Roto, 
Spalding, and Stevenson^ s Hist,, Lindsay's Lives L iL, Jervise's Lands, and Mem., Peterkin*s 
Records, Reg. Pres., et Sec. SigUl., Baillie's Lett L, Ghambers's Ann. iL, NicolVs Diary, 
Maitland MiscelL ii 

1662. George Wyshart, D.D., formerly of St Andrews 2d charge. After being released 
from his imprisonment in 1645, he accompanied the great Marquis of Montrose as chaplain. 



806 BISHOPS OF EDINBURGH. 

both at home and abroad, and after his decapitation became Chaplain to a Scots Regiment in 
the service of the United Provinces, was at the Hagne, 11th Jan. 1649 ; and Chap, afterwards 
to Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, with whom he returned in 1660, and was appointed to the 
Rectory of St Andrews, and afterwards to that of St Nicholas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Had 
a patent 18th Jan., was pres. by Charles II. 2d May, and consec (at St Andrews), 3d June 
1662 ; died at Lammas 1671, in his 72d year and 47th min. Deeply imbued with a sense of 
religion, and having experienced what it was to have been a prisoner himself, he was scrupu- 
lously attentive at dinner to send a portion to the prisoners taken at Pentland. The insicht 
was estimat at iij*" li. Inventar and debts at xxv» viij^ xUj/t. xij«. \]d. He left to the poor 
of Halyrude (Canongate) y^ li. He marr. Margaret Ogilvy, who survived him, and had 
Jeane (who marr. William Walker), Hugo, James, Captain Patrick, Robert, and Margaret. — 
Publication — J. G. De rebus auspiciis serenissimi et potentissimi Caroli, Dei gratia, Magnaa 
Britannifie Regis, &c., sub imperio illustrissimi Jacob! Montisrosarum Marchionis, &c., 1644, 
et duobus sequentibus, preeclare gestis Commentarius (Hag. Com. 1647), 8vo( translated, Edin. 
1766, %Yo),—Keith*8 Catal,, Walker's Sufferings, Mem, of Montrose, Lament, NicoU, and Brodie's 
Diaries, Kirkton, Burnet, and Wodrow's Hist,, Acts Pari, vii., Jervise^s Mem,, S. Fresh, Eloq,, 
Min, Book Beg, Friv, Seal, Monifieth, Stirling, and St Andreios Sess,, and Test, Beg,, Morison's 
Digest, Chambers* s Biog, Diet, iv., Tombst., NisheCs Her., Stirling Pap, 

1672. Alexander Young, prom. fr. St Andrews, appointed 11th, and consec (at Holyrood- 
house) 14th July ; trans, to Ross, 29th March 1679.— ^w&e^'« Her, L, Min, Book Beg, Priv. Seal, 
Morison*s Digest, 

1679. John Paterson, trans, from Galloway, through the powerful influence of Elizabeth, 
Duchess of Lauderdale, app. 15th Sept. He had an yearly pension of £100 sterL from his 
Majesty, 14th May 1680, and another in April 1686, of £150 sterL Trans, to Glasgow in 1687.— 
Beg, Sec, Sigill,, Min, Book Beg, Priv, Seal, Catal, Scot Writ, 

1688. Alexander Rose, A.M., trans, fr. Moray. The Cong6 cPelire was issued about the 
1st at the instance of Colin, Earl of Balcarras, and he was elected 22d Dec. 1687, app. 21st Jan. 
1688. He signed an address to James VII. shortly before his abdication, 3d Nov. following, 
and took his seat at the Meeting of the Estates, 14th March 1689, but did not sign the declara- 
tion of 16th, declaring it a free and lawful meeting. He was deprived on the abolition of 
Episcopacy, by the Convention of Estates, 11th April same year, succeeded his uncle as Primus 
of the Scots Episcopal Church in 1704, and died of apoplexy, 20th March 1720, aged 74, in 48th 
min. He had a healthy constitution, was of tall and graceful appearance, and an accomplished 
and experienced man of business. — Publication— A Sermon preached before the Privy Council 
at Glasgow (1684), 4to.—iretW« Catal., Acts Pari, ix., Hotise of Kilravock, FountainhalPs 
Diary, Min, Book Beg. Priv, Seal, Stirling Pap,, Scots, Mag. IviL 



307 



RENTAL OF CERTAIN ALTARS IN ST GILEa 
{TranOcUed,) 

Annual Rents of the Altab of the Blessed Virgin. 

In this folio are written the lands and annual rents of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in the 
parish church of Edinburgh, within the burgh of the same, from the donation of the burgesses 
in honour of the said B. V., and these were written by the hand of John Rollo, common 
clerk of the said buigh, A.D. Sept. 1369, and fourteenth of the reign of King David second. 

From the land of Ade the carpenter, lying outside the Netherbow in the Cannongate and 

south part thereof, two shillings from the charitable gift of Robert Abell. 
Item, from the land of John Suetbhide, from the west part of the said land, two shillings. 
Item, from the land above the east comer of the bend, where the Netherbow tends towards 

the Fratry, 13 shillings and fourpence, in which at that time lived John de Camera, and 

is the land belonging to the B. Mary. 
Item, without the said bow, from the land of Walter Soot, lying between the land of Henry de 

Spens on the east and the land of Symon de Maxwell on the west, eight shillings. 
Item, from the land of Eden de Bynyis, lying within the lower Bow, on the south part of the 

street, between the land of Andrew Pictor on the west and the land of William Hare 

on the east, ten shillings, and it is the property of the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of John Walter, beyond the east vennel which leads to the Fratry, eight 

shillings sterling, the property of the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of John de Allyncrum, lying on the south part of the burgh, between the 

land of William de Gofferd on the west and the land of William de Favsid on the east, 

five shillings in annual gift. 
Item, from the land of Thomas Brydyne, lying on the south side between the land of Symon de 

Prestoun on the east and the land of Lawrence de Keith on the west, in charity, five 

shillings. 
Item, from the land of the said Lawrence, which now belongs to Robert de Sedwort, five 

shillings in charity. 
Item, from the land of John Wygmor, near the west part of the land of the said Robert, six 

shillings in charity. 
Item, from the land of Robert de Cory, near the churchyard, ten shillings, and it belongs to the 

B. Mary. 
Item, from the shop of John Wygmor, opposite the land of the said Walter de Cory, on the 

south, between the vennel leading to the burying-ground and the shops of the comer 

on the south, thirteen shillings and fourpence, and the land belongs to the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of Anote Wlf, on the south side of the venelle, opposite the pretorium, 

eight shillings. 
Item, from the land of John the Goldsmith, on the east side of the common vennel, above the 

comer, two shillings in charity. 
Item, from the land of Elen Wad, lying in the road and the part between the land of 

Alexander Wygmor on the east and the land of Ade Millet on the west, five shillings in 

charity. 
Item, from the land of Ade de Bronhill, lying on the south part of the road, between the land 

of John Cwke on the west and the land of Patrick Clerk on the east, ten sliillings, and 

the land belongs to the B. Mary. 



308 RENTAL OF CERTAIN ALTARS. 

From the land of Alan Gynowr, lying on the sonth of the road between the land of Thomas 

de Lanyne on the east and the land of Malcolm the son of John on the west, two 

shillings, the gift of the said Malcolm in charity. 
Item, from the land of the said Malcolm the son of John near the east side of the said land 

from the comer of the common venell, two shillings, the gift of the said Malcolm in 

charity. 
Item, below the wall of the land of Robert Hithfut, on the sonth side of the road between the 

land of Thomas Brouster on the east and the land of John Peny on the west, three 

shillings and three pence, and the land belongs to the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of Ade Skynner, on the south side of the road between the land of Andrew 

Tinctor on the west and the land of John de Spens on the east, ten shillings, and the 

land belongs to the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of Cristine Maltmaker, lying on the west comer, two shillings, in charity. 
Item, from the land of John Milner, on the upper part of the road entering the town, four 

shillings annual rent. 
From the land of Alexander de Naper, lying between the land of Thomas Abel on the south 

and the land of David Faber on the west of the other part, thirty pence, in the charity 

given from the said land, the whole amounting to five shillings. 
Item, from the land of Andrew Castelward, lying below the Upper Bow on the north side, 

between the land of Thomas Masowne on the west, and that of Alan, the son of Walter, 

on the ea£t, five shillings, and the land belongs to the B. Mary. 
Item, on that part of the street from the land of Ade Clifford, lying between the land of 

Thomas Skinner on the west and the land of William Schenard on the east, and the land 

belongs to the B. Mary, twenty shillings. 
Item, from the land of Patrick Lepar, lying on the side of the way between, of Synion de 

Kercaldy on the east and the land of Ede Dov on the west, twenty-six shillings and 

eight pence, and the land belongs to the B. Mary from the gift of William Hare. 
Item, from the land of James de Edynburgh, lying on the north side of the road between the 

land formerly Ade de Slyngysby's on the west and the land of Robert Logan on the 

east, thirteen shillings and fourpence, in charity from the gift of the said James. 
Item, from the east land of John de Dodyngystoun, on the north side of the road, four shillings 

in charity. 
Item, from the land of Alan de Paystoun lying to the north, between the land of Hugh de 

Selkirke on the west and the land of John de Toryne on the east, eighteen shillings, and 

the land belongs to the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of the said Hugh de Selkirke, four shiUings in charity. 
Item, from the land of John de Toryne, lying between the foresaid land of Alan de Paystoun 

on the east, thirteen shillings, and the land belongs to the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of Walter de Toryn, lying on the north side between the land of John de 

LydaJl on the east and the land of Ade Dewer on the west, three shillings in charity. 
Item, from the land of Henry de Cramownd, lying outside the lower Bow on the north, between 

the land of Galfriel Tinctor, chaplain, on the west, and the land of Alexander Ck)ci on the 

east, three shillings. 
Item, from the land of Eugen Pakar, vU. viiid 
II II Roger de Mofeth, vis. 

II 11 Ade de Blakbume, ix«. 

II II Alexander Sproit, xs, 

II II Ede de Pyrly, vi*. 

II II John Red, ii^. 

II II Duncan Lam, x\d, 

II II Robert Spysur, on the assedation of William de Benyng, vi9. vmd, the 

land belonging to the B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of Patrick, the son of Henry, ii lb. wax. 
Item, from the house of St Nicholas, i lb. wax. 
Item, from the land granted to Sir Roger Wygmor, from the gift of the community, vi lb. wax 



RENTAL OF CERTAIN ALTARS. 309 

on the part of the purification of the B. Mary, annnaJly paid onder the [campaml] 

steeple. 
Item, from the tenement of John de Dalrympill, which formerly helonged to John of Cambns- 

nethan, lying in the north of the said bnrgh, between the tenement of John de Cameron 

on the east and that of John de Mar on the west, from the gift of the said John de 

Cambusnethan, twenty -six shillings and eightpence sterling, and the land belongs to the 

B. Mary. 
Item, from the land of William de Benyng lying on the north side of the said bnrgh, between 

the land of Thomas Yhutson on the east and that of Henry de Kyrcaldy, sixteen pence, 

the gift of Sir Bricios Clerk. 
Item, Kalstoun, vi/6. v\s. vuid, \ 
Item, Cragcmke, vilb, yU, vmd. > amounting to xvulb. 
Item, Groutall, v marce j 

The sum of the present annual rent, xxixib. xvU, viiicL 



Rental of the Holy Cross. 

Alex. Masoun, xiid, from waste land. 

Item from the cellar held formerly by Laurence de Rantoun, xs, 
II land of John Hence, vs. 
It II Andrew Tauemar, xii«. 

If It Ade, son of John, xxvs, iiiit^. 

II tt formeriy Wil de Laweder's, xxvs, iiiioC 

Walter Lang, v*. 
formerly John de Butlands, vs. 
Ade Lame, iii^. iiiici. 
Alexander Wygmor, viii», 

formerly Gilmor Pell's, on the north side of the street, viiif. 
of said Gilmor, in the Booth street, xxs. 
formerly John de Turribus', in same street, xs, 
Ibett Hog, iiii«. 
Jacob de Rulford, xiid. 
Ferguss de Spens, xx^. 
Jonet Strury, vi*. viiicf.— sum vlib, uis. 
Rental of the altar of Holy Cross, from the gift of John de Quyltnes. 

First, from the tenement formerly held by John de Quyltnes, lying on the north side of the 
Burgh of Edinburgh, between the tenement of Walter Mentyn on the east and the 
tenement of Sir Simon de Preston, knight, from the gift of the late foresaid John, 4 lb, 
xius. mid. Also, from the tenement of William Scilfer, lying on the west side of the 
said burgh, between the tenement of Thomas Lanyn and the common vennelle extend- 
ing to the cimetry of St Giles, from the gift of the said late John, xxs. in charity. 
Item, from the middle tenement which is called Batalwawys, lying to the north of the said 
Burgh, between the tenement of Margaret Gillyote on the north and that of Alan Gynour 
on the west, from the gift of the said John, xl. shillings. 
Item, from a tenement of the hospital of St John belonging to Duncan Lam, lying in the 
Newbegyng of the said Burgh, on the east thereof, between the tenement of Richard 
Mason on the north and the tenement of Peter Harper on the south, from the gift of the 
said John, xxiiid. 
Item, from the tenement of Peter Harper, lying between the tenement of Duncan Lam on the 
north and the tenement of Thomas Pery on the south, from the gift of the said John, iiiif. 
Item, from the tenement of Thomas de Byris, lying on the south of the Newbegyng of the said 
Burgh, between the tenement of Ferguss de Spens on the north and the land of the said 
John on the west, from the gift of the said John, five shillings. 
Item, from the land of the said late John, lying between the tenement of Thomas de Byris on 



310 RENTAL OF CERTAIN ALTARS. 

the east and the tenement of William de Grant on the west, from the gift of the late 

John, four shillings id. 
Item, from a house with a croft, with its pertinents in the Newgat of the said Burgh, lying in the 

south part of the same, between the croft of Roger Wygmer on the west and the common 

vennello leading to the church of the B. Mary in the field on the eaat, xxvis. viiic^., from 

his gift and from a croft lying in the Newgat on the south, between the croft of Soltre 

on the west and the croft of S. Leonard on the eaat. 
Item, from a tenement of Sir John de Pentland, presbyter, lying on the south of the said Buigh, 

between the tenement of Andrew Pictor on the eaat and the tenement of John Watson on 

the west, from the gift of the said John, five shillings sterling. 

Holy Cross beside the Great Altar in the Church of St Giles. 

Stated service for the said year to a chaplain annually celebrating, and founded by Thomas de 

Fairle, 1429, namely the following rents : 
From the land of Thomas Fayrle, lying to the south of the Burgh South Road, between the 

land of William Teoderyk on the east and the land of the late William Robert on the 

west, xk. annually. And from the tenement of James Atkynsoun, lying on the north of 

the King's road, between the land of Thomas Cant on the eaat and the land of the late 

Thomas Malvil on the west, xxviff. viik^. 
Item, from the tenement of the late James Foulefurd, in the said Burgh on the north side, 

between the land of the late William Thome on the east and the land of the late Andrew 

Rede on the west, xiiif. iiiicf. 

Altar of Holy Cross. 
Joneta Strury. 

From the land of said Joneta iiii/&., and it belongs to Holy Cross. 
Thomas Yhotsoun, xiii^. mid. 
Gotheray Fairinle, iis. 
Schynhard's Land, xxs. viiuf. James Rede. 
Land of Robert Qwytyng, xxv«. 
Walter Lang, xxs. 

Rental op St Nicholas. 

First, from the tenement of William de Fausid, assigned to him by the community, lying in the 

Booth Raw, between the tenement of John Gylmor on the east and the common veneUe 

extending to the cemetry of St Giles on the south, iulib, annually. 
Item, from the tenement of Ibbote Hog, between the tenement of the late Ade de Bronhyl on 

the east and the tenement of John Lepar on the west, iii/6. annually. 
Item, from the tenement of the late John Lely, between the tenement of John de Turribus on 

the east and the tenement of Sir Robert de Pentland on the west, eight s. annually. 
Item, from the tenement of Thomas Skynnar, between the tenement of the late Lyoun Heriot 

on the east and the tenement of Alan de Ballon on the west, xs, annually. 
Item, from the tenement of the late John Estyrlyn, between the tenement of Ade Lam on the 

east and the tenement of Andrew Beth on the west, xiiis. iuid, annually. 
Item, from the tenement of the late Ade Dewar, between the tenement of William de Tvrynon 

on the east and the tenement of Alexander de Paastoun on the west, vs. annually. 
Item, from the tenement of the late John Barker, between the tenement of Robert Pottar on 

the east and that of John de Bamstoun on the west, vis. viiid. annually. 
Item, from the tenement of Andrew Youtsoun, lying in the Canongate between the tenement 

of the late Nicholas Stryngar on the east and the tenement of John Clerk on the west, 

vs. annually. 
Item, from the tenement of Nicholas Stryngar, in the said street, between the land of St 

Leonard on the east and the tenement of Andrew Youtson on the west, vs. annually. 
Item, from the west tenement of the late John de Dodyngstoun, between his tenement on the 

east and the tenement of John de Camron on the west, viU. annnally. 



KSNTAL OP CERTAIN ALTARS. 311 

Item, from the tenement of Sir Simon de Prestoun, between the tenement of John de Qw^'ltnen 

on the east and the tenement of John de Fentoun on the west, yub, annually. 
Item, from the land of Alexander Ballon, lying in the Canongate between the land of John 

Logan on the west. and the land of the late Martin de Browchton on the east, ii«. 

annually. 
Item, from the land of Darid Rede in the town of Leyth, iiiif. 
Item, from the croft of St Nicholas, lying under the wall of the castle of Edinburgh on the 

south, four shillings annually. 

Rental op St Andrew. 

Item, from the land of William Wrycht, between the land of Andrew Bet on the east and the 

land of John Clerk on the west, xx«. 
Item, from the shop of the late Thomas Lanyn, lying in the Booth raw between the land of 

Bricius Clerk on the south and the land of John Dalrympyll on the north. 

Rental of St Giles. 

From the land of the late Alexander Wygmer, iiii marcs xxd. 

Item, from the land of John de Lawder, xxvU, vmd, ; sum iiii/6. xxd. 

Item, from Cristine Gun, left to the altar of St GUee as it effeirs to the land lying in the bui^h 

between the land of John de Duddynstoun on the west and the land of Malls Mason on 

the east, xx8. 

Rental of St Peter. 

First, from the land of the late Walter de Cragbarrybuclar, xxxv*. 

Item, from the shelf [folio] and cellar of the late Ade Multrar, xxvi*. viiirf. 

Item, from the land of the late John Conyhour, xvU, viiid. 

Gift of John de Peblis to the Altar of St John the Evangelist. 

Rent of the Altar of St John the Evangelist situated in the north chapel of the Church of St 

GOes of Edinburgh, given and conceeded to the said altar by John de Peblis, burgess of the said 

Burgh, and Margaret, his wife. 

First, xm, and iiii^^. annual rent of the land of the late Thomas de BronhU, annallay taken up, 
lying on the north of the said Burgh, between the tenement of William de Fersyth on the 
east and the tenement of John Gardener on the west. 

Item, from the tenement of William de Fersyth, xiii*. viiid. annually paid, lying to the north of 
the said Burgh, between the tenement of the late John Estirlyn on the east and the tene- 
ment of the late Thomas de Bronhil on the west. 

Item, from the tenement of John de Clyfton, xxvi^. viiirf. rent, annually paid, lying to the north 
of the said Burgh, between the tenement of Duncan Rollo on the east and the tenement 
of the late John Bur on the west. 

Item, he gives and conceeds to the swd altar his tenement lying on the south side of the Nether 
Bow of the said Burgh, with all its pertinent between the tenement of the late John 
Barbar on the south and the King's Way above the rampart on the north. 

Certain Memoranda. 

Memorandum, that on the last day of December year &c. ninety-nine, after count and reckoning, 
John Eraser holds of the community in church rents, vii/t6. iiii*. ixrf. 

Memorandum, that John Prymroe received for the new fabric and dues in the year &c ninety- 
nine, iiii"v/6. xxd. 

Item, the same dues in the year, &c. ccccxxxvi/6. ms. 

Item, the year, &c, forty-first computed in feet. 
2P 



312 RENTAL OF CERTAIN ALTARS. 

Biemorandam, that on the z day of November year, &c., cccc, count and reckoning eqnally 
computed. 

Item : memorandum, that by the indentures xxii day of November 1401, first count between 
John Fraser and John de Prymros, the said John Prymroe received for the new dues, 
vi"xii/6. xi*. iiiirf. 

Memorandum, that 20th day of Nov., year, &c forty-first, Adam de Spot, dean of gild, 
charged himself to the gild brothers xiii/6. xms, imd., and then paid to John Plymros 
vi/ft., and so owes count and reckoning, viilb. xms, imd., which were assigned to John 
Piymros in the total great reckoning. 

Memorandum, that count and reckoning on the vigil of St Nicholas of the rents of the church, 
John Frysell in the year 1402, said John is bound to the community in xlv/>6. xva. ixd. 

Item, that on the same day after reading the indentures between the said John Frissell and John 
Prymrose, the said John de Prymrose received for the new fabric and dues xii«'/»6. xvii/t6. 
xs. ixd. 

Memorandum, that John de Cambusnethan gave in perpetuity, annually levied by the Brother 
Preachers of Edinburgh for the said brothers, a pound of pepper from his tenement lying 
in the said burgh of Edinburgh on the south side between the tenement of John de 
Cameron on the east and the tenement of John de Irwyn on the west 

Memorandum, that with the Dean of Gild there remain in le tresourhous of the church the fol- 
lowing charters and letters : First, the charter of King Robert de Broys on the infudation 
of the Burgh ; Item, charter of John de Quhitenes of the infeudation of the altar of the 
Holy Cross ; charter of Lord David King regarding the Port of Leth ; charter of the said 
King David regarding the customs of Newbotil ; charter of Lord Robert the King regarding 
the gift of two hundred pounds ; charter of Lord Robert the King regarding the Port of 
Leth ; charter of Lord Robert the King regarding the gift of the market place [forum], 
called le belhous; Charter of Lord David King regarding the donation of a hundred feet in 
length and xxii^'"^ feet in breadth near the tholoneum ; Confirmation of King David 
of the lands of Cragcruke ; gift of Lord Robert the King regarding dues ; indenture 
between the community and masons ; gift of Jonete Stury to the altar of Holy Cross ; 
confirmation of Lord David the King of this gift ; confirmation of Lord Robert the King of 
the same ; confirmation of Lord David the King regarding Petrawyn ; confirmation of 
King David regarding Merchamston ; confirmation of King David regarding Petrawyn ; 
confirmation of King David regarding Ouirmerchamston ; confirmation of Lord William 
Bishop of St Andrews, regarding Petravin ; resignation of Petrauyn ; resignation of Sir 
William Mure of Merchamston ; concession of King David regarding the lands of Rayl- 
stoun ; donation regarding the lands of Craigcruke ; donation of Patrick Grahame regard- 
ing the lands of Craigcruke ; donation of Hugh de Brounhill ; charter of William de 
Mole, burgess of Haddington ; confirmation of King David regarding the lands of Rail- 
stoun; charter of Grothal ; charter of Cragcruke; charter of Railstoun by William 
Mure ; charter of John Cow regarding sale, &c, made ; donation of Mathew Gilsoun ; a 
missal and rental, with portferio and crown of B. Mary. 

Memorandum that the late John Strury left for the welfare of his soul for the upkeep of a candle 
before the altar of the B.M. V., vii*. from the land which John Goldsmith holds in feu. 



813 



c. 

ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS OF THE CHURCH OF ST GILES. 

Collated by D. Laino, Esq., fob the Bannatynb Club. 

{Translated.) 

1. Charter of Matthew, the son of Juliane, 1344-5 (Laing's Charters^ p. 3).— Gives to the 

chapel of the B. V. two shillings annual rent from his burgess land, and if said happens 
to be destroyed, dues to be levied when new erection takes place. 

2. Confirmation of Henry de Brade of the charter of Henry Multerer, 1350 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 4).— Relates that Henry Multerer, burgess, gave to the altar of S. John Evang., in 
the choir of the B. V., and to a chaplain celebrating there, the lands of Grothill ; confirms 
said gift, and resigns all rights regarding it. Done at Edin., last day of June, before 
the feast of St Luke. 

3. Charter of Merchamstoun, 1358 (Laing's Charters, p. 5).~-King David gives, &c., to God, 

B. v., and S. Katherine, and to a chaplain officiating at her altar, for the soul of Robert 
Hog, burgess, and Margaret, his wife, and all ancestors and successors, &c., the lands of 
Over-merchameston, the presentation to belong to Robert Hog, and after his decease to 
the alderman and community of Edinburgh. 

4. Charter of Cragcruke, 1362 (Laing's Charters, p. 7).— Sir Patrick Grahame of Kynpunt, 

and Sir David de Gram of Dundas, his heir, assigns and conceeds to John de Allyncrum, 
burgess of E. , all the lands of Craigcruke. 

5. Charter of Cragcruke, 1362 (Laing's Charters, p. 8).— Patrick Graham of Kynpunt, and 

Sir David de Grahame of Dundas, conceeds to John de Alyncrum all right and claim 
which he may have to the lands of Craigcruke. — Witnesses, &c 

6. Confirmation of King David, 1362 (Laing's Charters, p. 11).— King confirms donation, &c, 

made by Patrick and David de Grahame, to John de Allyncrum, of the lands of Craig- 
cruke. 

7. Charter of John de Allyncrum, 1362 (Laing's Charters, p. 12). — In honour of the B. V. and 

all saints, for welfare of soul of late King and Queen, and the prosperity of the King, and 
Lord Douglas and wife, and Sir Archibald de Douglas, when they die, &c., and for his 
own soul, and that of Johanne, his wife, gives to a chaplain at the altar of B. V. his lands 
of Craigcruke ; disposes the patronage of the chantry to the alderman and community, 
and failing them, to the Archdeacon of Lothian.— Witnesses, &c 

8. Confirmation of King David of said gift, 1362 (Laing's Charters, p. 14), in the usual terms, 

remitting the ten shillings owing to the crown from Craigcruke for the keep of the 
castle. 

9. Confirmation of Grothill, 1362-3 (Laing's Charters, p. 15).— Robert Multerer, son and heir 

of the late Henry, confirms his father's gift to the altar of S. John Baptist, in dioir of the 
B. V. 

10. Charter of Railstoun, 1363 (Laing's Charters^ p. 16).— Sir William More of Abercome gives, 

&0, to God, the B. V., and all saints, and to a chaplain at the altar of B. V. in church of 
St Giles, aU lands of Raylistoun. 

11. Confirmation of the above by King David, 1364 (Laing's Charters, p. 18). 

12. Confirmation of King David of the charter of W^Oliam Hare, 1366 (Laing's Charters, p. 19). 

13. Charter of the assedation of the lands of Craigcruke, 1376-7 ( Laing's Charters, p. 20).— The 

aldermen, baillies, and community set to Patrick Leper, and John Leper, his heir, the 
lands of Craigcruke, burdened with the payments to the altar and chaplain. 



314 ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 

14. Act of the Burgh Court regarding the charter of Simon de Kyrcaldy, 1381 (Laihg's Charters^ 

p. 21). 

15. Confirmation of King Robert of the donacion of Jonete Stury, 1386-7 (Laing*s Charters, 

p. 22). 

16. Charter of sale by Thomas Abel, 1387 (Laing's Charters, p. 23).— That Abel had Bold and 

confirmed to John, son of Henry, of said burgh, fifty shillings and fourpence sterling 
payable annually to him from the tenement of the said John. 

17. Contract between the provost, &c. and masouns for addition to S. Giles Church, 1387 

(Laing's Charters, p. 24) — ^given in text. 

18. Charter of John de Qwytnes, 1392 (Laing's Charters, p. 26).— Gives and confirms to B. V. 

and all saints, for support of a chaplain at the altar of Holy Cross, the concession which 
his father made. 

19. Charter of King Robert of the right of patronage of the church of St Giles, 1393 (Laing's 

Charters, p. 29). — The king considering that the monastery of Scone, of the order of St 
Augustin, in the diocese of S. Andrews, founded in the principal see of the kingdom, had 
sustained great expenses ** on the occasion of our unction and coronation, and at similar 
times in those of our progenitors, throgh the great and frequent gatherings of people," 
wishing to provide for the honour of God and the increase of divine worship in said 
monastery, gives to the cannons of the said monastery the right of patronage of the 
church of S. G. of Edinburgh, and all the rights which our predecessors had in the same, 
with the lands and possessions belonging thereto ; ordains that after Master James Lyoune, 
now vicar of the cliurch, the abbot should have power to appoint, and the Archbishop of 
St Andrews is ordained to give collation to the benefice. 

20. Charter of the consent of Walter, Archbishop of St Andrews, 1395 (Laing's Charters, p. 30). 

—Ordains that after it is vacated by James Lyoun, St Giles should be annexed to Scone, 
the abbot and canons being burdened with the upkeep, &c. of the church, giving them 
the revenues with the exception of the pension of forty-five marcs payable to James 
Lyoun. 

21. Confirmation of the donation of John de Peblis, 1395 (Laing*s Charters, p. 32-7). — King 

Robert confirms the donation made to the chapel of St John the Evangelist, situated on 
the north of the church, the ten pounds annually leviable within the burgh of Edinburgh. 

22. Bull of Pope Benedict regarding the right of patronage of the church of St Giles, 1395 

(Laing's Charters, p. 33). — The Pope ratifies the former charters conferring patronage on 
the Abbey of Scone. 

23. Bull regarding the patronage of St Giles, 1395 (Laing's Charters, p. 34). — Pope Benedict 

confirms previous charters as before, and gives leave, in order to save the pension to the 
vicar of forty marcks, that it shall be lawful for the monastery of Scone to serve the 
church by one of their own canons judged fit for the office by the Bishop of St Andrews. 

24. Charter of King Robert made in 1400 to Andrew Leper and Ade Foster of Corstorphyn 

(Laing's Charters, p. 37). — Grants to Andrew Leper, burgess of Edinburgh, the tenement 
of umquhile Bet, lying between the land of Robert Whyting and Andrew Dicsoun, and 
ten shillings annual from the land of said Dicsoun, between the land of Andrew Bet and 
Wil. de Hervingstoun, and various other annuals from subjects within the burgh— the 
amount of which is given. 

25. Adam Foster served as heir to Leper, 1402 (Laing's Charters, p. 38).— An instrument made 

before the baillies of the burgh (names given), defining the lands in former charter, and 
declaring Adam heir to the same. 

26. The charter of xx^. of annual rent of the tenement of Adam of the Spott, 1404r-5 (Laing's 

Charters, p. 40).— Adam de Spot, burgess of Edinburgh, declares that with the consent of 
Petronille, his wife, he sold to John Rede, executor of his will, the land of the umquhile 
John de Peblis, for the sustentation of a chaplain celebrating divine offices— namely. Sir 
Thomas de Halyday, and of other chaplains perpetually celebrating at the altar of S. John 
the Evangelist, founded in the chapel situated in the north part of the church of St Giles 
of Edinburgh by the grant of the said John de Peblis, paying annually twenty shillings, 
and the position of the land is defined and declared subject to the foresaid burden. 



ABSTRACT OP THE CHARTERS, 315 

87. Return of Sir John Foster as heir to Adam Foster, his father, 1405 (Laing's Charters, 
p. 41 ). — ^Adam Foster's lands are defined with their burdens, and Sir John Foster declared 
proprietor thereof before an inquisition of baillies of the burgh. 

28. Charter of John de Barre, 1411-12 (Laings Charters, p. 44).— Johnne de Barre, burgess of 

Edinburgh, declares that he had sold to John Broun, Clerc of the burgesses of the said 
Burgh, his whole land lying in the toun of Leith, between the barony of Restalrig, between 
the land of the Abbot of Melrose on the east, and the garden of Simon de Hiltoun on the 
west, for a sum of money paid to him in his great necessity. Burden payable noticed, 
sale confirmed, witnesses* names. 

29. Charter of John Eldar of Corstorphin, 1423 (Laing's Charters, p. 44).— John Eldar, John 

Barre, buigess of Edinburgh, and Mariotte, daughter of John Eldar and wife of John 
Barre, ratifies the sale previously made to John Broun. Various wilxiesses. 
90. Confirmation of the charter of John Forstare, 1425-6 (Laing's Charters, Appendix, xvii). 
— James, king of the Scots, confirms the charter which is given, founding a chaplain 
celebrating at the altar of S. Ninian in the parish church of St GileB> and attaching thereto 
certain annuals from the burgh, retaining right of presentation to himself and his heii-s. 
" I wish also and ordain that no one except a priest, nor anyone having cure of souls, 
shall be presented to said chaplainry, and that the chaplain shall give personal and con- 
tinual residence in the chapeL I wish also that if any chaplain should be promoted, the 
said chaplainry shall become vacant, and that the said chaplain shall not be a parish 
priest, but on all days shall celebrate divine worship when disposed, and say Placebo and 
Dirige with commendation of souls, privileges excepted, for the souls of the above. 
Nothing then can be done except by the prayers of the devout." Many witnesses belong- 
ing to the burgh, and signed by the seals of king's officers. 

31. Charter of confirmation of vs, y^id. annual given by John Alncrum of the lands of Andro 

Learmonth, 1426 (Laing's Charters^ p. 46). — John de Alncrum, burgess of Edinburgh, 
declares that he has given, for the welfare of the souls of King James and others, when 
they shall ''migrate from this light," and for the welfare of the souls of burgesses, &c., 
and of his own soul and that of Isabel, his wife, and of Sir John de Laiiyn, and of Sir 
John de Hyll, chaplains, and to the foresaid and their successors, chaplains celebrating 
divine offices endowed from the lands of Craigcruke at the altar of Sanct^ Mary Virgin in 
the parish church, an annual of vi«. viid from the lands of Andro de Learmonth for a 
perpetual anniversary — namely, Placebo and Dirige, and mass Di requie—at the said altar 
on the sixteenth day of July, at which there shall be nine chaplains with the priest, and 
the bell shall be rung through the street as well as in the church according to custom. 

32. Charter of Thomas de Bening and Thomas Gude^'yne, 1426 (Laing's Charters, p. 47). — 

The above persons of the order of Saint John of Jei-usalem, and pi-ocurators of lands and 
rents within the kingdom of Scotland, declare that they have let to John Broun Clerc of 
the burgh of Edinburgh, their waste temple land — ^measurement given — ^lying below the 
wall of the Castle and to the east of the King's Road between the land of umquhile Thomas 
Quhit on the north and our temple on the south, to have, &c, witnesses, done at 
Baltrodoch. 

33. Charter of John Broun Clerc, probably 1426 (Laing's Charters, p. 48). — Gives to his son, 

Thomas, his land, stone house, buUt by him, with brass door and garden. Property and 
duties payable therefrom defined. Witnesses. 

34. Charter of Sir John Forstar, Knight of Corstorfin, 1427 (Laing's Charters, p. 60). — Assigns 

and lets in feu-firm, John Broun Clerc, superiority of his garden or tenement, which 
is described as above. Witnesses. 

35. Charter of John de Name, 1428 ( Laing's Charters, p. 51 ). — Burgess of Edinburgh assigns 

to John Broun Clerc a piece of land lying in his croft to the south of the King's Street, 
which is vulgarly called Kowgate. Boundaries given and witnesses' names. 

36. Confirmation of the charter of Thomas de Fayrle by King James L, 1428 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 52). — Recites the charter by which Thomas gives for the welfare of the souls of the 
king and queen, and others — to God, the Blessed Mary ever Virgin, and to all saints, and 
to a chaplain celebrating divine offices at the altar of S. Cross, near and beside the great 



316 ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 

altar in the church of St Giles, various annuals from certain tenements, which are given 
for the use of the said chaplain as he shall answer to God in judgment. Witnesses of the 
charter and of the king's confirmation. 

87. Charter of resignation of John Lepar, 1428 (Laing*s Charters, p. 63).— John Lepar makes 

known to all men that he has resigned to Sir John de Hill, chaplain, and his successors, 
celehrating at the altar of the B. Mary in the church of 8. Giles of Edinhurgh, the 
ecclesiastical lands of Cragcruke lying in the vice-county of Edinburgh. Sealed by John 
Lepar and witnessed by others. 

88. Agreement between Sir John Bridin, chaplain, and John Lepar, burgess, 1428-9 ( Laing*s 

Charters, p. 54 ). — ^Sir John Bridin, chaplain at the altar of Saint Nicholas, enters into agree- 
ment that a certain portion of the croft of St Nicholas shall remain with the chaplain 
of the said altar, and another portion with John Leper, his heirs and assignees, paying 
thence to the said altar two shillings annually. It shall be lawful to the chaplain to 
demit in feu-firm his part of the croft, which he now does to John de BonkyI, paying 
annually to the said altar xvms. He also assigns to Sir John de Hyl a certain part for 
viff. viiicf. to the said altar. 

89. Charter of William Libertoun, provost, and the baillies to the altar of St John the Evangelist, 

1429 (Laing*s Charters, p. 55).— With the consent of Sir Thomas Haliday, perpetual chap- 
lain of the altar of St John the Evangelist in the parish church of St Giles, they assign 
and let in feu-firm to Thomas de Soltre, burgess, the land or house — boundaries and 
rents described. And if it should happen that the said fifty marks 11 shillings and four- 
pence be not regularly paid, the land or house shall revert to the said altar. 

40. Charter of John and William Heres, canons of Holy Cross, 1432-3 (Laing*s Charters, p. 66). 

— They consign and let in feu-firm to Andrew Bel, burgess, our land — boundaries and 
duties given. Witnessed by John de Livingtoun, provost, and others. 

41. Charter of AJan de Twedi, 1433-4 (Laing's Charters, p. 57).— Alan de Twedi, burgess, 

declares that inasmuch as James Atkynson, burgess, would sell him an annual of two 
marcs from the tenement — boundaries described — for a certain sum, he obliges himself 
that he will make payment whenever the said James, or his heirs, will pay to him at the 
great altar of St Giles twenty-one pounds six shillings and eight pence Scots money. 

42. Charter of David Broune, chancellor of Glasgow, 1436 (Laing's Charters, p. 57).— Declares 

that he has let in feu-firm to Sir Andrew Young, rector of the church of Menteth, his 
land — boundaries given — paying annually to the altar of our Lord in the parish chui-ch 
of the city of St Andrew, founded by me in the south aisle thereof, ten shillings 
annually. 

43. Charter of Margaret, wife of Gregory Logan, and William Logan, their son and heir, 1437 

(Laing's Charters, p. 58). — Declares that they have assigned to Jolm Broun Clerc their 
land — boundaries defined and burdens — and gives sasine to the said John by the hands of 
John Ynl, and by the delivery of earth and stone as the custom is in our burgh. Various 
witnesses. 

44. Instrument of sasine of the chaplainry at the altar of St Duthac, 1437-8 (Laing's Cfiarters, 

p. 59). — In the name of God, Amen, in the presence of Provost and Bailies, Thomas de 
Crannestoun and William de Crannestoun declared that the umquhile Thomas Ker, one of 
the ancestors of the said William, founded a chaplainry at the altar of S. Duthac in the 
church of S. Giles of Edinburgh, and seek of the Provost and Bailies that they should be 
admitted to the patronage of this chaplainry after the demise of a ceHain Sir Ade 
Henricus to whom it belongs. Their petition thought reasonable and granted. Charter 
defective, and words omitted. 

45. Charter of Thomas de Cranstoun, 1437-8 (Laing's Charters, p. 61 ). — In honour of the Body 

and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin Mother, and of all saints, and 
for the welfare of the Souls of the late James, King of Scots, and our King his son» 
and others, they have given to God and the B. Mary, for the sustenance of a chaplain^ 
celebrating in honour of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, at the altar of St 
Duthac, Bishop, in the church of St Giles, an annual rent of five marks six shillings and 
eightpence Scots money, from the land of the late Patrick Cante — boundaries given — and 



ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 317 

also other animals from other lands in the burgh, the presentation to belong to their heirs 
and successors ; the chaplain to keep continual residence, and has no power to employ a 
substitute, and if these heirs do not present a chaplain within a month after the chantry 
is vacant, the Provost, bailies, &c. are to do so, &c. 

46. Charter of Criatiane Marschel, wife of Andrew Marschel, 1438 (Laing's Charters, p. 63). — 

Declares that they sold to John Broun, Clerc of the Burgess* of Edinburgh, certain 
temple lands lying in the burgh, in the street which is called Newbegin, to the east 
of the King's Road — boundaries given — for a certain sum paid her, and Mariotte, her 
daughter, which land is held mediately of the said John, and of St John of Jerusalem, 
Lord Superior, and ** which land we have resigned into the hands of Lawrence Spot, 
baillie of the Temple lands." 

47. Charter of Alan de Fairinle, of the altar of St Nicholas, 1439 (Laing's Charters, p. 64).— 

With consent of Clement de Farinle, his son and heir, and to the honour of God, &c., for 
welfare of King James and Queen Johanne, and others, gives to God and the altar of St 
Ninian, and to a chaplain celebrating annually at said altar, in the church of St Giles of 
Edinburgh, on the south side of the said church, certain rents amounting to forty marks 
seven shillings and fourpence, payable from the following lands — lands defined — luid 
portions payable from them. I wish that the presentation to the said chaplainry should 
pertain to my heirs, and if they fail to present within eight days after it is vacant, the 
patronage to go to the provost and baillies — the chaplain, when disposed, shall make 
daily mass as other priests do in the said church, and he shall be bound, die uero Lune, 
to celebrate mass for the dead. Requiem etemam, and at the beginning of the mass to 
exhort the people that they should pray for the souls of the foresaid, and should say a 
Fater noster with the Angelic saltUation. He is bound also, when I and my wife migrate 
from this light, to celebrate at the said altar for our souls, in testimony whereof I have 
appended my seal. Witnesses. 

48. Pension of Torphichen, 1442. Regarding the letters following, instrument was made and 

transumpt sought by Patrick de Cockbum, provost, with the baillies, James Balbirny, 
and others, A.D. 1448. — ** Brother John de Lastro, master of the sacred house of St John of 
Jerusalem, humble custodian of the poor of Jesus Christ, to Digneros the Scot greeting. 
On account of thy merits and daily obsquies made by thee to us, and to our religious 
order beyond the sea," acknowledges that he is not able to live comfortably on the ten 
golden scuti payable to him from their house of Torphichen in Scotland, and grants him 
other ten scuti, payable at the first feast of St John, and that the said twenty scuti 
should be payed him by the procurators of the said house, enjoining them to obey this 
mandate by virtue of their holy obedience — ^in testimony of which our magisterial seal is 
appended— given at Rhodes, in our Convent, twelfth day of June 1442. 

49. Charter of Thomas de Cranestoun to the altar of St Duthac, 1443 (Laing's Charters, p. 67). 

— States that a chaplainry had been founded by him and his late wife, Mariotte, with the 
consent of his son and heir, William de Cranstoun, at the altar of S. Duthac, Bishop, in 
the parish church of St Giles, and infeft in certain specified rents and lands in the burgh, 
he of new, with the consent of his son, in honour of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, of the virgin and all saints, and for the welfare of the late King James, and of our 
King James his son, and queen Johanne, and their ancestors and successors, and of his 
own father, mother, brothers and sisters, and for the soul of his late wife, gives for the 
sustentation of a chaplain certain annual rents from lands described — reserves the pre- 
sentation — insists on the chaplain residing, and gives right of presentation, should his 
heirs fail to exercise it within a specified time, to the Provost and Baillies. 

50. Note of another charter by the same Thomas. — That he gave to the altar and chaplain 

foresaid, 40 shillings annually, payable from a tenement in the burgh, described. 

51. Charter of Andrew Cranby, 1443 (Laing's Charters, p. 69).— Declares that he sold to 

Sir Patrick Lesour, rector of Newton, an annual of thirty shillings, from lands described, 
for a sum of money payable to him in his urgent necessity. 

52. Ane obligacioun of Quhiteheddis to Cranstoun anent the lahde out of the whilk the 

annual mortifit to Sanct Duthoc's altar is to be tane up, 1443-4 (Laing's Charters, p. 70). 



318 ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 

— Quhitehede and Johne of Dee, burgesses of Edinburgh, declared that, notwithstanding 
Thomas of Cranstoun, constable of the castle of Edinburgh, has let to them his land — 
described— paying yearly to the lord of Fentoun and the altar of S. Duthac six pounds 
usual money of Scotland, &c., they oblige themselves and heirs that it shall be lawful 
to the said Cranstoun to recover the said land if the annuals should not be paid at the 
usual terms. 

63. Charter of James Corour, 1445 (Laiug's Charlers, p. 71).— With consent of Christiane, his 
wife, he has sold his tenement, descri1>ed. 

54. Charter of Simon Dowele, 1445. — Simon, son and heir of the late John Dowele, declares 
that he has sold to Andrew Bell an annual rent of twenty shillings. Witnesses. 

65. Lettei-sof Abbot Humbert, 1446 (Laing's Charters^ p. 73).— Abbot t)f the convent of St 

Anthony, belonging directly to the Roman Church of the order of St Augustine, bim- 
nensis diocese, also the preceptors, priors, brothers, and religious belonging to the foresaid 
chapter. Lately in our general chapter, brother Michael Gray, preceptor-general of the 
house of S. Anthony, in Scotland, set forth that certain canons of the said monastery, 
and of the order in Scotland, had encouraged litigation between the religious, had refused 
obedience to their superiors, and had appropriated revenues to themselves, for their own 
benefit. We, therefore, desiring that all strifes between our religious should at once be 
extinguished, &c, declare the preceptories of our order perpetual benefices, and other 
possessors of them shall not hold the offices in perpetuity— [blanks]. We enjoin ihat 
each should walk in the vocation in which he is called, and honest conversation in the 
Lord, and worthily persever to put a stop to all disputes — ^given at Sanct Anthony, in 
the large hall of the said house— present Ludovick Comillion, Lord of Bruseto, Mater 
Michael Franses, bachelor of laws, and James Pignoli, beneficed in Perpignian. 

66. Charter of Patrick Cokbume, provost, the baillies, and community of Edinburgh, 1447 

(Laing's Charters, p. 74). — Declare that they have let in few-firm to William Nutt, 
burgess, certain land to the west of the forum and cross of the said burgh — ^land described 
— ^for the good of the altar of St Andrew, which land had been resigned by Sir John Erale, 
chaplain — burdens payable detaOed. 

67. Charter of the High Altar, made by the provost, bailies, &c., 1447 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 78).— Have given to Sir Alexander Hundby, the place of chaplain at the high altar in 
the church of St Giles of Edinburgh, with all its profits and rents — ^these given in detail 
— «nd he is bound to say daily mass for the souls of the fewai-s and community of said 
burgh, to bear up the weight of the said college church, to minister in the choir on ferial 
days, habited in his surplice at high mass and vespers, in festivals at mattins, high mass, 
and vespers ; that he will observe the statutes of the college, and not resign his place in 
favour of another. 

58. Obligation by the chaplain of the High Altar, 1447. — Alexander Hundby, chaplain, under- 

takes to fulfil the above duties^bligation given in text. 

59. Charter of Thomas Clerc, made to Gilchiste Skynnar, 1447-8 (Laing's Charters, p. 79). — 

Declares that, with the consent of his father, John Broune Clerc, he had let to Skynnar 
certain lands described. 

60. Memorandum of Sasine to Andro Bell, 1447--8 (Laing's Charters, p. 80).^— Memorandum 

that William Gray, baillie, at the instance of Andrew Bell, came to a tenement — 
described — and a resignation thereof being made in his hands, he gave Andrew Bell infeft- 
ment by the exhibition of stone and earth as is the custom. 

61. Indenture regarding lands in the toun of Leth, 1448 (Laing's Charters, p. 81).— It is agreed 

between Lord William Crichton, chancellor of Scotland, and brother Michael Gray, 
preceptor general and master of the hospital of St Anthony at Leith, that the said 
Crichtoun gives to God and the hospital of St Anthony certain lands in perpetuity — 
described— for the sustentation of a chaplain at the altar of our Lord, on the south of St 
Anthony's church, for the souls, &c., regulation regarding patronage, &c Also, it is 
agreed that if Crichton should aquire an acre of the lands of Peilrig, lying to the south 
of St Anthony, extending to the king's highway, the Preceptor and his successors should 
construct thereon an hospital for six beds, &c. And if it should happen that the 



ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 319 

preceptor or hiB Buccessors should not implement this agreement, Cricheton should be 
allowed to transfer the chaplanry, &c, to the parish church of Creichtoun. 

62. Swift's charter made to his soun upon a land wadset to the King, 1448 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 83). — John Suyft, burgess, declares that he has given to his son Robert his tenement— 
described— until he happen to be promoted to an ecclesiastical benefice of the annual 
value of twenty pounds, and if the benefice should be less, and the said Robert happens 
to marry after his decease — to his heirs, whom failing, to certain others named. 

63. Swift's chaiter made to his son Henry, 1448 (Laing*s Charters, p. 89).— John conceeds a 

tenement to his son— described — to his heirs, &c 

64. Swift's charter to his soun Johne, 1448 (Laing's Charters, p. 86).— In the same terms as 

the foregoing. 

65. Swift's charter to his soun Walter, 1448 (Laing's Charters, p. 87).— In the same terms as 

the foregoing. 

66. Swift's charter to his douchter Elizabeth Swift (Laing's Charters, p. 87).— In similar 

terms to the foregoing. 

67. Charter of Confirmation of Master Thomas de Lawdre, 1449--55 (Laing's Charters),— -Yimg 

James confirms charter made by Thomas de Lawdre, canon of Aberdeen and master of 
the hospital of Soltre, by which, for the souls of his father, mother, sisters, benefactors, 
and parishioners, he founds a chaplainry in the church of St Giles, in the Aisle of St Cross 
at the west colum, at the altar of St Martin and St Thomas, under certain conditions, 
the presentation to remain with himself, after to Master William de Lawdre, afterwards 
to the Provost and Baillies— that the said altar of St Martin and S. Thomas shall not 
be moved by the Provost and baillies from the place it occupies, and that if this happens 
I wish Sir William de Lawdre of Haltoun and his successors should have the chaplainry 
and right of presentation elsewhere than in the said church ; that the chaplain should 
personally reside, say mass daily, and hold no other benefice under pain of forfeiture ; and 
for the upkeep of the chaplainry I give— annuells and lands from which they are to be 
drawn. 

68. Charter of GUcrist Tumbule, 1450 (Laing's Charters, p. 90).— Gives and lets in feu-firm to 

Robert Coxson his shop— tenement described — ^paying annually to the chaplain of the 
Altar of the Holy Blood in the Ch. of St Giles, near the north door thereof, twenty-six 
shiUgs. and eightpence. 

69. GUcreist Tumbillis charter, 1450 (Laing's Charters, p. 91 ).— Declares he has let in feu-firm, 

&c., to Robert Coxon, burgess, the front house of the under-mentioned tenement — 
described— with its burdens, to the chaplain of the altar of St James, thirty shillgs., and 
for the upkeep of the light called le lamp in the choir, six shillings. 

70. To the altar of S. Cristopher, founded in the parish church of St Giles, 1450-1 (Laing's 

Charters, Appendix, Ixvii).— In name of God, Amen, personally appeared William 
Skynner and others— names given— Skinners within the toun of Edinbgh., and obliged 
themselves in the manner following, that to the sustentation of a chaplain at the 
altar of S. Cristopher, newly founded by them, they will lend helping hands for the 
whole term of their life, and according to their ability; that apprentices shall pay 
twenty shiQings, and that no apprentice shall be admitted to the guild unless he 
promises to lend helping hands, &c.; and that if there be any debate among the said 
skinners, both parties shall submit their controversy to the brethren of the guild, and 
shall abide by the decree of the council, &c. Done within the church of S. Maria in the 
fields. 

71. Charter of Thomas Hodgesoun made with Sir Patrick Lesour, 1451 ( Laing's Charters, p. 92). 

^Declares that with consent of his wife he has sould to Sir Patrick, rector of the church 
of Neutoun, an annual rent— land described. 

72. Cameroun's charter, 1451 (Laing's Charters, p. 93).— William Cameroun, burgess, for the 

love which he has, gives to his wife Elizabeth the tenement— described — to be held by said 
Elizabeth, and afterwards to go to his son James Cameroun and heirs— burdens described, 
among others, an annual to the chaplain of the altar of St Katherine, virgin. 

73. Letters of the Provost and Baillies of Edinbgh. regarding the transumpt of certain 

2Q 



320 ABSTRACT OP THE CHARTERS. 

ehaiten, 1451 (Laing'B Charters, p. 94).~<7ecnrge de Fanlow, ProvoBt, &a, sittiiig in judge- 
ment, compeared Sir William Park, vicar of Edram, and produced certain letters asking 
ns to anthoriae a tranammpt to be made by a notary, the tenor of which is as follows : 
John Ynile sells certain lands to Sir John Gray, canon of Glasgow and rector of the 
church of Listoun— lands described— James Robertsoun sells to Sir John Gray, Rector 
of Kirkliston, an annual rent— lands described. Some other documents of a similar 
character. A transumpt ordered to be made by a notary-public. 

71, Charter of Blaster John Gray, 1451 (Lalng's Charters, p. 09).— John Gray, Master in Arts 
and Medicine, rector of the church of Kirkliston, for the souls, &o., gives to the support 
of a secular chaplain at the altar of S. Kentigem, lately founded by me, certain annual 
rents from lands— described. Usual conditions regarding presentation and duties of 
chaplain. 

75. Bond by Sym of Edinhame to Johnne Broun Clerc, 1452 (Laing's Charters, p. 101).— Ajs 
John Broun Clero has set him in feu-firme his land, obliges himself to uphold the 
same, &c 

70. Charter of King James XL, 1453 (Laing's Charters, p. 102).— Gives to William de Ledale, 
&C., the lands of Lochtillow, within the barony of Bathcat, certain lands described, 
with their burdens. 

77. Charter of Patrick Lesour, 1454 (Laing's Charters, p. 103). — Patrick Lesour, rector of the 

parish church of Neutoun, for the souls, &c, gives to the support of a secular chaplain 
at the altar of St Michael, archangel, founded by himself in the Parish church of St Giles 
— ^the following rents of lands described. Town to present within twenty days of a 
vacancy— chaplain to reside. If the town do not exercise their right, presentation to 
lapse to the abbot and convent of S. Cross. If the chaplain does not celebrate for fifteen 
continuous days, he shall vacate his chaplainry; if the chaplain keeps a whore or a 
concubine or is promoted, he shall vaccate. Chaplain every Sunday, and on the greater 
festivals, shall celebrate high mass vested in his surplice. In the beginning of his mass 
he is to exhort the people to say a Paternoster with the augelic salutation for the souls 
of the foresaid ; for my decease, to keep the aniversary of my death ; to say Placebo and 
Dirige with notes on the day of my death, and on the morrow mass, of requiem with notes 
and the service of seven chaplains. He is bound to provide necessaxy vestments and 
ornaments of the altar, and bread, wine, and lights, and on all the six feria he makes 
general absolution with the penetential Psalm Miserere, Met Dens, et De projundis, with 
sprinkling and blessing of my tomb before the said altar, if Christ would give me 
requiem, &e. 

78. Bond of the Bugh of Edingh. to Williame Prestoun of Groirtoun, 1454-^ (Laing's Charters, 

p. 106).— Be it kend till all men be thir present lettres we the prouest, &c, to be bundyn 
ande sikirly oblist to William of Prestoime of Goirtoun, sone and aire to umquhOe William, 
&c, ande to the freinds and surname of thaim, that foralsmekle as William of Prestoune, 
the fadir, quham God assoillie, made diligent laboure and grete menis, be a he and 
michty prince the king of France, and mony uthir lordis of France, for the gettyn of the 
arme bane of Sanct Gele, the whilk bane he frely left to our mothir kirk of Sanct Gele 
of Edinburgh, withoutyn ony condicion makyn. We considerand the grete labouris and 
costis that he made for the gettyn thairof, we promit as said is that within sex or seuvin 
yhere, in all the possible and gudely haste we may, that we sal big ane Ue furth fra our 
Lady Ue, quhare the said William lys, the said ile to be begginnyn within a yhere, in 
the whilk ile thare sal be made a brase for his lair in bosit werk, and aboue the brase a 
table of bras with a writt specifiand the bringing that rillyk be him in Scotland, with his 
armis, and his armis to be putt in hewyn werk in uthir thre partis of the ile. Alswa, 
ane alter to be maid in the said Oe, with buke and chalice of sUuer, and al uthir grath 
belangand tharto. Alswa, that we sal assing the chappellane of quhilom Schir 
Williame of Prestoune to sing at the alter fra that tyme furth, and gif ony freindis 
lykys to feft ony ma chappellanis, thai sal be thankfully ressauit to singne at the alter. 
Item, that als oft as the said ryllik beis borne in the yheir, that the surname and nerest 
of blude to the said William sal beir the said ryllik before al utheris. Alsua, that fra the 



ABSTRACT OF THS GHAKTER& 321 

dede of the nid Williame fadir, thare aal be fnndyii a chappelane for the tennis of five 
yheris to Binge for him. Item, we promit that thare aale be an obit yherely done for 
him, flic as efferis the time of tiie yhere of his decesse. In witness of qnhilk thingis we 
have set oure commonn sele at Edynbnrgh the xi day of the moneth of Januare, the 
yhere of Onre Lorde a thoosande four han<beth fyfty-foor yheiis. 
70. Charter of the ProYOCt, baillies, &c., to Andio Napare, 1456 (Laing's Ckarten, p. 107).— 
With the consent of Sir Robert Lintonn, chaplain at S. Katherine's altar, they have 
asigned to Napare, &c.» lands of Uprmerchamstoon belonging to the said aJtar by the 
foundation of Rob. Hpg, &c 

80. The gift of the Black Freiris, 1457 (Laing's Charters, p. 108) James, King of Scots, &c., 

confirms charter of Alexander, King of Scots, giving to God, &c, and the preacher brothers 
of Edingh., the broad way in which was onr manor» with the entrance which is called 
Le Vennel. Witnesses and seals. 

81. Instrument of sasine of a certain annual in Leith in favour of Sir John Moffate, 1402-3 

(Laing^s Chartert, p. 109). — In name of God, Amen, &c., compeared Alexander Forstar of 
Corstorfyne, knight, shows that he was granted sasine of said annuel of lands described. 
Certified by a notary, William de Camera. 

82. Letter of reoeption of the bishop of the place, 1464 (Laing's Ckartert, p. 110). — James, D. G. 

bishop of St Andrews, &c., know ye that we have seen certain letters of William 
Forbace, perpetual vicar of St Giles, &c., to the religious brothers of the order of the 
Minorites regarding the church or chapel of S. John Baptist, situted without the burgh 
of Edingh. to the following effect : WiL Forbace, canon of Aberdeen and perpetual vicar of 
St GOes, &c., greeting— Whereas by the venerable father, Brother David de Camok, of the 
order of Minorites, I have understood that he and the brethren of the said order desire 
to war for God in the church or chapel of John the Baptist, without the Bugh of Eding., 
in possession of and properly belonging to my church of ^inbgh., according to the 
institution of the brethren, drawn from the blessed Frauds, and supplicates my consent, 
I therefore, considering the prayer to be just, also that it is in accordance with the 
canons of sacred councils to plant holy religion, and to nourish it when planted, grants the 
chapel, and should it not be occupied by the Brothers of the observance, it shall revert to 
him and his successors, which letters were ratified by the Bishop. 

83. Charter of the provost, &c., of the bugh of Edingh., 1466 (Laing's Charters, p. 112).— 

Jcunes, D. G. King, &c., because our beloved provost, &e., desire that the Parish church, 
&c., belonging to our presentation, should be erected into a perpetual college by the 
episcopal ordinary with certain canons and prebendaries, and that a perpetual provostship 
should be created and ordained in said church, and that under the provost there should be 
a perpetual vicar having care of souls. We therefore, &c., gives and conceeds, and that 
the provostry and vicarage sliould be in the gift of the crown. 

84. Charter of confirmation to a chaplain in the church of St Giles of Edingh., 1466-7 (Laing's 

Charters^ p. 113). — James, King, &c, confirms charter of Alexander Curroure, vicar 
of the parochial church of Dunsiare, in the diocese of Glasgow, and James Logtoune, 
chaplain, giving to God, &c, and to a chaplain celebrating annually at the altar of 
St Nicholas in the parish church— land described— the donation to belong to them, and 
afterwards to go to Lord Steuart, of the Barony of Bradwode, and if he does not present 
within forty days of a vacancy, to the Provost, &c ; said chaplain to say daily mass, &c. ; 
also on the eighth day of July in every year he is to place etiper exequiie thirty shillings 
and fourpence, of which he shall give ten shillings and eightpence to presbyters of the 
college of St GUes, &c., and twenty pence in wax candles and torches, and to the cleric 
ringing the bell in church sixpence, and to the bellman ringing through the town 
sixpence. If the chaplain keeps a concubine, or does not give personal residence, he is 
to vacate lus chaplainry. Witnesses. 

85. Robert Logane to the altar of St Nicolas, 1466-7 (Laing's Charters, p. 116).— Patrick 

Logane of Cotfelde, bailie of Restarig, comes to the land of Hug de Bar, and gives 
sasine according to the following tenor : To yhou I bid and commandis that thir lettres 
sene ye resave a resynacioun to be made in your hands be Maister Alexander Curor of all 



322 ABSTRACT OF THB CHARTERS. 

and hale the forty schillings worth of annual rent, &c., and that ye gif heritable 
possessionn to Sanct Nicolas and to Schir James Skynnar, chapillane of the chaplanry to 
be fundyit at the altar of S. Nicholace, &c. In witness, &c 
8d. Charter of a confirmation to Robert Auldhoch for the support of a chaplain. — James, king, 
&c., confirms charter of Robert Aoldhoch, burgess, for the soul of James Second and 
others, giving to Master Robert Coltis, chaplain, and his successors, celebrating at the 
altar of St Katherine, an annual rent from lands described on the usual conditions ; 
founder's heirs to be patrons, and if they do not present within forty days, toun to have 
the appointment, one of the founder's kin and blood to have the preference if any found 
fit. 

87. Grant of the aisle and chapel of St John Baptist to the Incorporation of the Masons 

and Wrights, 1475 (Laing's Charters, Appendix, Ixviii). — ^Till all and sundry, the Provost, 
&c., greeting in the sone of the glorious Virgine, &c., for the eiking and suplying of 
divine service daily to be done at the altar of St John Bapist, assign to oure toun and 
neichbours, the halo craftismen of the masonis and of the wrichtis, &c., the yle and 
chapell of St John B., fra the aid hers of yme inwart, and to be haldin, &c The said 
craftismen to use, occupy, and aduoury the said yle as their awin proper yle, sic like as 
other craftismen within the said college Kirk, to thig the licht of the said altar as utheris 
dois yherly, &c In witness, &c 

88. Charter of foundation of a chapllainry of John Dalrymple at the altar of St Eli, 1477 

(Laing's Charters, p. 119). — John Dalrymple, for the souls of James First and Second, 
and of others, to the glory of God, &c, gives for the support of a chaplain at the altar of 
St Eli, confessor, an annual rent of ten marks, payable from certain lands specified, usual 
duties of chaplun specified, as in former charters. 

89. Charter of mortification of the altar of St Martin, 1477 (Laing's Charters, p. 121 ). — James, 

King, &C., confirms charter of James, Bishop of Dunkeld, founding for the welfare of the 
soul of James III., Queen Margaret, and others, a chaplainry in the Aisle of S. Cross, at 
the west column at the altar of St Martin and S. Thomas, and have given to the B. V., 
&c., and to St Columba, patron, and to the chaplain celebrating at the said altar, a 
certain annual rent of ten pounds^land described— Presentation to belong to the Bishops 
of Dunkeld ; also gives an annual rent for the sustentation of three lamps in the church, 
in the said aisle, before the altar of S. Martin, which lamps are to be lit all winter at the 
second ringing of the bell calling to vespers, and to continue lit till the closing of the 
doors, to be supplied with olive oiL 

90. Charter of William Forbes, provost of the church, 1477-8 (Laing's Charters, p. 122).— 

With the consent, &c., of his chapter, considering that his parishoners have so increased 
that there is no room for burial in the church, gives and conceeds to God, &c, that part 
of his garden lying contiguous to his manse, near the College church, boundaries defined, 
to be a cemetry for his parishoners, to have and hold, &c. Appends his own seal and 
that of the chapter, and the signatures of the canons— WU. Forbes, Provost, his own 
writing ; Richard Robert, Prebendary of Craigcruke, do. ; John Crauford, do. ; John 
Fyndgud, curate, do. ; William Thomesoun, do. ; John Skathmur, do. ; John Cliddisdale, 
do. ; Thomas Halyday, do. ; Thomas Rechartson, do. ; Thomas Mathisoun, do. ; Sir 
James Bawbymy, do. 

91. Ri^garding the pensioun granted to Master William Forbes, 1478 (Laing's Charters^ 

Appendix, Ixix).— Grant was made under the great seal to the above Provost of an annual 
pensioun of two hundred and twenty marcs by the provost, baillies, &c, payable 
annually from the commune Mills of Dene. 

92. Infeudation of Patrick Baroun, 1478 (Laing's Charters, p. 124).— Patrick Baroun, burgess, 

for the souls, &c, gi^^es to a chaplain at the altar of St Andrew, on the south side of the 
college church, various annual rents from a great many lands specified ; presentation to 
be given to one bearing the name of Baroun, if such fit ; duties of chaplain defined as in 
preceding charters. 

93. Charter of confirmation of two charters made by John Otterbum, 1478 (Laing's Charters^ 

p. 128).— King James confirms charter of John, Bishop of Glasgow, for the soul, &c., 



ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 323 

giving to God, &c., and to altar of S. Kentigern, our patron, and patron of the cathedral 
church of Glasgow, a certain tenement specified ; also to the chaplain of the altar of 
S. Dathac, situated in the church of S. GUes of Edingh., five marks Scots, &c. 

94. Charter of Walter Bertrahame, for the support of a chaplain, 1478 ( Laing's Charters^ p. 131 ). 
— James, King, &c., confirms charter of the above burgess, giving for the welfare of the 
souls of various persons, to God, &c., for the support of a chaplain at the altar of St 
Francis, behind the great and authentic altar, various annual rents. Duties of the 
chaplain defined as in preceeding charters ; gives also to the poor and priests for the soul 
of the above on the anniversary of his death, certain rents, the distribution of which is to 
be done in a specified manner, after Placebo and IXrige, celebrated by the chaplain and 
other sixteen chaplains, and Mass of Requeim by twenty chaplains— payments to these 
and others specified — each portion to the poor to be three pence in bread, three in veneison, 
and three in flesh, fish, butter, or cheese. The portions to be placed on a table in the 
church during the whole mass. 

05. Charter of Andrew Mowbray, burgess of Edingh., for the suport of a chaplain, 1478 
(Laing's Charters, p. 136). — King confirms charter of Andrew Mobray, which states that 
as by Prayers and Masses, which the son offers for the sins of the father, sins are forgiven, 
the pains of purgatory lessened, and the souls of the dead frequently liberated therefrom 
and gathered into the joys of Paradioe, he therefore gives to the new chaplainry found at 
the altar of St Ninian, various annual rents from lands specified — ^usual regulations as to 
presentation. Also as holy Scripture testifies that as water extinguishes fire, so charity 
extinguishes sin, gives certain annuals to priests and poor— money to be distributed 
according to certain rules minutely given. Ten chaplains of the choir to say Placebo and 
Dirige on the night preceeding the anniversary of his death, and Requiem Mass on that 
day, both deacon and sub-deacon suitably vested ; and if they do not do so, the chaplain 
to choose sixteen other chaplains who shall celebrate, to each of whom he gives six pence 
— payments for bells — bellman of the town — candles as in preceding charters. 

96. Charter of Thomas, Bishop of Dunkeld, to the support of a chaplain in the chureh of Saint 

Giles, 1480-1 (Laing's Charters, p. 141). — King James confirms charter of the above, 
founding a chaplainry in aisle of St Cross, at the west column at the altar of St Martin and 
S. Thomas, and makes the usual regulations regarding the duties of the chaplain, whom 
he endows with certain rents specified. 

97. Charter of Mortification of Patrick Baroune, 1482-3 (Laing's Charters, p. 143). — James, 

King, &C., confirms charter given previously as above. 

98. Charter of Robert Bell, Burgess, 1483 (Laing's Charters, p. 143).— Declares that he has 

given to Sir David Lychton, archdeacon of Ross, certain lands specified, paying annually 
to the altar of our Lord's Piety in St Giles', twenty shillings and eight pence. 

99. Transumpt of the charter of John Quhitheid, made to him by the toun, xxii March 1483 

(Laing's Charters, p. 145). —Community declared to have sold to John Whithead certain 
lands specified and defined. 

100. Mortification of James Townys. Registered 1484 (Laing's Charters, p. 146).— King con- 

firms charter of the above, giving to God, &c., and to a chaplain officiating at the altar 'Of 
our Lord's Piety, in the college ch. of St G., on the north side of the choir door, certain 
annual rents specified from lands defined— usual regulations regarding presentation and 
duties of chaplain as in previous charters. 

101. Charter of Alan Brown, regarding ten shillings payable for the support of a candle at the 

altar of the blessed Virgin, 1484-5 (Laing's Charters, p. 148). — Gives an annual rent for a 
wax candle before the said altar, to be placed on the joist op le hers before the altar. 

102. Confirmation of the charter of Sir Alexander Barcar, 1486 (Laing's Charters, p. 149).— King 

James confirms charter of Barcare, vicar of Petynane, giving for souls of certain persons 
named, to God, &c., for the support of a chaplain at the altar of S. Blase, in the college 
ch., various annual rents from lands defined. The regulations regarding presentation and 
duties of chaplain as in preceeding charters. 

103. Confirmation of the charter of Master Richard Robesoune, 1488 (Laing's Charters, p. 152). 

—King confirms charter of the above Robesoun, Rector of Suthik, giving for the welfare 



824 ABSTRACT OF THE CHABTEBS. 

of the souk of various persons, a rental from land specified, to a chaplain celebrating at 
the altar of St Dionysius, situated behind the great altar. Presentation to go to the 
burgh after his death — ^Lf a fit person of his kin can be found he is to be appointed. 

lOi. Decree of the Lords of Council, 1490 (Laing's Charters , p. 153). — Decree that Ewmond of 
Chesholme shall pay to maister William Forbes, Provost of Sanct Gelis Kirk, four chalder 
of aitis, price of the chalder xxi markis, of twa yheris teyndis of Pettindreich, zz bolls 
of ry and ber, price of the boll xvi«., and zzviii bollis of aitis and x bollis of bere, price 
foresaid, of a yheris teyndis of Fouleford, taken up and intromettit with be the said 
Edwmond, as wes sufficiently pressit before the lordis, and ordains our Soverane Lordis 
lettres to be direct to distrenyhe the said Edwmond, his landis and gudis herfore, and that 
the said Edwmond wes summond to this accioun, oft tymes callit and nocht comperit 

106. Charter of mortification and confirmation for master Alezandro Inglis, archdeacon of St 
Andrews, 1490-1 (Laing*s Charters, p. 154). — King confirms charter of late John 
Dalrimple, of ten pounds annual rent from certain lands specified. 

106. Charter of confirmation on the charter of Isobelle Williamsoun, 1490-1 (Laing's Charters^ 

p. 154). — James, King, &c., confirms charter of Isobella Bras or Williamson, for the souls 
of certain named, giving to God and Jesus Christ crucified, in honour of his glorious 
passion, and to a secular chaplain celebrating at the altar of S. Laurence, in the south 
side of the Parish ch. of St Giles, near the middle of the church, various annual rents 
from lands specified and defined. Begnlations as to presentation and duties of chaplain 
as in previous charters. 

107. Confirmation of the charter of Master William Fowlar, 1491 ( Laing*s Charters, p. 157 ).— King 

James confirms charter of William Fowlar, canon of Dunblane, for giving in honour of 
God, &C., and St Gregory Pope, and for the benefit of the souls of certain persons named 
^various annual rents specified— to a chaplain celebrating in honour of S. Gregory Pope, 
at the altar of St James the Apostle. Begulationa regarding presentation and duties of 
chaplain as in proceeding charters. 

108. For St Ninian, in the College church of St Giles of Edingh., 1493 (Laing's Charters, 

Appendix, Ixix).— 2d of Sept., year &c. 93, second of Pope Alexander VL, compeared 
the honrable man James Crauford, one of the balUies of the Bugh of the Cannongat of 
Holyrood, and gave hereditary possession of a certain annual rent to Hugh Lausone, 
chaplain to the altar of S. Ninian, for the sustentation of a lamp burning before said 
altar. 

109. Charter of Mortification of Andrew Mowbray, 1492-3 (Laing's Charters, p. 160). — King 

confirms charter of the above, giving for the souls of certain persons named, for the support 
of two secular chaplains at tiie altar of St Ninian, on the south side of the Church, near 
the altar of S. Laurence, certain annual rents specified from lands and houses defined. 
Presentation and duties of chaplain as in previous charters. He wishes that if the 
revenue of said lands exceeds forty marcs, the excess shall be placed in an iron safe 
having two keys, one of which shall be in keeping of one of the chaplains, and the safe in 
the keeping of the other, and the other key in keeping of the Dean of the church ; one 
part shall go in charity, another to my relations, and the third for reparation of the said 
houses, and for the upkeep of vestments, ornaments, lights, and support of divine service. 
A copy of this charter to be laid, on the aniversary of his death, on the said altar in pres- 
ence of the people. The dean of the church gives to the said altar a covering [tapam] of 
jacynth colour with golden ornaments, four castUas or /ericas of diverse colours, and tfaa 
fourth of birdealexander, with albs and amices complete, and a golden chalice weighing 
nineteen ounces, and two golden vials weighing thirteen ounces, a missal for the altar, 
with breviary. Regulations as to chaplain and celebration of obit, much the same as in 
previous charters, &c. 

110. Transumpt of confirmation of the charter of Mariorie Redeschaw, 1493 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 164).— King confirms charter of the above, giving, for the benefit of the souls of certain 
persons, to the altar of St Katherine in the south of the church of St Giles, and to a 
chaplain there, various annual rents specified from certain lands named ; makes regula- 
tions as to presentation and duties of chaplain same as in preceeding charters, and it shall 



ABSTRACrr OF THE OHARTEBS. 325 

not be lawful for the patron to retain or oonvert the rents, nnder the penalty contained in 
the apostolic Bull annually published, Quod excommunicatur a papa qtd rapiurU vel 
iuurpant/ruetus aut jurUdieeionei pertintea ad eedenanu 

111. Charter of confirmation to the support of a chaplain at the altar of St Ck)luniba, 1403-4 

(Laing's Charters, p. 109). — King confirms charter of Adam William, master of arts, and 
chaplain of the Chaplainry of S. Columba, founded at the altar of St Martin, bishop, and 
Thomas, martyr, giving for the benefit of the souls of certain persons to the altar of St 
Columba, and to a chaplain celebrating there, an annual rent from lands described, the 
presentation to belong to the Bishop of Dunkeld. 

112. Charter of admortification and confirmation regarding the charter of Archibald Naper of 

Merchamestoun, 1494-5 (Laing's Charters, p. 171). — King James confirms charter of the 
above, giving for the souls of certain persons named, to a chaplain celebrating for them at 
the altar of St Saviour, in the north part of the church, an annual rent ; regulations as to 
saying requiem nmilar to those in proceeding charters. 

113. Confirmation of the charter of Walter Bertram, 1494-5 (Laing's Charters^ p. 173).— King 

James confirms charter of the above Provost of the Toun of Edinbgh., giving for the 
Bonis of certain persons named, to God, &c., for the support of a secular chaplain at the 
altar of St Laurence various annual rents, usual regulations regarding presentation, and 
also regarding services on aniversaiy of death, and payments to those assisting, and bell- 
ringers, &C. ; " also that the bells shall be rung at Dtrige and mass as is the custom, 
and the greater bell after Dirige in vespers up to six o'clock, also at six o'clock that 
which is commonly called le munyng, and at the end they shall strike three times, with 
intervals, to incite the people to pray for all the Christian dead ; and to the bellman 
ringing the hand-bells through the toun I give fourpence, and to four singing boys of the 
choir singing versicles threepence, and to the cleric keeping the cross, candles, and 
ornaments sixpence ;" then follows distribution of portions to the poor, one to go to the 
lepers. The chaplain also is to inquire whether the prior and convent of the preaching 
brothers are rogular in making masses and distributing to the poor according to the tenor 
of another deed made by the grantor of this charter. The Provost and Baillies have 
power to see that this deed is carried out, and if any mass be ommitted, they can recover 
three shillings, and for every low mass twelve pence, and they have power to see that 
everything is done as the grantor desires, and to distrain rents if the services are not done 
properly. 

114. Charter of Master William Forbes, 1496 (Laing's Charters, p. 179).— With the consent of 

his chapter, he, the Provost of the church, gives to the provost, &c., that north pai-t of 
his manse and glebe nearest and most adjacent to the said church — ^namely, the land 
and chamber of the curate, and the school below, with their boundaries, &c. They are 
held boxmd to erect, a new house for the curate, and a fit school below for the scholars 
above the stable, and in the place where it is now situated ; also, they shall build a 
latrine in the house, commonly called le gaXry, They shall be bound to cause to be 
annually made at the great altar an obit for him the Provost, with mass, &c., at their 
expense, &c. 

115. Charter of confirmation of a chaplain, 1498-9 (Laing's Charters, p. 181 ). — James, the King, 

&c., confirms charter of John, Bishop of Glasgow, Chancellor of Scotland, whereby for the 
souls of certain persons named, he gives to a chaplain at the altar of St Katherine various 
annual rents from lands named ; also, charter of Thomas Cameroxm, who gives to the said 
altar a chaplain, and endows it with certain rents. In both charters rights of presentation 
defined. 

116. Charter of admortification regarding the charter of Sir Alexander Barcare, 1501 (Laing's 

Charters, p. 184). Confirmed by the King ; tenor of the charter already given. 

117. Charter of admortification of Bichard Hopper, burgess of Edinbgh., 1502-3 (Laing's 

Charters, p. 185).— King confirms charter of the above, giving, for the benefit of tiie soiQs 
of certain persons, to God, &c., and to St Koch, confessor, for the support of a secular 
chaplain at the altar of the Viigin and her visitation, and of S. Roch, built by him 
lately in the chureh of St Giles, in the new aisle of St Thomas, Martyr, various annual 



826 ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 

rents. The regnlatioiis regarding presentation and the duties of the chaplain at the altar 
of the Virgin and S. Roch similar to those in proceeding charters. 

118. For the Prebendaries and Chapellains of the Church of St Giles of Edinbgh., 1505 (Laing's 
Charters^ Appendix, Ixxi). — On the 2l8t October 1505, compeared the honourable man 
Richard Fassyntoxm, one of the baillies of the Cannongate, &c., at the instance of Marjory 
Doby, wife of the late Thomas Home, resigned into the hands of the said Richard certain 
lands burdened with an annual — ^for an anniversary made within the College of St 
Giles by Prebendaries and chaplains for the soul of the said Thomas and Marjory his 
wife. 

110. Charter of admortification made by Robert Vans, burgess of Edinburgh, 1404-5 (Laing's 
CharUrs, p. 100).— King James, &c., confirms charter of the said Robert, buigess of 
Edingh., with the consent of the chapter of the collegiate church of the said bugh, 
giving, for the souls of various persons named, to God, &c., and to Sir Edward Bog, 
chaplain, and to chaplains perpetually celebrating at the High Altar of St Giles, several 
annual rents from lands and tenements specified, the presentation to belong to himself 
and heirs, afterwards to the commxmity of the burgh. Duties of the chaplain defined, and 
the offices he is to say on the anniversary of the donor's death : De Profundis, Bequescat, 
Domxne exaudit oracionem meum et clamor metu ad te veniat, oremus absoltte quu^ 
umus, <kc. 

120. Ane charter of feu-firme maid to David MeluUe of ane land pertening to the chaiplin of the 

Haly Bluid, 1506 (Laing*8 Charters^ p. 102).~To all, &c, Alexander Tod, chaplain, pre- 
bendary of the altar of Holy Blood and St Cross of Lucanus, with consent of the 
community, &a, have let in feu-firme to David Melville the land pertaining to me for 
my prebend. Lands described. Witnesses. 

121. Chartour of aine annual rent of xU. in favouris of the Masones and Wrychtis, 1508 (Laing's 

Charters, Appendix, Ixxii).— Toall, &c., Walter Marbrone, mason, burgess, &c., with con- 
sent of Margait, his wife, has sold Jacob Strury, mason ; Thomas Duncan, carpenter ; and 
Sir Jacob Gilson, chaplain, in name of the brethren artificers and successors, for the support 
of divine service at the altar of S. John Baptist and evangelist, situated on the north side 
of the church, and immediately behind the altar of St Cohort, to the north of the church, 
a certain annual from tenement — described — ^for a certain sum paid me by said artificers 
and brethren. To have and hold, &c. 

122. Preceptory charter of confirmation of Jonete Elphinstoun, 1508 (Laing's Charters, 

Appendix, Ixxiii).— Charter of Jonette Elphintoun, widow of the late Master Richard 
Lawsoun of Hieriggis, on a charter of alienation made to her by Jonet Bailyhe, &c., of 
the lands of Jonette Bailyhe de Crawmond-regis, and a forth part of the mill therof, &a 

123. Precept charter of confirmation of the said Jonett, 1508 (Laing*s Charters, Appendix, Ixxiv). 

— Precept of the charter and confirmation of the charter of foundation made by the said 
Jonette to the support of a chaplain celebrating in the church of St Giles, &c, of certain 
lands and part of the null, and five marcs leviable annually from certain lands within the 
burgh. 

124. Charter of mortification of Jonet Elphynston, 1510 (Laing's Charters, Appendix, Ixxiv).— 

King James confirms charter of the above, wherein, for the souls of certain persons named, 
she gives in free and perpetual charity to Sir William Lyntoun, chaplain, and his successors 
at the altar of All Saints, also of St Thomas, apostle, and Appollonie, virgin, built within 
the college church, and on the south pcurt thereof, below the door or entrance going west- 
ward, and an altar or cell by the honourable man, Alexander, provost of the burgh, lately 
foxmded and built— all and sundry her lands of Crawmand Regis, and share of mill and 
certain annuals within the brgh. A great many regulations regarding the Presentation 
and chaplain's duties — ^if he be notorius with a concubine, or is a night wanderer, or 
drunkard, or known for other evil practices, he is to be deprived of his chaplainiy — he is 
to say certain prescribed services, &c, and as he will answer to Grod in the day of 
judgement, when he will have to render an account for his deeds, he is to make an 
anniversary with sixteen chaplains of the choir on the last day of July, and distribute 
portions to the poor, according to regulations prescribed. Sums to be paid to chaplains. 



ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 327 

bell-ringen, &c, and to the dean of gild to shillings, for seeing all things done 
honestly. Conditions stated at great length, bnt resembling those in previons charters. 
126. Resignation of the Bedeby of St Giles church, &c., 1510-11 (Laing*s Charters^ Appendix, 
Izxx ). — ^20th day of Febntary 1510>11.— Master David Lauder, vicar of Ersiltoun, renounced 
pure and simply, and demitted his title and donation or admission, which apparently he 
had of the said prebend or le bedelry of the college church, &c. The Provost, Master 
Gawin Douglas, and all the prebendaries except the official (who sent an excuse by his 
chaplain. Sir James Murray), then admitted the said David to the prebend belonging to 
him, and the Provost assigned to him his stall in the choir and place in the chapter, as is 
the custom and canonical according to the tenor of the foundation and erection of the said 
college. All the prebendaries then made to the said Lord Provost manual obedience 
according to the tenor of the said foxmdation and erection of the college. 27th day 
Februaiy 1510-11. — Master Gawin Douglas, provost of the college church of St Giles of 
Edingh., official, and all the prebendaries of the same, in respect of this day's defection 
in the celebration with honour of the mass of the most holy blood of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
they firmly promised to make and sing every ferial day under penalty, for personal penalty 
iic^. and festival day iiiicf. ; if it should happen to be wanting in the whole, the preben- 
daries shall pay a marc to the good gild of the confraternity of the Holy Blood, and that 
on that day none shall have the privilege of synod from such service. Also, the Lord 
official made protestation in the name of certain prebendaries that if it shoiild happen 
after reckoning made of the accumulation of pence of this fraternity to any great sum, 
that they should have somewhat for their refreshment for doing this service. These acts 
were done in the chapter chapterly convened. 

126. Charter of Alexander Rynde, 1512 (Laing*s Charters, p. 193).— To all, &c., Alexander 

Rynde, son and heir of the late Henry Rynde, burgess, &c. greeting : Know that for the 
soul of James IIL and others named, I have given to a chaplain at the altar of our Saviour 
Jesus Christ, within the church, &c., various annual rents from lands described, donative, 
&c. to belong to himself and heirs, and to those of Henry Napare alternately, and that if 
he should have a son a priest, now or of the next disposition, he is to receive the appoint- 
ment ; if he has no son, it shall go to a priest of his blood, &c. Directions as to chaplain's 
duties, and regulations for distributions to the poor. 

127. Another charter of Alexander Rynde, 1512 (Laing's Charters, p. 197).— To all and sindiy, 

&c Whereas by the pious prayers which the son offers for the sins of his Father, 
especially continual celebrations, we believe sins are demitted, the pains of purgatory 
softened, and frequently the souls of the dead are liberated from their punishments and 
gathered to the joys of paradise, for the souk of various persons named, he gives to 
S. Vincent, martyr, and to support a chaplain at the altar of St Saviour, within the church 
of St Giles, in the east end thereof, an anual rent from land specified. The chaplain's 
duties laid down as in previous charters. 

128. Charter of admortification regarding the charter of the foundation of Sir John Crauford, 

1512-13 (Laing's Charters, p. 199).— James, King, &c, confirms charter of the above 
prebendary of St Giles, charter founding a chapel in the Bugh Muir, in the Book of S. 
Katherine of the Sens. 

129. Charter of admortification of Sir Alexander de Blyth, Knight, 1513 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 199). — James, King of Scots, confirms charter of the above Blyth, Provost of Edinbgh., 
giving to a chaplain celebrating at the altar lately founded by him in the new aisle of St 
Giles, in the west end, toward the south, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and S. Gabriel, 
arcluuigel, several annual rents from lands described ; makes conditions as to presentation 
and duties of chaplain, similar to those in above charters ; also for gifts to be given to the 
poor, and for a lamp before the altar of the chapel from St Michaers festival to that of 
the Purification of the B. Virgin. The chaplain is also to maintain a yoxmg scholar to 
act as an alcolyte. 

130. Charter of mortification of Walter Chapman, 1513 (Laing's Charters, p. 203).— King James 

confirms charter of Walter Chepman of Ewirland, burgess of Edhigh., in which, for the 
souk of various persons, among whom is Mariote Kerkettil, his late wife, he gives to 
2R 



328 ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 

God, &c. for the support of a secnlar perpetual chaplain at the altar of St John the 
Evangelist, in the chapel newly founded by him in the south part of the church, variong 
annual rents from lands described ; duties of chaplain specified. A lamp to bum before 
the altar at vespers every night in winter from the feast of all Saints to that of the 
Purification of the B. V. The patronage after founder's death to go to the community, 
who shall not be allowed to apply the chapel to the use of the choir, or erect it into a 
prebend. Usual conditions as to saying offices for the dead. 

131. Charter of Sir William Browne, Rector of Mouswald, 1617 (Laing's Charters^ p. 208)— 
William Broune, chaplain. Rector of Mouswald, for the benefit of certain souls, gives to 
God, &c., and to a chaplain celibratlng at the altar of S. Blase, martyr, various annual 
rents from lands specified — ^usual conditions as to presentation and duties of chaplain — 
ordains a solemn festival should be held in honour of the most glorious name of Jesus, and 
also in the feast of. the most holy circumcision, to be celebrated with all honour and 
solemnity as the custom is within the said college. 

1S2. Confirmation by the Archbishop of St Andrews of charters granted by the Toun coxmcU of 
Edinburgh to the Masons and Wrights, 1517 (Laing's Charters^ Appendix, Ixxxi). — ^To all 
sons of universal church, &c., the Archbishop, &c.. Primate of Scotland, also commen- 
dator of Dunfermling, greeting, having seen certain letters, &c., confirms said letters 
presented on the part of the deacons of the masons and carpenters as to the fabric of 
their altars. 

133. Instrument of sasine of lands in Edingh., 1520-1 (Laing's Charters, p. 211).— William 

Clerk, one of the baillies of Edingh., came to the land pertening to the late Patrick Scot 
—land defined— which James Tounis resigned, and the baillie give hereditary sasine to 
Sir Alexander Kynneir, chaplain, and one of the prebendaries, &c, for an aniversary 
made at the obit of Isabelle and Adame Strathauchin. 

134. Election of Sir David Yhong to the first prebend in the church of St Giles, 1521 (Laing's 

Charters, p. 212). — On the 12th day of June 1521, Sir John Geddes, prebendary and 
commissary, for this purpose of Master Robert Crichtoxm, provost, now pursuing his 
studies abroad, with the prebendaries of the said church chapterly convened, erected 
David Yhong chaplain, being found fit, into the cure of the first canonry or prebend of 
said church, second after the provostiy, according to the tenor of the foundation, vacant 
by the death of Sir William Franch& Witnesses. 

135. Institution of the above.— Same day and hour. Sir John Crauford, one of the Prebendaries» 

by special mandate of Sir John Geddes, by his living voice, put the said Sir David Young 
in possession of the first prebend after the provostry, and assigned to the said Sir David 
his stall in the choir and place in the chapter, with cannonical oaths, according to the 
foundation. 

136. Indenture between Nicholaus Camcors and other burgess and Sir Thomas Ewin, chaplain, 

1522 (Laing's Charters, p. 213). — Between Camcors and others, Kirkmaisteris of the 
conpary and aJtare of the Holy Blude, and Sir Thomas Ewin, chaplain, ForsameUde as 
the said Schir Thomas Ewin, movit of devotion whilk he hes to the said altare, and hes 
founded ane chaplainry, &c., and be the tennour of thir presentis makes the said Eirk- 
maisters and brethir of the said fratemitie patrons efter his decease — ^rules regarding 
chaplain laid down, and obligations of the Kirkmaisters to maintain service— the chaplain 
to be paid from certain annual rents specified, &c 

137. Instrument of sasine of twenty shillings annual rent, 1522-3 ( Laing's Charters, p. 216).— 

George Knichtson resigns an annual rent into the hands of one of the baillies who infefts 
Sir Thomas Ewin, chaplain, in the same. 

138. Charter of confirmation of John and Johnette Patersoun, 1523 (Laing's Charters, Appendix, 

Ixxxi). — King James, ''wdth the consent of the Lords of our Kingdom, in the absence of 
our beloved cousin and tutor, John, Duke of Albany," confirms charter of the above, 
giving for the souls, &c to Sir Andrew Quhite, chaplain, and his successors at the altar 
of St Sebastian in St Giles various aimual rents specified, the usual regulations as to 
presentation to the chaplainry and duties of the chaplain ; also, a charter of Jonetta, 
widow of the late Alex. De Blyth, giving to the support of a perpetual secular chaplain 



ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 329 

at the altar of St Gabriel, archangel, which her late husband founded, certain rents 
defined ; also a charter of the said Jonetta founding a chaplainiy at the altar of St 
Sebastian, and giving certain annuals for that purpose. 

139. Institution of Sir John Faw to the chaplainiy of St Ninian, 1524-5 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 217). —March, 23 day, 1525, Archibald Wedell, burgess and procurator of Patrick 
Cranstoun of Ratho byris, patron of a chaplainiy founded by his predecessors at the altar 
of S. Ninian, with the consent of Robert I>ouglas of Pumfrastoun, his curator, came 
personally to the said altar and gave institution to the chaplainry, vacant by the death of 
Sir James Thomsoun, by the delivery of the books, chalice, and ornaments of the said 
altar to Sir John Faw. These acts were done at the said altar. Witnesses, &o 

140. Institution of Sir Thomas Richardsoun to the chaplainry of S. Blase, 1525 (Laing's 

Charters, p. 218).— Oct. 1, 1525. — Peter Thomsoun alias Hey, WUUam Broun alias 
Albany, John Diksoun cUias Ross, Heralds, in the name of the heralds of the King of 
Scotland, also James Johnsoun, Keybearer [claviger], came to the altar of St Blase, 
martyr, and give institution to a chaplain as in the former charter. 

141. Charter of admortification of William Hoppare, 1527 (Laing's Charters, p. 218).— The 

King confirms charter of the above Prebendaiy of St Giles, wherein for the souls of 
certain persons named he give to the Honour of God, &c. to a secular chaplain officiating 
at the altar of S. Roch, certain specified rents. Piesentation defined, and duties of the 
chaplain, who is specially to say mass in honour of S. Triduane. Portions to be given to 
poor. On the day of Commemoration of all Saints, thirty chaplains shall celebrate a 
triquitaie— namely, thirty masses within said church for my soul, for which each 
chaplain shall receive six pence, and five shillings shall be distributed to the poor. Various 
directions as to management of the property. '* Lastly, I wish that the said Provost and 
Prebendaries and collectors of the said church gathered at the sound of the bell, chapterly 
in their vestibiQe or chapter, shall swear on the gospels that they will implement all the 
contents of the charter of my foundation." 

142. Charter of admortification of Sir John Quhite, 1527 (Laing's Charters, p. 224).— King 

James confirms charter of the above Presbyter Prebendary of Petcokis, in the college 
church of St Baye, virgin, of Dunbar, in which, for the soi^ of various persons named, 
he gives to a chaplain. Sir David Cristesoun, and his successors at the altar of the Holy 
Blood, in the south of the church, certain tenements, &c specified. The usual conditions 
as to the presentation and offices of the chaplain. 

143. Charter of Walter Chepman made to the altar of Saint Saviour, 1528 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 227). — Walter Chepman of Ewirland, for the souls of certain named, and soul of King 
James lY., and for the souls of all our nobles and faithful chUdren who with him were 
slain in defence of the freedom of their Kingdom at Flodden in conflict with the English, 
and for the souls of his present wife, Agnes Cokbum, and late wife, Mariote Carkettill, 
and of all of both sexes whose bodies are buried within the church of St Giles or its 
cemetry, gives to God, &c for the support of a chaplain at the altar of Jesus, our Saviour 
and Redeemer, crucified for us, within the chapel of the cross, below the lower part of the 
said cemetry lately built by me— various lands specified. Donative to belong after death 
of donor to his heirs. The usual regulations made regarding the chaplain. If the said 
chaplain keep a whore in his house, or engages in games of cards or dice, or similar 
games, he shall lose his chaplainiy; also, if he does not continuously celebrate mass 
within the chapel for twenty days, he is to have no right to church women, baptise, 
marry, or bury without the consent of the Provost of St G. and Prebendaries, and if he 
attempts to do any such things without licence from the mother church, he shall lose his 
chaplainry. 

144. Confirmation of the same, 1528. — King James confirms the above, and appends seal with 

witnesses. 

145. Charter of confirmation of the Master Carpenters and Masons of the burgh of Edingh. 

regarding their privileges,- 1527-8 (Laing's Charters, Appendix, Ixxxvii). — King James V. 
confirms three charters— ( 1 ) 15 Oct. 1475, in which the toun grants them the " ile and 
chapel of St John fra the aid hers in wart ; " (2) 15 Oct 1475, in which Provost, baillies, 



330 ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 

&c. confirm the statatea made by the Masons and Wrights ; (3) 26 Aug. 1489, oomplaint 
made by the masters of the couper craft that divers persons of the said craft have been 
obstinate in '' observing and keping of gud will ordinance and statutist' and for thenphald 
of divine service at St John's altar, and especially witholding their weekly penney. The 
eooncil orders dues to be paid, those disobeying to be poynded, and the ' Outlandis ' men 
to be pat ont of the tonn. These charters are confirmed by the King, and every prentice 
is ordained to pay 20«. Soots, and on being made a master 30f. Scots to the fdtar of St 
John. 

146. Charter of Sir Gilbert Lauder, chaplain to the altar of S. Nicholans, 1532 (Laing's Charters^ 

p. 233).— Whereas the chaplain has had for twenty-fonr years or thereabout the lands and 
village of Petravy, lying within the vice county of Fife, formerly assigned to his predecessors 
by Roger Hog, patron of said chaplainry, for which lands they had been paid twelve 
pounds Scots money, also an annual pension or rents amounting to twenty-six shilgs. 
and eight pence ; he now lets in feu-firm, for certain reasons given, said lands and village 
to certain persons. 

147. Charter of Ade Ottirbum, 1535-6 (Laing's Charters, p. 234).— Sir Adam Ottirbum of 

Reidhall, Provost of the burgh, for the souls of certain persons named, gives to Crod and 
the B. v., and her altar, situated within the church of St Giles, various annual rents 
specified to be given to the Prebendaries of the choir for singing Dirige on the anniversary 
of his death, and certain portions to go to the poor and brethren Minorites of the obser- 
vance. 

148. Charter of Sir Richard Lawson (Laing's Charters, p. 236). — ^The above canon of the church 

of St Giles and of Grotal gives in augmentation of his canonry and prebend an annual 
rent of five shillings Scots from certain lands specified. 

149. Instrument of saline given to the brothers of the Holy Blood, 1536-7 (Laing's Carters, 

p. 237).— Simon Preston, one of the baillies of the bugh, comes personally to the land of 
John Malcolm, and receives resignation of a certain rent, and makes sasine to William 
Simsoun of said rent, and to the four principals or Masters of the fraternity of the Holy 
Blood, in the ch. of S. G., for the supply of oil and wax in honour of the most blessed and 
most glorious sacrament at the altar of the Holy Blood, situated within the said church. 

150. Charter of William Bell of the Patronage of the Altar of our Loid of Piety, 1536-7 (Laing's 

Charters, p. 238). — Said William, patron of the donation of ane alterage callit our Lady 
of Piete, on the north side of the entre of the qweir of the said church, &c. As the 
candlemakers '* of gude mynde, and for honour and policy of halikirk, and for augmenta- 
tion of divine Service til be done at the said altar of our Lady of Piete for suffrage and 
prayers to be done be thame, desyrit ane chaplane quhilk daily micht do mes at all 
tymes quhen he was disposit for the said maistens and candlemakris and thair successors." 
He therefore grants them '* fre facultie, licence, and freedome tiU have and put in ane 
chaplain at the said altar at all tymes when he beis disposit for sufirage to be done for 
thame." Obliges himself and heirs, &c. 

151. Charter of admortification of Master John Chepman, 1537 (Laing's Charters, p. 240). — 

King James confirms charter of the above for the souls of certain, gives to the support of 
a chaplain at the altar of St John the Baptist, situated in the cell or chapel founded by 
his uncle, various rents specified. Money for priests, lamps, wax, &c., and portions to 
the poor, <*eightpence to each of thirty chaplains for saying Placebo and Dirige on the 
anversary of my death, with the mass De guinque vtUneribus on the day immediately 
following." Other regulations much the same as those in previous charters. 

152. Listitution of Sir Thomas Scone, chaplain, 1541 (Laing's Charters, p. 245). — 10th day of 

December, William Chepman, notary and writer of the King's signet, came to the chapel 
founded by late Walter Chepman, under the invocation of Christ crucified, below the 
churchyard of St Giles, and to the altar of the same, and as patron of the chaplainry 
vacant by the death of Sir William Bradefute, inducted the said Thomas by delivering to 
him the chalice books, missals, and vestments of the said altar. 

153. Chai-ter of admortification made by Sir Thomas E^ving, 1541-2 (Laing's Charters, p. 246). — 

King James confirms the charter of the above, wherein for the souls of certain named he 



ABSTRACT OF THE OHARTERS. 331 

gives to God, the Viigin, and the Altar of the Holy Blood, and to a chaplain there 
celebrating, a great many specified rents. The duties of the chaplain, and portions to the 
poor, and right of presentation similar to those in charters noted. 

154 Charter of Sir Heniy Mow, 1542 (Laing's Charters^ p. 253). — Chaplain and Prebendary of 
Grotale, within the choir of St Giles, with the consent of the Provost and Prebendaries, 
for certain laige snms and xuefalness of his prebend, lets in fen-firme the lands of 
Grotale. 

155. Transnmpt of the Protocole of the land of William Baillie, 1549 (Laing*s Charters, p. 255). 
— ^Abraham Crechtonn, Provost of the collegiate chnrch of Dunglas, official of St 
Andrews within the Archdeaconiy of Lothian, gives jngement in the case of Sir William 
Johnstone, chaplain of the altar of the Holy Blood, and John Doogall, one of the Masters 
of the confraternity of the said altar, regarding certain lands. Charter imperfect. 

150. Presentation of Sir John Symsoun to the Prebend of S. Michael, 1551 (Laing's 
Charters, p. 256). — To the venerable Master Robert Creichtonn, Provost of the chnrch of 
St Giles, and canons greeting, We present to the Prebend of S. Michael, at the altar of 
the same, vacant by the demission of Sir Edward Henrisonn, Sir John Symsonn, 
presbyter. In testimony of which we append onr common seal. 

157. Institution of the same. — Sep. 8, 1551. Sir John Symsoxm came to the chnrch of, &c. and 

requested Laurence Tod, vicar and president of the church for the time, to give him 
institution, &c Wherefor the Lord President gave institulion to the said John, and 
asigned to him his stall in the choir and place in the chapter. 

158. Instrument of Sasine of Sir George litiliohne, 1552 (Laing's Charters, p. 257).— Andrew 

Craig, burgess of Edinbui^h, and heir of, &c, confesses that he is owing Sir George 
Littiliohne, chaplain of the chapel of the altar of S. Blase, founded under the invocation 
of the most sweet name of Jesus, situated within the church of S. Giles, an annual rent 
from a tenement described, notwithstanding that tenement was burnt and in great part 
destroyed by our ancient enemies of England, in the month of May 1544, and rebuilt by 
the said Andrew, therefore the said Andrew obliges himself to make payment, &c.— 
Endorsement, Sept. vi. 1557. The whOk day the baillies sitting in judgement ordains the 
officers to pass to the tenement of land herein specified, pertening to Andrew Craig, and 
distringhe the inhabitants therof for the Martinmas and Whitsunday terms last bypast 
annual rent, &o. 

159. Confirmation of the divided lands of Ravelston, 1553-4 (Laing's Charters, p. 259). — To the 

sons of universal church, Alexander Forrest and John Sinclair, respective provosts of B. 
Virgin of the fields and Rosling, St Andrews diocese, constituted executors for the pur- 
pose within these writings, by John, archbishop of St Andrews, greeting. — Letters patent 
of the archbishop, and charter of Master Ninian HamUtoun, prebendary of St Giles. 
After reading which, the provosts cite all having interest to compear before them in the 
parish ch. of St GHes, in the chapel of S. Gabriel the archangel, on a certain day and hour, 
when they confirmed the concession of lands made in the charter of Ninian, done in the 
aisle of St Gabriel. 

160. Ane copy of umquhile Patrik Govan's charter, 1557 (Laing's Charters, p. 263). — To all 

and sundry. Sir Robert Liddell, chaplain of the blessed viigin Triduane, at the altar of St 
Roch, confessor. With the consent of the Provost and prebendaries, lets in feu-firm to 
Patrik Govan and heirs, a tenement defined, paying annually a rent specified, and other 
burdens named, for certain church dues, portions to the poor, &c., signed by the Provost 
and Prebendaries. 

161. Charter of Sir John Wilsoun, 1561. To all, &c, the above chaplain in the chapel of the 

altar of St Katherine, virgin, founded by the late Thomas Cameroun, greeting. Inas- 
much as the tenement pertaining to his chaplainiy has become ruinous, and not being 
able to keep it in repair, he lets it in few-firm to William Symsoun, dyer, with the con- 
sent of the community, with garden and houses — land described — ^paying annually 
certain specified burdens. Witnesses. 

162. Presentation of Sir Andrew Bartherem to the chapel of S. Blase, 1562 (Laing's Charters, 

p. 267). — To all, &c., James Carmichael, burgess, &c., know that I have given to Sir 



832 ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTERS. 

Andrew Bartherein, chaplain, for the whole time of his life, that perpetaal chaplainry or 
Bervice under the invocation of the name of Jesus, at the altar of S. Blase, bishop martyr, 
on the south side of the choir of St Giles, vacant, which has fallen into my hands by the 
demission of Sir George Litiliohne, and have instituted him into possession of the same, 
by presenting to him the Holy books of the Bible or Evangelists, and. of the ornaments of 
the altar and chaplainry, and that it shall be lawful to the said Sir Andrew to fulfill the 
burdens and service thereof, by himself or substitute, notwithstanding, perhaps, the 
foundation is against it in this matter. 

163. Instrument of institution of the same. In the year 1562, sixth September, Sir James 

Yhoung, vicar of Fiachewik, at the request of Sir Andrew Bartherem, chaplain, came to 
the place of the altar under the invocation of the name of Jesus, and there instituted into 
the possession of the said chaplainry Sir Andrew, by giving one of the books of Sacred 
Scripture. These were done, &c., day and hour, present Robert Glassfurde, buigeas of 
Edinh., and James Maxwell and James Marchbanks, notaries. 

164. The hospital of St Giles Kirk, sett in few-farm, 1666-7 (Laing's Charters, p. 267).~To all 

and sundry, James Cheisholme, provost, &c., states that his Provostal hospital within the 
cemetry has fallen into ruin, and day by day tends to fall, and it is thought may oome 
down suddenly by tempest, and "our church policy is abolished, and the sacred orna- 
ments dedicated to God and the use of the State, and by the invasion of the English 
destroyed and burned," and he is not able to build the house up again ; therefore for the 
reparation of the said hospital, and the sum of eighty marks payed by David, Lord 
Drumond, and Lillias Ruthven, his wife, for replacing the vessels, and ornaments, and 
utensils of the church, and with the consent of the archbishop, also of the prebendaries, 
he lets in few-firm his provostal hospital, paying an annual rent of five marcs, reserving 
to the provost and curate a bed in the east part of the house whenever they reside there — 
gives Sassine, &c — appends seal of the chapter, at Stobhall, and signature signed by a 
notary, and by John, Archb. of St Andrews. 

165. The decreet of the preistis of Sanct Geillis Kirk, 1566-7 (Laing's Charters, p. 269).— At 

Edingh., the xxii of Januar 1566. The Lords of counsale under written — ^names given — 
anent our Souerane Ladyis letteris purchased at the instance of Laurence, Lord Oliphant, 
againis Schir William Murray of Tulibardine, Ejiycht, Master James Clephane, provouest 
of the college Kirk of Sanct Geill, Sir James Johnstoun, vicar portioner thereof, William 
Hamilton, and ten other prebendaries — ^names given — alleging that they let to the said 
Lord Oliphant the tiend sheaves of the Kirk of Donbamye, with the pendicles thairof, 
namely the Kirks of Potty and Moncreiff, with their Kirk lands, for the space of xix 
yheris— name of Oliphant's cautioner— the said Lord has made no payment for certain 
yheris bypast, and also Sir W. Murray, " alleging the college Kirk of Sanct Geill to be 
ane common kirk, and that all commoun kirkis within this realme are assinnit to our said 
Soverain and the fructes thereof," &c. The said complainer appeared by Maister Thomas 
M'Calyheane, his procurator, and the said provost and prebendaries be Maister Alexander 
Skene, thair procurator, and Sir WiL Murray be Maister Robert Creychtoun, his pro- 
curator—after reasoning, the Lords of council ordained Lord Oliphant to ''answer, 
obey, and make payment to the said Provost and Prebendaries of certain sums men- 
tioned, because it was allegit that the said Kirk of Dunbamey, with pertinents, &c, 
wes of auld given to the provost and prebendaries, as property to thame, and thai and 
thair predecessouris hes been in continual possession," &c. Extracted by James 
Balfour. 

166. Confirmation of twa giftis maid to the Provest, &c., of Edinburgh, 1568 (Laing's Charters^ 

Appendix, Ixxxviii).— Our Soverayne Lord ordains ane lettre of confirmation to be maid, 
&c., confirmand twa giftis maid in forme of actis be the provost, &c., to Edward Hendir- 
Boun, of the Prebendarie callit Sanct Fabiane and Sebastiane, &c., vacant by the deceis 
of Schir William Johnstoun, Prebendaiy, with rents, &c, also givand, disponand to the 
said Edward Hendirsoun the office of maistership of the Sang Scole, &c., with all the feis 
and profeits thairto belangand, and that efter renunciation and gevin ower of the said 
office be Schir John Fety, ane of the prebendaries of the quheir of St G. Kirk— and thai 



ABSTRACT OF THE OHARTERS. 333 

orcUun the gift to be made under their common sele, &c., snhacribit to the said Lord 
Regent at Edingh. 

187. Instniment of Sasine of Mafiter David Gnthrie, 1670 (Laing's Charters, p. 272).— In the 
year aboYe» Master David Guthrie having a charter precept sasine made by David, Lord 
Dmmmon, and LUlias Rnthven, his wife, regarding the alienation of a certain hospital, 
with garden and pertinents within the cemetry of the college Kirk, &c, came into the 
presence of Thomas Douglas, baillie, and there presented on the part of said Lord a 
precept of sasine, wherof the tenor follows. We have commanded James Kynros and 
Thomas Douglas, our baillies in this matter, hereditary sasine of said hospital, &c In 
testimony wherof we append our seals, at Inneipeffray, before certun witnesses named. 
After which letter being read, the said baillie gave donation of the said hospital to the 
said Master David, by earth and stone as is the custom. These, &c, were done on the 
site of the hospital— date and witnesses and notary's signature. 

168. Charter of Master David Macgill, 1587 (Laang's Charters, p. 273).— To all and sundry. 
Master David Macgill, king's advocate, baron of the barony of Cranstoun RydUl, and 
patron of the altar of S. Duthac, within the college church, &c, greeting, because the 
donation of the foresaid chaplainry now pertains to me by the resignation of Master 
Thomas Westoun. Know that I have given it to my servant, Andrew Daliymple, for the 
time of his life. I command you, therefore, WiUiam Ury, to put the said Andrew in 
possession of said chaplainry, by delivery of the book of Psalms or the evangelists, as the 
manner is. Humbly requiring the Lords of Session and Council to direct letters in 
favour of the said Andrew, &c. Endorsement, November 8th, 1687. William Urie, 
yoxmger, procurator within specially constitn, past to the pulpit standing within St Giles 
Kirk att. Edinbuigh, and there by vertue of the gift within written, gave institution and 
possession to Andrew Dalrymple, personally present and acceptant of the chaplanrie of 
S. Duthac's, with all profits, &c., by deliverance in his hands of ane Psalm Book, as use 
is, wherof the said Andrew asked instruments of me, notary public, &c Witnesses. Ita 
est magister Willelmus Kelly, notarius publicus, in premissis teste manu mea. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE COLLEGIATE CHTTRCH OF ST GILES^ 

WITH THE REVENUES OF THE PBEBENDABIES THEBEOF. 

(Maitland's History of Edinburgh,) 

This collegiate foundation consisted of a provost, curate, sixteen prebendaries, a saeristane, 
bedall, minister of the choir, and four choiristers. 

The provost, for his maintenance and support of his dignity, was to receive the fruits, rents, 
and profits ; together with the adjacent manse, or parsonage-house, and glebe belonging to the 
church, with the right of chusing a curate, to whom he was to allow the sum of twenty-five 
marks yearly, with a house near the church, to dwell in. The curate, in the provost's absence, 
was to officiate in his stead, to preside in the choir, in the absence of the two senior preben- 
daries, and not to be removed but by an act of the provost and chapter. 

The second prebendary had a stipend of forty marks yearly, arising from his prebend of 
Raystoun. 

The revenue of the third was twenty-nine marks per annum, out of his prebend of Craigcruck. 



334 FOUNDATION OF THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH. 

The profits of the foarth» from his prebend of Marchiston, amonnted to twenty' marks yearly. 

The fifth, from his prebend of Grotall, fifteen marks ; and an annuity of seven marks in 
Edinbnrgh. * 

The sixth, from his prebend of St Andrew's, and the profits belonging to the chaplainiy of 
8t Andrew's in the chorch of St Giles. 

The seventh received the revenue arising from his prebend of St Michael, in the said church 
of St Giles. 

The eighth, the produce of his prebend of St Michael de monte Tomba, in the church of 
St Giles. 

The ninth received that part of the income of his prebend of the Holy Cross, arising from the 
benefactions of John White and Stephen Robertoun, amounting to thirty marks yearly. 

The tenth had that part of the profits of his prebend of St Salvator, of thirty marks per 
annum, founded by John Stury and Stephen Robertoun, at the altar of the Holy Cross in this 
church. 

The eleventh, from his prebend of St John the Baptist, the foxmdation of John Peblis and Sir 
William Preston, the sum of twenty-seven marks yearly. 

The twelfth had the profits of his prebend of St Nicholas, amoxmting to sixteen marks 
yearly ; together with four marks from the foundation of Thomas Ker, at the altar of St 
Duthac in this church. 

The thirteenth received the produce of the prebend of Sandi Orucis de Lucano, amounting 
to sixteen marks yearly, and four marks annually out of the chaplainry of St Duthac 

The fourteenth had the profits of the prebend of St Sebastian, with the surplusage of the 
income of the chaplainry at St Buthac's altar. 

The fifteenth received the revenue of his prebend of the Sacristan, which were the profits of 
the parish clerk's office, antiently due to the Sacristan. 

The sixteenth had the produce of his prebend of minister Chori, amounting to six marks per 
annum, with the small oblations at the lights at St Mamoch's, and to have a beddal under him. 

The four choiristers or singing boys, who were allowed by the common councO, and admitted 
by the chapter, had an allowance of five commons each. 

The curate, prebendaries, sacristan, and minister, besides the stipends above mentioned, 
were allowed the profits of the chaplainries of our Loid, founded by John Cookson, at the altar 
of Nostre Domine; and that at the high altar, by John Cliddisdale, which were divided amongst 
them. 

The sacristan, minister, and choiristers were presented by the common council ; the preben- 
daries of Le Foure's foundation were collated by the bishop ; and the rest in the town's gift and 
admission to the chapter, by virtue of a grant from the king, as aforesaid. 



835 



E. 

NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDa 

I2ih January 1450-1.— In favour of the Altar of Saint ChriBtopher, founded in the Parish 
Church of St Giles of Edinburgh, according to the rule of the said Church, for the Skinneis of 
the Craft underwritten in the following instrument The said Skinners established statutes for 
the maintenance of the said altar, as appears from the same instrument, which instrument the 
Skinnera forthwith required the common clerk, notary, and scribe of the burgh to register and 
engross in the common book of the guild of the said burgh, and it is ordained to be so done by 
the provost, Thomas of Cranstoun, and by the bailies, John of Halkerstoun, Mathew of 
Chambers, and Richard of Fameley, Adam Cant, dean of guOd, John Lamb, treasurer, the 
council and dusane of the said buigh. The tenor of the instrament truly follovs, and Ib thus : — 

" In the name of God, Amen : Be it known clearly to all by this present public instrument, 
that in the year from the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and fifty, in the 
fourteenth Indiction, in the twelfth day of the month of Januaiy, in the fourth year of the 
pontificate of the most Holy Father in Christ and our Lord the Lord Nicholas the Fifth, by 
Divine Providence Pope, in presence of me notary public and the witnesses subscribing per- 
sonally appeared discreet and honest men, videlicet :— William Skynner, GUlcrist Tumebule, 
Hugh Tod, Alan Skynner, William Staltt, James Harlaw, David Littell, Thomas Yule, WiUiam 
of Camusnethane, Edmund Skynner, John Mathe, David Wilky, Thomas Salman, William 
Lachlane, John of Eympill, William Ramsay, and Andrew {blank), skinners within the town 
of Edinburgh, with one consent and assent, are obliged in manner following, videlict, That for 
the service and support of a chaplain to celebrate at the altar of Saint Christopher, lately 
founded by the above written within the Church of St Giles of Edinburgh, and for the repair of 
the ornaments of the said altar, each of the said persons for the whole period of his Hfe, and 
according to his means, shall put to helping hands ; Item, every one receiving an apprentice to 
the craft of Skinneis shall pay to the repair of the said altar five shillings of the money then 
current, and also that no apprentice shall be received by any one of them to the said craft of 
Skinners unless he has been in like manner taken bound that, after the expiiy of the years of 
his apprenticeship to freedom, he shall put to his helping hands according to his ability to the 
reparation of the said altar as aforesaid ; Item, that every apprentice before he shall be admitted 
to the craft of Skinners, shall swear and become bound, so soon as he shall come to the freedom 
of his apprenticeship, not to receive any apprentice to the craft of Skinner unless he shall pay 
five shiUings to the repair of the said altar as aforesaid, and so in like cases for ever ; Item, it is 
ordained that if any debate, discord, or controversy among the said Skiimers shall henceforth 
happen to arise in any manner of way, both the contending parties shall abide by and submit to 
the determination and judgment of said matters by the brethren of the craft, and to the decree 
of the council and dusane of the burgh, without any contradiction or appeal ; and, moreover, 
that they may observe the above-mentioned appointments inviolably, each of the said Skinners 
for himself has been taken bound by a like oath. Upon which, all and sundry, the said William 
Skynner, in the common name of the Skinners then present and named, asked one or more 
instruments to be made by me notary public subscribing. These things were done within the 
Church of Saint Mary in the Feld, the third hour in the afternoon, of the year, day, indiction, 
month, and pontificate as above, in the presence of good and discreet men. Sir Alexander 
Hnndby, John Mofiat, John Hendirsone, chaplains, and Thomas Broun, merchant, with other 
witnesses specially called and required to the premises." 

Idih September 1456. — The said day, before the provest baillies and counsale of the toun, 
Patrik Donald grantlt and promittit that he sould gif ij markis of annuell yeirlie to be raisit of 
2S 



336 NOTICES OP ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

his tenement lyand in Todrikkis Wynd to the reparationn of the altare of Sanct Vbertis foundit 
be the craft, and till inf eft it yeirlie, and gif seeing thairof to the said altare for his stane and 
lair place that he hes befoir the said altare, or ellis to remove the said stane and tak it away. 

15 October 1475. — ^Till all and syndry quhom it efferis quhab knawlege thir present lettres 
sail cuuL — ^The prouest balUes counsall dene of gild and dekynnis of the hale craftismen within 
the boigh of Edinburgh greting in the Sone of the glorious Virgine. Wit ye ws in the honour 
worschipe and glore of Almychte Grod and of the glorious viigin Sanct Mary, and of our patrone 
Sanct Gele, and for the furthering helping eiking and suppleing of diuine seruice daily to be 
done at the altar of Sanct Jhone the Ewangelist, foundit in the College Kirk of Sanct Geile of 
Edinburgh, and for reparatioun beilding and polecy to be maid in honour of the said sanct, of 
Sanct Jhone, and of the glorius sanct Sanct Jhone the Baptist, to have consentit and assignit, 
and be thir our present lettres consentis and assignis, to our lovit nychtbouris the hale craf da- 
men of the Masonis and of the Wrichtis within the said burgh, the ile and chapell of Sanct 
Jhone fra the aid hers of ime inwarts als frely as it is ouris, with all the fredomis proffittis and 
esementis thairto pertenand at we haf or may haf richt to, nocht doand nor committand ony 
preiudice or skaith to Sir Jhone Scaithmure or his successouris in his first feftment or priuilegis 
that he has broukit or joisit of befor. To be haldin and to be had the said ile and chapell of 
Sanct Jhone fra the ime hers inwart with the pertinentis to the saidis craftismen the Masonis 
and Wrichtis of the said buigh and to thair successouris for euir, with power to edify big reparell 
and put it ony pairt thairof to polesy or honour of the saidis Sanctis outhir in werk or diuine 
seruice quhatsumeuir at the altar or vther wayes, nocht hurtand the auld feftment. And the 
saidis craftismen to vse occupy and aduoruy the said ile as thair awin proper ile, siclyk as vtheris 
craftismen occupiis within the said College Kirk, nocht doand ony preiudice to our patronage or 
to the auld feftment or to the auld laus in the said lie. And at the said craftismen sail adoury 
and haf the day of Sanct Jhone the Baptist and to thig to the licht of the said altar as vtheris 
dois in the kirk yerlie. And this till all thame quhom it efferis we mak it knawin be thir our 
present lettres. And in witnessing hereof our commoun sele of cans of the said burgh, togidder 
with the selis of Alexander Turing, David Quhytehed, BartUlmo Camis, baJyeis for the tyme, 
and Alexander Richerdsons sele dene of the gild, in token of gevin consent and assignationn to 
the saidis craftismen of the said ile, be the handis of the dekin for them all, ar to hungin at 
Edinburgh the xv day of the moneth of October the yeir of God j"' four hundreth sevinty and 
five yens. 

Till all and syndry quhom it efferis quhais knawlege thir present lettres sail cum ; — The 
prowest bailies counsall and the dekynnis of the hale craftismen of the burgh of Edinburgh 
greting in God euirlestand. Wit your vniuersiteis that our comburgessis and nychtbouris all the 
craftsmen of the Masonis and the Wrichtis within the said burgh quhilkis presentit to ws in 
jugement thair bill of supplicatioun desyring of ws our licence consent and assent of certane 
statutis and reullis maid amangis tham self for the honour and worschip of Sanct Jhone iu aug- 
mentatioun of devyne seruice, and richt sa for reuling govemyng of the saidis twa craftis, and 
honour and worschipe of the towne, and for treuth and lawte of the saidis craftis proifitable baith 
for the wirkaris and to all biggaris, the quhilk bill togidder with thair statutis and reullis befor 
ws red, and thairwith we beand wcle awysit, considerit and fand that thai war gud and loveable 
baith to God and man, and consonand to ressoun, and thairto we assentit and grantit tham thair 
desyris, togidder ^vith the lie of Sanct Jhone in the college kirk of Sanct Gele to beild and put 
to polesy in honour of the said Sanct, and for the sufferage of devyne seruice, and thir ar the 
artikallis and statutis at we haf approvit and for ws in sa fer as we haf power ; In the first it is 
thocht expedient that thair be chosin four personis of the beet and worthiest of the twa craftis, 
that is to say twa masonis and twa wrychtis, that sail be sworne, quhilkis sail serche and se all 
wirkis at the craftismen wirkis, and that it be lelely and treulie done to all biggai-is ; Item, gif 
«ny man beis plentuous of ony wirk or of ony wirkman of the saidis craftis thai to complenye to 
the dekin and the four men or to ony twa of tham, and thai persons sail cans the scaith and 
wrang to be amendit, and gif thai can nocht the prowest and baillies to gar it be amendit as 
efferis. Item, gif ony persoun or persouns of the saidis craftis cummis of newe after this act to 
the guid towne and schapis to wirk, or to tak wirk apoun hand, he sail first cum to the said four 
men and thai sail examyn him gif he be sufficient or nocht and gif he beis admittit he sail lay 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 337 

downe to the reparatioiiii of the altar a merk. Item, that na master nor persone of ony of the 
craftis tak ony prentis for lea termiB than sevin yeirs, and ilk prentis to pay at his entre to the 
said altar half a merk, and gif any prentis of qnhatsumeuir of the saidis craftismen, or yit his 
feit man, pasis away or the ische of his tennes but leif of his master, and quha that resauis the 
prentis or feit man thai sail pay to the altar ajie pund of walx the first fait, the second fait twa 
pundis of wall, the third fait to be pvnist be the provest and bailies of the towne as efferis ; and 
allswa qnhen ony prentisses has completit his tenuis and is wome out, he sail be examinit be the 
four men gif he be sufficient or nocht to be a fallow of the craft, and gif he be worthy to be a 
fallow he sail pay half a merk to the alter and brouke the priuilege of the craft, and gif he be 
nocht sufficient he sail serf a master quhill he haf lirit to be worthy to be a master, and than to 
be maid fieman and fallow. Item, gif thar be ony of the craft that disobeyis or maids discord 
amangis the craftismen of ony of the craftis, or that ony of them plenyeis apoun them sail be 
brocht befor the dekynnis and onermen of the craftis, and thai to gar amend it be trety amangis 
thamself, and gif thai can nocht be faltouris to be brocht and pvnist be the prowest and bailies 
of the towne for thair trespas as efferis. Alswa the saidis twa craftiBmen sail caus and haue 
thair plads and rowmes in all generale processiouns lyk as thai haf in the towne of Bruges or 
siclyk gud townes, and gif ony of the craftismen of outher of the craftis decesis and has na guds 
sufficient to bring him f urth honestly, the saidis craftis sail ypoun thair coetes and expensis 
bring him fnrth and gar bery him honestlie as thai aucht to do of det to thair brother of the craft ; 
and allswa it sail be lefull to the saidis twa craftis and craftismen of Wrichtis and Masounis to 
haue power quhatsumeuir vtheris actis statutis or ordinancis that thai think mast convenient 
for the vtUito and proffet of the gud 'towne and for tham to statut and ordane with awys of 
the hale craftis and of our suooessonris, thai to be ratifiit and apprufit siclik as thir actis, and to 
be actit and transsumpt in the commoun buke of Edinburgh, hafand the samyn forme force and 
effect as this present writ has. The quhillds actis ordinance and devys shewin to ws and con- 
siderit we appruf ratifyee and for ws and our successouris confirmis and admittis in so far as we 
haf power. In witnes of the quhilk thing to thir present lettres we haf to affixt our commoun 
sole of caus, togidder vrith the seles of the bailies of the said burgh for the tyme, in takynyng 
of appreving of all the thingis aboue rittin, the xv day of October the yeir of God j°* iiij« seventy 
and hve yeirs. 

31 Januoary 1475-6. — Tyll all and sindri quham it efferis quhais knawlege thire present lettres 
sail tecum, the provest baillies and counsale of the burgh of Edinburgh greting in Gode euir- 
lestande, To youre vniuersite we mak it knawin that thare comperit before ws in cure Tolbuth, 
we sittande in jugement, the best ande worthiest persoms of the haile craft of Wobetaris within 
the said burgh, quhillds presentit to ws thare bill of supplicatioun, in the quhillds wes contenlt 
oertane statutis and articulis maide ande avisit with thame for the honour and loving of Gode 
Ahnichty, and of his moder the Virgine Marie, and of Sanct Seuerane, ande for the suppleing 
ande vphalding of dyvine sendee and aperaling of thare altar of Sanct Seueriane foimdit ande 
vphaldin be thame in Sanct Gelis Kirk, and for the gouemance of thare werks ande laubour and 
gude reule baithe fore worschip of the reaJme, commone profite and lauto of the craftismen, and 
' for vther diners ande mony causes of gude motive ; the quhilk bill we haue sene herde and gert 
be rede, ande tharewith beande riply avisit, considerande thare desiris of ws tharein to haue our 
benevolence assistance ande leif thareof, and to haue oure affirmatioun and ratificatioun thair- 
apoun safere as in ws is or may be, we tharefore has considerit the said desiris ande statutis and 
findis tham consonand to resone, honour, and worship to God and haly kirke, proffitable of the 
realme and craft ; and thir ar the desiris and statutis : — In the first, at the haile craftismen 
may yerelie ches tham a dekin like as vther craftismen dois, quhilkis sal reule and gouerine the 
craft in al gude reullis as efferis ; to the quhilk dekin al the laif of the craft sal obey in al leifuU 
ande honest thingis concerning the craft ; and this dekyn to be chosen with fremen of the craft 
at ar burgee, and nane vther to haue voce tharein. Item, that na man occupy the craft as for 
mastere quhil he be maid burges ande fremen, ande to be examinyt be the dekyne and maisteris 
of the craft gif he be worthy, and that he sal haue gude and sufficiand graith and werkloumys 
to be sene and considerit be foure men of the craft ; this beande he sal pay twa merkis and twa 
pundis of walx to the altare and vphald thareof, and gif he be a burges sone he sal pay half a 
mark to the altare forsaid. Item, na masteris sal tak an prenteis for les temiis than five yeiris, 



338 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

and sal pay at his entrie to the said altare hve schillingis, or les as can be tretit with the craftis- 
man gif he be nocht of power, and the minisar of thir five yeiris sal pay xxs, qohen it is tayntit 
apon ony maister. Item, thare sal na maister take ane vther maisteris prentis in sernice, nor 
ane vther manis felt seniand quhil he be freid, or els haue leif of his maister that aws him, vnder 
the pane of xs. and a li of walx, and to restor the prentis and semand agane. Item, that na 
man tak on hand to ressave nor wirk ane vtheris manis warpit yam, na wirk bat leif, bot he sal 
pay j7t. of walx or the price thareof. Item, ilke man or woman that occupiis the craft sal geif 
the prest his mete, and ilke wolk geif to the altare a peny, and to be gaderit be the dekin, ande 
ilke feit serunde sal geif in the yere mjd, ; and als at thai personis that dissobeis the dekin, 
and will nocht vnderlie the ordinance of the craft statute for the gnde thairof, als oft as he dis- 
sobeis he sal pay a li. of walx, or the price thairof, and to be tane bat fauonr. Item, that na 
woman sal occnpy the craft as for a maister to hald werkhoos bot geif scho be a fremanis wif. 
Item, that na man sal tak ony lomys to hir for doat of spilling of the werk bot geif it be a 
freman, and quha that dois sal pay a IL of walx ay qnhen it can be tantit tharewith. The 
qnhilkis statutis articlis ande al pointis contenit tharein we find tham lovable to God and haly 
kirke, and honorabile for al the realme, proffitabile and worschip for the craftbmen, ande thaar- 
fore we admitt the samin, ande for ws ande onre snccessooris we the saide provest baillies ande 
connsaile of Edinburgh apprevis and ratifiis in all points ande articulis as is aboue writtin, insa- 
fere as in ws is ande that we haue power, and this to al ande sindre quham it efEeris we mak it 
knawen be thir our lettres ; ande fore the mair witnessing to the samyn we haue to hongin oure 
commone seile of cans at Edinburgh the last day of Januare the yere of our Lord j» iiij« Ixxv 
yeris. 

Qth August 1489. — Till all and syndry quhais knawledge thir present lettres sail cum, the 
provest, bailies, and counsall of the burgh of Edinburgh greting in God euirlesting, wit ye that 
the day of the making of thir present lettres comperit befor ws sittand counsaly gadderit and 
for jugement within the Tolbuith of the said burgh, in the inner chalmer of the samyn, thir per- 
souns vnder written, Alexander Browne, cowpar, Jhone Richartsoun, William Coupar, Jhone 
Jhonsoun, and Gilbert Tumour, masteris of the Cowpar craft within the said burgh, and thar 
presentit till ws thair supplication and bill of complant makand mentioun that diverssis personis 
of the said craft quhillds ar and has bene of lang tyme obetinat and inobedient in obsemying 
and keping of gud reuU ordinance and statutis maid and ordaint of befor and confirmit be our 
predecessorires to the maisteris of the wrichtcraft for the uphald of diuine seruice and angmen- 
tatioun thairof at Sanct Jhonis altar situat in our College Kirk of Sanct Gele within the said 
burgh, and speciale in the withhalding and disobeying in the deliuering and paying of the oulkly 
penny to God and to Sanct Jhone and to the reparatioun of the said altar, and als in the disobey- 
sance in the payment making of thar prentis siluer at thair entre, quhilk is five shilling, to the 
reparatioun and polesy of the said alter, nor yit will nocht pay thair dewteis at the wpsetting of 
thar buthis siclyke as the masters of the wiychtis ar ordaint and statut to pay, considering the 
said Couper craft is conformit to tharis and bundin with tham to fulfill the reulis and pay siclyke 
dewteis to the Sanct and altar as thai and thai lymmit togidder, and [adionit] to gadder and 
inbring the samym dewteis and mak compt and rekynnyng thairof to thair dekyin and kirk 
maisters of the Wrichtis as efferis, and siclyke as is vsit amangis vther craftis of the said burgh, 
and as anentis the outlandis folkis that the said masteris of the Cowpar craft complanit vpoun 
lauborand and vsand thair craft and practik thairof in this tovne, passand fra hous to hous 
mendand and spilland nychtbouris wirk and stuf, hafand nother stob nor stake within this 
towne, nor yit walkis nor wardis nor yit beris sic portable chargis with tham as extentis and 
vtheris quhen thai occur, nor yit beand sufficient in thair labour and werkmenschip, and thair- 
throw neuertheles hurtis and scaithis the saidis masteris in thair fredomes and priuilegis contrar 
to all gud reull ordour and polecy within burgh, Quharapon the saidis masteris of the Cowpar 
craft besocht ws of remeid for the honour and loving of God and Sanct Jhone, and the sustenta- 
tioun and wphalding of divine seruice at Mb altar forsaid, patrone to the saidis craftis, The 
quhilk bill and supplicatioun beand red herd and vnderstandyn and dUigentle considerit be ws 
that thair petitioun was consonajit to ressoun and to the lovage of God and thair patrone f oisaid, 
and als consonand to the commoun profFet of the said burgh, we decret ordanis and deliueris 
concordand to thair resonable desyris and petitioun that all the poyntis and articlis contenit in 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 339 

the Btatatis of the Wrichtis confermit be the tovne be obeerait and kepit to the Tnasteris of the 
Oowpar craft, and be tham in all thingis acoordand to thair craft, and quha that diBobeyis tham 
that ane officer pas with tham and tak a poynd of the disobey ar, and mak penny [payment] 
thairof to the awale and quantite of the dewteis awand to Sanct Jhone the altar and chaplane 
thairof for the tyme, siclyk as vse and wont has bene, and at the said officeris sail cans the 
masteris and ingadderaris of the said dewteis to be answerit and obeyit thairvntill, and thai to 
mak compt rekynning and payment to the dekin and kirkmaster of the said altar, and at all the 
laif of the wiichtis statutis forsaid be obeemit and kepit with tham and be tham according to 
thair facolte; and anentis the outlandismen quhilkis prevenis tham in thair laubouris and 
proffetis, that officeris pas with tham and forbid and put tham fra the occupationn thairof in 
this towne, bot gif thai mak residence thairvntill, and pay thair dewteis to Sanct Jhone and the 
craft, and be resauit thairvntill be the masteris thairof, and to fulfill the statutis aboue expremit 
as efferis, sa that the disobeyaris be pvnist be the officeris of the towne efter the tenour of the 
satdis wrichtis statutis maid of befor and confermit be our predecessouris. In witnes of the 
quhilk thing we haue gart append our commoun sele of cans to thir present lettres at Edinburgh 
the xxvj day of August the yeir of Czod j" four hundreth auchty and nyne yeiris. 

1491. — [Statute anent the government of the master masons of the College Kirk of St Giles, 
of the Bui^h of Edinburgh.] 

The quhilk day, the prouest dene of gild baillies and counsale of the burgh of Edinburgh 
thinkis expedient and als ordanis that thair maister masoun and the laif of his collegis and 
semandis of thair kirk wark that now ar and sail happin to be for the tyme sail dUigentlie fulfill 
and keip thair seruice at aU tymes and houiris as after followes : That is to say, The said maister 
and his seruandis sail begyn to thair werk ilk day in somer at the straik of v houris in the 
morning, and to continew besylie into thair lawbour quhill viij houris thairafter, and than to 
pas to thair disione and to remane thairat half ane hour, and till enter agane to thair lawbouris 
at half houris to ix houris before none, and swa to wirk thairat quhill that xj houris be strikken, 
and aftemone to forgather agane to thair wark at the hour of ane, and than to remayne quhill 
iiij houris aftemone, and than to gett a recreatioun in the commoun luge be the space of half 
ane hour, and fra thine furth to abyde at thair lawbour continually quhill the hour of vij be 
strikkin : And in winter to begyn with day licht in the morning kepand the houris abouewritten, 
and to haif bot thair none shanks allanerly aftemone, and to remayne quhill day licht be gane. 
And gif the said maister quhatsumeuir or his collegis and semandis failHs in ony poyntis aboue- 
written, or remainis fra his said seruice ony tyme, he to be correctit and pvnist in his wages at 
the plesour of the dene of gUd that saU happin to be for the tyme, as the said dene will ansuer 
to God and to the guid towne thairvpoun. (Lowse leiff dattit 1491.— Tr.) 

20 August 1500.— Till all and syndry quhais knowlege thir present letteres sail tecum, the 
provest bailies and counsall of the burgh of Edinburgh greting in the sone of the glorious 
Virgine, Sene it efieris till ws of our officis to declair the verite of all thingis pronuncit desyrit 
and ordanit befor ws in jugement, heirfor it is that to youre vniuersiteis we mak it knawin that 
thare comperit befor ws sittand counsaly gaderit in to the Tolbuthe of the said burgh the 
masteris and craftismen of the Walkaris and Scheraris of daith within the burgh, that is to say, 
Williame Steill dekin, Patrik Frry, the spous of vmquhile Johne Balfour, the spous of vmquhile 
Johne Yule, James Hog, Johne Gray, Robert Costrall, Robert Bard and George Weir, for thame 
self and in the name and behalf of the haill brethir of the said craft, the quhilkis present till ws 
thare supplicatioun desyrand for the lovage of God, worschip and polece of this burgh and 
commoun proffitt of the nichtbouris thairof and all vtheris reparand thairto, and for Godis 
seruice to be done at thare altare of Sanctis Mark, Philip, and Jacob, foundit and biggit be 
thame in oure College Kirk of Sanct Geill of the said burgh, and for the anomyng and reperal- 
ling of the samyn, that we wald graunt to thame thir diuisis priuelegis statutis cuid reulis vudir- 
writtin, conformand and syklyke as vthir faculteis and craftis has within this burgh accordand 
for thame, and we wald cause the samyn to be obeerait and kepit amangis thame of the said 
craft, and autorist be ws insafer as we haue autorite and powere :— The tenour of the quhilk 
suplicatioun f ollowis in this maner, that is to say. In the first that we may haue faculte and 
powere yeirlie to cheis our kirkmaister of the said altar as vthir craftis dois; and at eueiy 
freman of our soidis craftis pay for the vpsett of his buthe five crooms vsuall mony of Scotland, 



840 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURQH RECORDS. 

and or he aett wp bathe that he be ezamit be foure maiBteris of the said craft quhether he be 
abill and worthy thairto or nocht to seme the nichtbouriB of the toone and vtheriB reparand 
thairto, and gif he be fundin abill to sett vp buthe that he be worth of hiB awin substance thre 
pair of scheris and of powere to pay ane steik of hewit claith, swa that gif ony fait standiB in 
him he to satefy the pairty sustenand the scaith ; and at euery master of our saidia craftis that 
takis ane prenteis to pay at his entre ten schillingis to the sustentatioun of Godis seruice to be 
done at the said alter ; and gif it sail happin ony maister of the saidis craftis to tak or reasave ane 
vthir masteris prenteis, seruand or wagit man, he sail pay tuenty schillingis Scottis mony to the 
said alter ; and gif ony personis of the saidis craftis beis ouertane wyrkand with cardis notit or 
previt apone him he sail pay for ilk tyme he beis ouertane or tayntit thairwith fivetene schillingis 
Scottis mony, to be distribuit in this wys, five schillingis to Sanct Gelis work, five schillingis to 
our said alter, and five schillingis to the findar quhat euir he be, and at the kirkmaister for the 
tyme and ane honest man of the saidis craftis with him may pas to the nichbouris tharof in 
sobir wys for the ingathering of thir dewiteis and sowmes aboue ezpremit to the vphald of Grodis 
semice at our said alter and the omamentis of the samyn, buke, challice, vestimentis and siklike 
neidfuU thingis, and gif neid beis tharfor till poynd and distrenye with ane officiar of the tome 
as efferis ; and now becaus the communite of our craft WaJkaris and Scheraris within this tovne 
walkis wardis extentis and bens all vthir commoun chargis within this tovne, and the outland 
walkaris and scheraris duelland vtouth the fredome of this burgh takkis the work of the nicht- 
bouiis and wynnyn tharof and beris na portable chargis within this tovne, that thairfor ilk out 
walkar or scherar of claith to landward cumand within this tovne and takand the stuf thairof till 
wyrk sail pay ilk oulk ane penny, quhilk is hot small valour, till vphald the devyne seruice at the 
said aJtar of Sanct Mark, Philip, and Jacob, to be ingatherit be the dekin and kirkmasteris of 
the saidis craftis for the tyme; the quhilkis desiris statutis diuisis and reulis was thocht 
expedient and conuenient for the lovage of God, honour and polecy for the said kirk and this 
burgh, and for the commoun proffitt of the samyn and of all our Souerane Lordis liegia, we be 
thir our present letteres ratifiis and apprevis, and alslang as it salbe thocht expedient till ws and 
our successouris, provest bailies and counsale of this said burgh, for the commoun wele and 
proffitt of the samyn confirmis, interponand our autorite for the obseruyng and keping of the 
premissis safer as we haue powar according to the desyre of the saidis craftismen : And this to 
all and syndiy quham it efferis or may effeir we mak it knawn be thir our present letteres, 
writtin vndir our commoun seill of cause of the said burgh, at Edinburgh the tuenty day of the 
moneth of August the yeir of God ane thousand five hundreth. 

26 August 1500.— Till all and sindry to quahais knawlege thir present letters sail cum. The 
provost, baillies, and counsaU of Edinburgh, greting in God evirlestiug. Witt zour Universitie, 
that the day and dait of the making of thir present lettres, comperit before us in counsall 
gatherit, John SteUl, kirkmaster; George BeU, William Hockbume, Johne Quhyte, Robert 
Richartsoun, Johne of Lauder, William Lamb, Thomajs Foulare, William Dick, Morice Slenny, 
and the laife of the maisteris of the taJzors craft within this burgh, and put till us thare suplica- 
tioun, contenandt certane statutis and rewles devisit be thame, to be affirmit be us, for the loving 
of God Almichty, the honour of the realme, the worschip and profit of this gude toune, and the 
profit of all our soverane lordis, lieges, and uthens reparand thareto; of the quhilk suplica- 
tioun, the tenore foUowis : — My Lordis Provest, baillies, and worthie counsale of this nobill 
toune, unto zoure honorable discrationis, richt humUy menis and schawls the kirk-mastir, and 
the lidfe of the masteris of the talzour craft within this burgh, that firat for the loving (praise) 
of Almichty God, the honore of the realme, the worschip and profitt of this gude toune, and the 
profitt of all cure severane lordis leigis, and utheris reparand thareto, and in exempill of utheris, 
and for the augmentatioun of Divine service at the altar of Sanct An, oure matrone of the 
Bamen, situate within the College Kirk of Sanct Geils of the said burgh. We desyre that we 
micht have thir statutis, articulis, and rewlis foUowand, grantit and gevin till us be zour 
autoritie, quarethrow gude rewle and gyding may be had amangis us of the said craft, baith 
masteris and servandis, and oure successoris ; considering it is saide be comone auctorite, that 
multitude but reull maks confusion, and to eschew the vice thereof, and be estimit in tyme to 
cum, thir foUowand ar oure rationable desyris : — In the fiist, That for the several encresments of 
vertue, practick and knawledge, atandis in gude begyning and foundment, and fra thine furth to 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS, 341 

continew in vertae, and perseyeTe to final end : That fra thine forth, all manir of prentice to bo 
tane at the said craft, sail stand in prenteischip for the space and termes of sevin zeirs, and na 
less, without dispensatioon of the prindpall master of the said craft, and specialie favour of the 
fionnys of the said craft ; and ilk prentice to pay at his entrie, to the reparatioun and uphalding 
of Divine service and oure said altar, ten schillings ; and that nouther thir prenticis, nor nane 
othyr penoun of the said craft, be sufferit to set up buth within this said burgh, without he be 
fandin sufficient, habUl and worthy thairto, in practick and utherwayis, and admittit thareto, 
firet be the swome masters of the craft, and maid freman and burgess of the said burgh ; and for 
his upsett, to pay forty schillings to the reparatioun and uphalding Divine service at oure said 
altar. And that na manor of master of the said craft to houss, harber or resett any uther 
master's prentice or servand ; and gif he dow, he sail pay ane contribution and taxt to oure said 
altare, at the discratioun of oure said sworn masteris principall of the eaids craft, and the causs 
thereof to be reformit be thame : And that ilk master haldane buth within this said burgh of the 
said craft sail pay his wolkly penny to the reparatioun of the adhomementis of our saids altare, 
and to sustene the preistis mete thereof, as it cummys about ; and that the said kirkmaster and 
certane of the prindpaU masteris of the said craft, that sail happin to be for the tyme, may have 
full facultie, leife and privilege, with ane officare of the toune, to pas with thame for to poind 
and distrenne, gif neid be, for the taking, raising and inbringing of thir dewities forsaid, to the 
sustentatioun and uphalding of Goddis service, as said is, but danger, stop or impediment. 
Quharfore, as this our rationable and simpil desyris and petition is conform to equitie, and ar 
consonant to honore and poUecey, according to the usis and consuetudis of great antiquitie in 
uther realmys and provincis; that ze wald grant till us thame ratifyit, approvit and confimiit be 
sow under zowr sele of causs, in perpetuall memorial of gude rewle to be had in tyme to cum, 
with zowr answere hereupon we humily beseik. The quhilks articulis, statutis and rewlis, 
beand red, hard and understandin, and diligently considrit be us, that they ar for the lovage, 
first of Almichty God and sustentatioun of Divine service, and for gude rewlis to be had in tym 
to cum amangis thame of the said craft, in augmentatioun and suple of the comone profitt, and 
for till eschew misgydit wayis, that has bene usit in tyme begane ; we have ratifyt, approvit and 
confirmit ; and be thir presents for us and our successors, ratifys, approvis and confirmis the 
samin in all poyntis and articlis to the said masteris and their successoris of the saide craft, 
in perpetuall memoriale in tyme to cum for evirmair; and this to all quham it efferiS) 
we mak knawin by the tenore of thir our lettres. In witness of the quhilk thing, to thir 
oure present lettres oure comone sele of causs of oure said burgh we have gart append, at 
Edinburgh, the 26th day of the moneth of August, in the yere ane thousand and five hundreth 



20 November 1501.>-[0n the twentieth day of the month of November, in the eleventh hour, 
George Tours, Provost, instantly required, advised in all kindness, and commanded the preben- 
daries of the Collegiate Church of St Giles of Edinburgh to observe their due service in the said 
church, according to the tenor of the foundation and erection of the same college, imder the 
penalties which might be imposed on the same prebendaries by the said Provost, Bailies, and 
Councillors of the burgh. Witnesses — Alexander Lauder, Walter Young, James Tours, and 
many others ; John Fowler, Dean of Guild.] 

Febnuxry 1503-4.— Item, the dene of gild with ane baillie to se that na preistis pas to 
gadder almous with thair pece bot ane day in the yeir for ilk altare. 

14 February 1503-4. — Is declairit that Elizabeth Wod, the spous of umquhill Allane Winde- 
yettee, producet the infeftment of the chaiplenry at St Eloyes altare and the sowm thairof ; 
anent the patronage, to be tailyeand the said donatioun after herself to Margaret M'Crerik her 
dochters airis of hir body quhilkis failyeand to Wods airis, the presentatioun to be within xv 
dayes after it vaik, quhilk gif thai slip than to pertene to the towne hoe vice, and gif thai failyie 
of aventur and beis nocht levand to pertene to the toune for euirmair. 

18 April 1504. — (Ane statute with consent of the prebenders of St Geilis kirk anent the 
dergis, sawle mas feists, and vthers, that the absents for the tyme sail half na fie nor waiges for 
the draiges and sawle mes bot the persouns present except the seik and the superexorsistene 
attour the waiges to be distribute at the sicht of the patronis, provest and baillies oounsale and 
Ytheris, gif thair be. — Tr.) 



842 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BUBGH BECORDS. 

( Ane vther statate that ane ooUectonr be chosin to gadder the falte of the prebenden fail- 
yeand and absent fra thair seroice, and the spedall paynes and vnlawes Ls declarit. Thir on the 
lowseleiifie.— Tr.) 

27 February 1510-11. — [On the twenty-seventh day of the month of Febrnaiy, about the 
twelfth hour of the day, in the year of our Lord 1510, the thirteenth indiction, the eighth year 
of the pontificate of Pope Paul the Second. Master Gavin Dowglas, provost of the CoU^;iate 
Church of St Giles of Edinburgh, the official, and all the prebendaries thereof, in respect of the 
ftulure to-day in the celebration with accustomed honour of the mass of the most holy blood of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, firmly promised in future to celebrate and sing the same on eveiy 
Wednesday, under the penalties for every week day for each person twopence, and for a festival 
fourpence ; and if all should fail, the prebendaries should pay one merk to the common good of 
the confraternity of the Holy Blood, and they should not have the privilege of synod in any day 
to excuse from the said service. And the official, in name of the other prebendaries, protested 
that if it shall happen, upon taking account of the money which may be accumulated of the 
said confraternity, it amounts to a large sum, that they shall have a little of it for their own 
refreshment, the service being first done in this manner. These things were done in the 
chapter chapterly convened about the foresaid hour. Sir Alexander Lauder, of Blith, Knight, 
Provost of the town, asked an instrument. Witnesses, William Hoppar, Adam Carketill, 
Patrick Brown, (Uank) Elleis.] 

30 September 1513.— {Master Gavin Douglas, provost of the collegiate church of St Giles of 
this Buigh, Ib made burgess, gratis, for the common benefit of the town.] 

6 September 1517. — To all and sindrie quhom it efferis to quhais knawl^^e thir present 
lettres sail cum, the prouest baillies and counsall of the burgh of Edinbuiigh greting in God 
euirlesting, witt your vniuersiteis that the day of the daitt of thir presents comperit befoir ws 
sittand in the Tolbuith in jngement the haill craftismen of the candilmakers of the said burgh, 
that is to say Robert Fassintin, Andrew Galloway, Ambrose Gray, William Wilsoun, Malise 
Malloch, and Jhonn Selyman, the quhilk persouns and craftismen presentet as thair supplica- 
tioun and bUl of thair desyres for the conforming and keping of thair statutes and rewles maid 
for the commoun weill of this burgh, and Kings lieges reperand thairto, accordand and con- 
formand to the awld statutes and privileges that thai had of the prouest baillies and counsall of 
the said burgh of before, the quhilk supplicatioun and bill red before ws at lenth, and we thair- 
with beand rypelie avyset thocht the samyn consonant to ressoun and greitt appeirand proffeitt 
to the said craftismen, to this guid toun and Kings lieges reparand thairto, and thairfor it is our 
will, and als we deceme and ordanis, that the said craftismen and thair successouris bruik joyse 
and vse all thair awld fredome, statutes, rewles, articles and conditiouns maid for the guid rewle 
of the said occupatioun and craft as after foUowis : In the first, that yeirlie the haill craft of the 
said candilmakeris within this burgh sail cheyse ane deykin amangs thame that is fremen and 
burges of the toun, quhilk deykin sail be oblist and swome to rewle and conforme the said craft 
in all guid rewle and ordinance for the honour and worschip of the realme and toun, lyke as 
vther craftismen dois within the samyn. Item, that na maner of man nor woman occupy the 
said craft as to be ane maister and to set vp buith, hot gif he be ane freman or ellis ane fremanis 
wyfe of the said craft allanerlie, and quhen thai sett vp buith they sail pay to Sanct Greills wark 
half a merk of syluer, and to the reparatioun, beylding and vphalding of the licht of ony mister- 
full alter within the College Kirk of Sanct GeUl, quhar the said deykin and craftismen thinks 
maist neidfuU, half ane merk, ay and quhill the said craftismen be fumist of ane alter of thair 
awin. And in lykwayis ilk maister and occupear of the said craft sail, in the honour of 
Almichtie God, and of his bUssit mother Sanct Marie, and of our patrone Sanct Grele, and of all 
Sanctis of heaven, sail give yeirlie to the helping and furthering of ony guid reparatioun ather 
of licht or of ony other neidfuU grayth till ony alter situat within the said CoUege Kirk maist 
neidfull, "xa,, and to [be] gadderit be the deykin of the said craft ay and quhill thai be proydet 
of ane alter to thame selffes, and he that disobeyis heirin the deykinis and the laif of the craft 
sail poynd thame with ane officer of the toun, and him pay ane pund of walx to our Lady altare 
quhill thai get ane alter of thair awin, and that nane of the said craftismen send any lads, boyes, 
or seruands oppinlie vpoun the hie gaitt with ony candill to rowpe or to sell in playne streitts, 
vnder the payne of escheitting of the candill and paying ane pund of walx to our Lady alter the 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 343 

first fait, tlie secnnd tyme escheitting of the candill and paying of twa pund of walx, the thrid 
time escheitting of the candill and his persoun to be brocht with the deykin and craitismen of 
the said craft to the provest and baillies of the toun, and thair to be pvnist, with avyse of the 
said deykin for the tjnne and the laif of the said craft, for the brekking of thair said statutes 
and rewles ; bot it sail be lefuU to ilk maister of the said craft to haif ane semand that sail gang 
honestlie throw the toun with his creill and stufe to furneis his callands with, bot nochte to 
Towpe thame oppinly to sell, and that he heir on his creill his maisters mark to ken him and his 
Btufe, and quha that beis sene gangand vthen^'ayes the candill to be escheitt and pvnist as 
said is. Item, that na man of the said craft tak ony prenteis for les termes than foure yeir, and 
that na man of the said craft nor na vthers tak nor fie ane other mannis prenteis nor semand 
without licence and leif of his maister asket and obtenit quhill the compleitt end and ische of 
thair termes ; and quha sa dois the contrar heirof the deykin and the laif of the said craft to 
pvneis that as effeiris, and attour that all the maisteris of the said craft mak gnid and sufficient 
stufe and honestlie handlit and sufficient worth the money, and that all wemen be expellet the 
said craft bot fremenns wyffes of the said craft allanerlie, thay doand and obeyand to the deykin 
and craftismen lykeas is contenit in the foresaidis statutes, bot gif it be allanerlie for thair awin 
vse and byming in thair howssis, and quha that will nocht be maid freman he sail nocht sett 
vp nor hald buith bot to be ane semand vnder a master quhill he grow and be reddy thairto, and 
that nane of the saidis craftismen semands boyes nor prenteis thair termes beand rwn mak 
seruice to ony vther men except the craftismen of the said craft, vnto the tyme that thay be 
rcddy to wirk thair awin wark and to be fremen of the toun. The quhilk articles statutes and 
rewles we the said provest baiUies and counsal of the said bnrgh for ws and our successouris 
apprevis ratifeyis and confermis the samyn in swa far as effeiris tUl ws or hes power ; and this 
till all and sindrie quhom it effeiris or may effeir in tyme to cum we mak it knawn be thir 
presents lettres ; and for the mair vereficatioun and strenth of the samyn we haif to thir present 
lettres hungin the commoun seill of cause of the said burgh of Edinburgh, the fyft day of the 
moneth of September the yeir of God j" v« and seventeen yeiiis. (Subscribitur) Strathauchin. 

(And the seill of cans to hing quhilk hes bene brokkin and putt togidder with new walx 
thairon bayth sydes. 

This lettre confermit be the Kings maiestie vnder the greitt seilL Daittet at Edinburgh the 
fourt day of May j" v« Ixxxxvij yeirs. — Tr.) 

8 October 1518. — The quhilk day, the president baillies and counsale statutes and ordanis, 
for the guid rewle to be had in thair College Kirk of Sanct Gele, that the semandis of the gild 
and the haly bluid bedrall euer ilk day kdp the qeir of the said kirk fra all vile personis the 
tyme of the maytinis, hie mes and evin sang, and at thai keip the haill kirk and thole na maner 
beggares to cum within the said kirk nother at maytenis, hie mes, or evin sang, vnder payne of 
depriuation of thame of thair offices for euir, and vtheris to be putt in thair steidis. 

22 September 1520.— Till all and sindry quhais knawlege thir present letteres sail tocum the 
provest bailies and counsall of the burgh of Edinburgh greting in God euerlesting, wit ye ws tUl 
haif ratifiit and apprevit and be the tenor of thir present letteres ratifiis and apprevis ane con- 
tract gevin in and present befor ws in jugement be the dekin and kirkmaster of the Walkaris 
and Scheraris maid with avise and consent of the personis contenit in the samyn, of the quhilk 
contract the tenor efter foUowis : — At Edinburgh the penult day of the moneth of Maij the yeir 
of God ane thousand five hundreth and tuenty yeris proportis and beris witnes that it is 
appoynctit concordit and fynalie endit betuix richt worschipfull men, that is to say, Williame 
Steill, kirkmaster, Jolme Yoile, James Home and Williame Gibsoun, with all the laif of the 
maisteris and brethir of the Walkaris and Scheraris within the fredome of the burgh of Edin- 
burgh beand present for the tyme on that ane part, Johne Lauson, Andro Gardum, Andro Auld, 
William Homyll, Thomas Dryburgh, Robert Talyefeir, Johne Wan, Johne Dalrampill, the spous 
of Jonet Watson, William Rogeir, Thomas Henrisoun, Agnes Yorstoun, the spous of James 
Williamsoun for thameself and for the laif of the craft of Bonetmakaris vsand merket and 
fredome of the sidd burgh of Edinburgh apone the tother pairt, in maner, forme and effect as 
eftir followis, that is to say ;— In the first, to the loving of God the glorius virgine Marye and 
the halie ewangelyst Sanct Mark, the fomemmyt personis bonetmakaris of thar awin fre willis 
for reparatioun of hiJikirk and devyne seruice to be done for tham at the altar of Sanct Mark, 
2T 



344 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

and for the coTnmoim weiU of this gud burgh grantis and oblissis thame faithfully till content 
and pay oukly to the reparatioun of the said altar ilk ane of thame ane penny to be ingatherit 
by thame self in ane box, thai haifTand ane keye thairof and the kirkmaster or ane vther maister 
of the Walkaris and Scheraris till half ane vthir keye siclike for lele and trew compt till be maid 
of all thingis ilkane till vtheris as efferis; and quhen it sail happin the chaplane that dois devyno 
seruice at the said altar till cum for his mete amangis the siddis Bonetmakaris ilkane of thame 
to perfiimis the said chaplane his met sicklyk as the saidis Walkaris and Scheraris dois, and 
quhair it falyeis in his meit to be gevin till him aucht penneis that day to his wage. And gif 
sua beis that ane of thame may nocht gudlie perfumis the said chaplane, in that cais it salbe 
lefuU to tua of thame till fulfill and do the samyn als aft as it sail happin him to cum about to 
thame. And als the said Bonetmakaris till pay thar vpsettis and prentischip siluer to the said 
craft of Walkaris and Scheraris and to thar said altar, and that to be moditiit and considerit be 
ane pairt of the best of baith the saidis craf tis ; and to be gevin to the reparatioun and vphaldin 
of the said altar. And inlykwis the said kirkmaster and brethir of the said craft of Walkaris 
and Scheraris within the fredome of this burgh sail walk and cans thar seruandis to walk thar 
bonettis quhilk thai wyrk and bringis to thame or to thar said seruandis als weill and bettir than 
thai war done in tymes bygane and of the samyn price. And attour the said kirkmasteris and 
brethir of the said craft of Walkaris and Scheraris bindis and oblissis thame that nothir thai na 
thar seruandis sail nocht walk ony maner bonettis to na bonetmakar bot gif the man or woman, 
quhat thai be, half lerit the said craft of bonetmaking. Alsua, the saidis Bonetmakaris promittis 
faithfully till serch and seik ilk merket dayis gif thar be ony bonettis maid to sell of quhite or 
vthir colouris of wob yame or wrangius gottin yame or woU, and gif thar be ony apprehendit to 
be escheltit to the uphaldin of the said altar. And als the said Bonetmakaris send with thar 
saidis bonettis ane seruand for to se that the samyn be weill done. And ilk persoun of thame sail 
mark thar bonettis be thame self as efferis. Attour the saidis kirkmaster and masteris of the said 
craft of Scheraris and Walkaris faithfull bindis and oblissis thame till fortefy and manteine the 
saidis Bonetmakaris in the optenyng and getting of the act of the gude toune vnder thar seill of 
cans apone thar awin expens. Alsua, the saidis personis bonetmakaris promittis to the said kirk- 
master and masteris of the Walkaris and Scheraris that thai sail do thar vtyr power and diligena 
till inbring all the laif of thckr craft in all gudly haist for to fulfill and obserue the premissis as 
thai do in all thingis without fraude or gyle to the vtilite and proffit of the said alter. And the 
said kirkmaster and masteris of the said craft of Walkaris and Scheraris bindis thame to the 
said personis bonetmakaris to mantene supple and defend thame in all thar honest and leifull 
actionis, and to supple thame with thar mortclaith and all vther necessar thingis of thar said 
altar quhen myster is, thai fulfilland the premissis in all thingis. Alsua, the said kirkmaster 
and masteris of Walkaris and Scheraris promittis that thai sail nocht walk nor thoill thar 
seruandis nor prentyssis to walk bonettis to na bonet makar at thar sex myllis, bot the man or 
wif be of the said craft, nor at na vther myll at thai may stop or lat. And ilk bonetmaker 
wyrkand at thar awin hand as ane maister sail pay for thar vpset thretty shillingis to thair 
awin box and to the vtilite and proffit of the said altar ; and for ilk prentys vjs, yiijd. And 
gif ony truble or debait happinis amangis ony of the saidis craftis, thai till meyne the samyn 
amangis tham self in cheritable maner saffand the priuilegis pertenand to the toun. Item, gif 
ony of thir ij craftis and pairtiis aboue wry ttin brekis till vtheris in ony poynt of the premissis, the 
craft brekand till pay ten pundis als aft as thai sail faill, to the reparatioun of thar said altir of 
Sanct Mark. To the fulfilling of the premissis and euery poynct tharof ather of the saidis partiis 
and craftis abon wryttin ar bundin and oblist till vtheris be the faith and treuth in thar bodiis, 
the halye Ewangellis tuichit but fraude or gyle. In witnes of the quhilk thing to thir present 
letteres we half hungin to our common seill of cans of the said burgh, at Edinbui^h the xxij 
day of September the yeir of God jn» v« and tuenty yeiis. 

27 February 1520-1. — ^And now becaus the communite of the wobstaris walkis wardis extentis 
and beris all vther commoun chargis within this tovne, and the outland wobstaris duelland 
vtouth the fredome of this toune takis werk of the nichtbouris and wynnyng tharof and beris na 
chargis within this tovne ; tharfor that ilk out-wobstar to landwart cummand within this toune 
and takand the stuf tharof till weif sail pay ilk oulk ane penny, quhilk is bot small valour, to 
vphald the diuine seruice at the said altar situat within the said College Kirk of Sanct Geill, to 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 345 

be ingatherit be the dekin and kirkmasteria of the said craft for the tyme to the vphaldin of 
dinine Beroice at the said altar. 

5 June 1521.— The quhilk day» the provest baillies and oounsall rennnds and dischairgis the 
gift that thai had gevin till Sir Michaell Dyeert of Sanct DuthajB altare of before situat within 
the College Kirke of Sanct Geill, and all that foUowit thairvponn, and the samyn till be of nane 
availl force nor effect in tyme camming. 

2 May 1522.— The quhilk day, the provest baillies and connsall ordanis the officeris of the 
toan till pass poynd and distrenye George Henrisonn and Andro Vddart, ilk ane of thame for 
x]«., for the selling of thair wyne for zijcf. the pynt ; failyeand that the saidis officeris poynd 
nocht for the samyn, thai to pay the saidis soumes of thair awin pursis, to be applyit efter the 
forme of the actis maid thairvpoun of befoir, viz. the ane half to Sanct Gelis wark and the vther 
half to Sanct Anthonis altar. 

20 March 152^-3.— To all and sondrie quhaise knawledge thir present letteris sail to com, the 
provest baillies and conncill of the brogh of Edinburgh, greeting in God everlasting. Witt yonr 
nniversities that ther compearit before ns counsally gatherit within the Towbuith of the said 
brugh our lovite neighbonres and towne burgesses, viz. George Foulis, Walter Scott, George 
Gibson, David Gillaspie, William Wilkieson, Robert Rodger, Johne Maider, Heniy Scot, 
Alexander Heriot, Andrew Simson, Michael Gibson, James Baird, James Scot, John FaUsyde, 
Johne Black, Archibald Bartillmo, Johne Bartillmo, James Gillaspy, Edward Thomson, Andrew 
Boyss, Arther Mowbray, and Michael Lochmyll, kirkmaisteris, and the laif of the maisteris of 
the baxter craft within the brugh, and present thair supplicatioune till us, makand mentione 
that the facultie and power they had of before upon the guid guyding and reule of thair said 
craft was destroyit, and our seal of cause tane thairfra be negligent in time of troubill, and 
thairfore desyrit the samyne newlinges againe to be granted for the honour and lovage of Godis 
service at thair altar of Sant Cubart, situat within our Colledge Kirk of Sant Geille within our 
said brugh, and for the common profeit of the neighboures thalrof conteinand this effect. In the 
first, that na persounes presume them to be maisteris of the said craft to baik thair awin stuffe 
to sell without they be first prenteis, syne burges, and thairafter ezamynit be the maisteris of 
the said craft, fundin able, and admitit thairto, and syne thairefter tUl pay thair dewties as 
uthir craftis dois within this brugh ; and also that the said kirkmaisteris and brether of the said 
craft choise them ane sufficient chaplane at thair pleasure to make devyne service at thair said 
altar of Sant Cubart, upon ane competent pryce as they can agrie with the said chaplane, sick- 
ly ke as uther craftis dois within the said bui^gh ; and that ilk brother of the said craft furnish 
the said chaplane orderly as he sail happin to cum about to theme ; and quhen any persones of 
the said craft happens to be chargit to forgather with the kirkmaisters and principal maisters of 
the said craft to l^t upon the common weUl and profyte thairof, and absent thame but rationa- 
bill cause, that persone to pay ane pund of wax to Saint Cubarts light at thair said altar ; and 
also quhatever he be maister of the said craft that beis apprehendit bakand falss and rotten 
stuff, or insufficient to sell again to our Soverane Lordis liegis, sail pay ane pund of wax to thair 
said altar the first tyme, and for the secund fait two pund of wax, and gif he beis overtane in 
the third fait he and his bread sail be brocht before the provest and baillies, and they to punish 
him thairfore aa sail be thocht expedient with the aviso of the kirkmaister and worthiest of the 
said craft aa effeirs : Item, that quhatsumever persounes of the said craft happens till disobey 
the kirkmaister and the worthiest uthir persounes forgatherit with him of the said craft for the 
honour and common weiU thairof sail pay fourty shillings to Saint Geilles wark, and twa pund 
of wax to Saint Cubarts altar sjb said is ; Item, that na maister of the said craft sail take ony 
childer in service thairat ane or mae fra this tyme furth but gif they be prentices and pay thair 
de^vties as effeirs, and that na baxter take nor resset ane uther manis servand of the said craft 
under the payne of fourtie shillings to Saint Geilles wark, and twa pund of wax to Saint 
Cubarts Hcht, or else to be expellit frae the occupatioune thairof. Item, anent the flour baiks 
and fadges that cumes fra landwart into this toune to sell, that they may be examit upone the 
guidnes of the stuffe and weicht for the toune weill sycklyke as thair stuff is, sua that gif they 
be nocht fundin conformand in guidness and weicht, with the avise of the officiaris and maisteris 
of the said craft that they be destroyit, and nocht to repair with syklyke stuff in tyme thairefter 
sen this caiss standis baith for the common weill and common profeit of our myUes, and also 



346 NOTICES OP ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

that tliey micht have facultie and priviledge yit as of before to make statuts and renlee for the 
guyding of thair said craft in honestie, and for the common weill of the said toune, accordand 
till equite and reafioune. With the qnhilkis desyres we beand diligentlie avisit has considerit 
the samyn and fyndes them conformand to the honour and lovage of Code and this gude toune 
and common profeit of our Souerane Lordis liegis repairand thairto, we ratiffie and confirme the 
samyn in all effect above written. In witnessing of the quhilk thing to thir our present letteres 
we have gart append our commone seal of cause of the said brugh at the samyn the twentie day 
of the moneth of March the year of God ane thousand fy ve hundreth twentie and twa yearis. 

3 June 1523. — The quhilk day, in presens of the baillies sittand in jugement Mr James 
Haliburtoun, procuratour for Mr ArchibcJd Tod, resignit and left the benefice of sacristanrye 
and parroche clerkschip in the handis of the baillies counsall and communitie, as patrones 
thairto, in fauourlB of Sir Robert Hopper be way of permutatioun and nane vtherwayis. 

22 February 1527-8. — ^The quhilk day, the baillies and counsale ordanis the dene of gild or 
tbesaurer till cans the waist land of the townis that thai gat fra Hew Dowglas and his spous, 
lyand at the west kirk dur, to be fillit vp with red, and to calsay the samyn honestly as efferis. 

31 March 1530.— Till all and syndry quhais knawlege thir present letteris sail tecum, the 
provest bailies and counsall of the burgh of Edinburgh greting in God euirlesting. Witt your 
vniuersites that the day of the dait of thir present letteris, comperit before ws sittand in juge- 
ment the haill brethir and communitie of the Bonetmakaris within this burgh, and presentit 
befor ws thar bUl and snpplicatioun desyring that we wald grant to thame the rewlis statutis 
and preuilegis contenit in thar said bill and snpplicatioun, of the quhilk the tenor and effect 
efter foUowis :— To yow my lordis provest bailies and worthy counsall of this gude tovne, 
hnmlle menis and schawls your dalle seruitouris the haill brethir of Bonetmakaris within this 
burgh, that is to say, Johns Lausoun, Andro Gardnar, Andro Auld, William Homyll, Thorn 
Dry burgh, Robert Tailyefeir, Johne Wan, Johne Dalrumpill, Jonet Watsoun, William Roger, 
Thom Henrison, James Williamsoun, and vthir diners brethir and sisteris of the said craft, 
that quhair we traist your lordschippis knawis and vnderstandis perfytlie how that we ar vnyt 
and incorporat togiddir with the brethir of Walkaris and Scheraris within this said bui^h, and 
ar oblist to thame till pay our dewiteis to the reparatioun and wphalding of Godis seruice at 
thar altar of Sanct Mark, situat within your College Kirk of Sanct Geill, baith in oukly 
penneis, preistis melt, and all vthir dewiteis, syklyke as ony of thame dois to the samyn, and 
has optenit your wisdomys wryttingis and letteris vndir your commoun seill of cans of this 
burgh ratifyand and approvand the samyn in all thingis contenit tharintill, and without your 
wisdomyis grant till ws thir preuilegis and reulis efter foUowand thar will na gude reule nor 
gyding be kepit amangis ws, quhilk reulis and preuilegis ar richt proffitabill for the commoun 
Weill of this tovne and of all our Souerane Lordis liegis of this realme, that is to say : — In the 
first that we micht haue yeirlie ane honest man of the said craft chosin till ws quhilk salbe 
callit ouerman and ouersear of all the laif that thar werk be gude and sufficient stuf, and at 
that ouerman be chosin yeirlie be the auise of the provest bailies and counsall of the said burgh, 
and all the men and wemen of the said Bonetmakaris till obey him at all tymes quhen he 
serchis the samyn for the commoun weill of the said craft ; and at na man nor woman of Bonet- 
makaris vse nor wyrk the said craft of bonatmakyn without at he or scho be first prenteis and 
ane craf tisman or woman of the samyn and that nane of the said craft mann nor woman ressett 
ane vtheris prenteis, vndir the payne of tuenty schillingis to be tane and applyit to the 
reparatioun of the said altar, and als that na man nor woman of the said craft of Bonetmakaris 
be fund with vnsufficient stuf, viz. with wob yame or vther hew of burges stuff, bot at the 
samyn be thare awin propir gudis wrocht and spvn within thare awin houssis, vndir the payne 
of eschaeting tharof to be applyit at the will of the gude tovne and at oukly serching be maid 
heirintill be the said ouirman and vtheris of the said craft, and ilk persoun man or woman that 
wirkis at thar awin hand sail pay at thar entre to the reparatioun of the said altar thretty 
schillingis, and for ilk prenteb thai ressaif sex schillingis aucht penneis, and quhat tyme that 
euir it sail happin the chaplanry of the said altar of Sanct Mark to vaik ony manor of way that 
we the brethir of the Bonetmakaiis sail half our votis in the chesing of ane vther chaplane 
tharto syklyke as the saidis Walkaris and Scheraris, and als that thar be na merket day had 
amangis ws for the selling of our bonettis bot allanerly apon the Monunday and Wednisday, sua 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 347 

that the samyn may be eerchit and sene gude and snificient stuf and quhat persoun beifi fundin 
ony vther day with bonettis selland oppinly in the merket the samyn till be eschaetit with ane 
officiar of the tovne and to be distribut to the vtilite of the said altar, and that ilk person man 
or woman of the said Bonetmakaris sett thar markis upon all necessar thingis that sail happin 
to be brocht amangis thame and the saidis Walkaris and Scheraris to the vtilite and profiitt 
of the said altar, syk as bake, challice, vestiment, and vther stuf quhatsumeuir syklyke aa 
the saidis Walkaris and Scheraris dois, and als the said Bonetmakaris tUl haae ane key of the 
said Walkaris and Scheraris box sykelyke as thai have ane of thare box, the qohilkis reolis 
preuDegis and statntis aboue wryttin we pray your lordschippis till grant till ws vndir your 
commoun seill of cause, and will God we sail do sua in the tovnis seruice that ye and your 
Buccessouris salbe hartiie content of ws in tyme cummyn with your deliuerans heiiintill humlie 
we beseik. The quhilk supplicatioun and bill beand red befor ws in jugement, and we thar- 
with beand ryplie auisit, thocht the samyn consonant to resoun and for the commoun weill of 
this bui^h and all our Souerane Lordis liegis, and tharfor safer as we may for ws and our 
successouris grantis the saidis preuilegis reulis and statntis to be obseruit and kepit amangis 
the saidis Bonetmakaris, and ratifiis and apprevis the samyn in all poynctis in tymes tocum be 
thir presentis. In witness of the quhilk iJiing to thir present letteris we half gart append our 
commoun seill of cause at Edinbui^h the last day of the moneth of Marche, the yeir of God ane 
thousand five hundreth and thretty yeris. 

Thir ar the names of this craft of Bonetmakaris quhilkis are nocht specifiit in this wry tting 
aboue, that is to say WUliam Lauson, James Craufurd, James Stevinson, William 
Joffray, Alexander Myll, Jonet Poilton, Johne Rogeir, Thom Spanze, Johne Inglis, 
Dauid Murray, Johne Layng, Johne Williamson, Katran Grame, William HammylL 

In presens of the bailies in jugment, Margaret Smyth of hir avne fre wiH oblist hir that 
fra this tyme furth scho shall nocht [use] na iniurious wordis, blasfeme, nor schame Dene 
Alexander Creichtane vicar of Sanct Cuthbartis Kirk, nothir in word nor deid, vnder the 
pament of xli, tilbe gevin till Sanct Gelis werk. 

16 July 1590.— The quhilk day, the pronest baillies and counsale hes gevin and grantit to 
Mr Robert Creychtoun, prouest of thair College Kirk, the littill pece of waist land of thair 
kirk yaird equally disoendand fra the chalmer new biggett for the curate doMme throw as the 
said chalmer strekis to the nether end of the said prouests yaird, for policy to be bigget be the 
said prouest thairintill, becaus it wes before ane midding and commoun sege till all petBOuns.— 
(On ane lowse leiff. — Tr,) 

The quhilk day, forsamekle as it was perfytlie vnderstand and kend that Dauid Duly tailyonr 
has haldin his wif seyk in the contagius seiknes of pestilens ij dayis in his house, and wald nocht 
zevele the samyn to the officiaris of the toune quhiU scho wes deid in the said seiknes, and in 
the meyn time the said Dauid past to Sanct Gelis kirk, quhilk was Sonday, and thair said mes 
amangis the cleyne pepill, his wif beand in extremis in the said seiknes, doand at wsa in him 
till haif infekkit all the toune, for the quliilk cans he was adiugit to be hangit on ane gebat 
befor his awin dnr, and that was gevin for dome. 

Item, it is statut and ordanit that na manor of persone man nor woman that has bene put 
furth to the mure in this contagius seiknes, and clengit, that nane of thame cum within Sanct 
Gelis Kirk amangis the vther cleyne folk quhill thai optene licens of the prouest and bailies of 
the toune, vnder the payne of banasing of the toune. 

20 October 1531.— Tyll all and syndry, quhais knawlege thir present letters sal cum, the 
provest, bailies, and counsall of Edinburgh, greting in God euerlesting : Wyt your vniuersite, 
that the day and the dait of the making of thir present letters, comperit befor ws counsally 
gaderyt, Thomajs Stanhous, kyrk-maister, Thomas Arthour, Andro Edgar, William Pacok, 
Alexander Frostar, Andro Persoun, Alexander Robesoun, Robert Spittal, Johne Cowpar, Johne 
Kraik, Johne Bayne, and Thomas Thoniesoun, and the laif of the maisterys of the tailyeor craft 
within this Buigh, and present till ws thair supplicatioun, contenand certane statu tis, articulis 
and leulis, dyuysyt be tham to be affirmyt be ws, for the loving of God Almyghty, the honour 
of the realme, the worshype and proffyt of thys gad tovne, and the proflfyt of all oure soverane 
lordys liegis, and vtheris reperant thairto, and in exampell of vtheris, and for the agmentatioun 
of dyuyne seruice at the alter of Sanct An, situat within our College Kyrk of Santt Gele of 



348 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

the said Burgh, and thairfor desyryt that thai mycht haue thir statatis articolifl and renlis 
foUowand granty t and ge^nn to the saidiB brother and thair sncceaBoaris be ws and our anthorite, 
quhairthrow gud renle and gyding may be had amangis thame of the said craft, bay th maisteiys 
and seniandys, and thair successouris thairof in tyme to com, considering it is said be oommonis 
authorite, that maltitad but reole makys confusionn and for till eschew the yioe thairof, and 
to be eschewyt in tyme to com, the qnhilk desyr we thocht consonant to resoon, and thairfor 
has grantyt and gevyn to the saidys brethir, and thair sacceesoaris, thir statutis, articolis and 
reulis foUowand : Item, in the first, that sen all entresment of verten, practik and knawlege, 
standys in gnd begynyng and fandiment, and fra thynfnrth to contuiew in vse and perseuire 
till fynale end, that fra thyn fortht all maner of prentis [that] sail be tayne at the said craft 
sail stand in pTyntischype for the space of sevyn yeris, and na less, without dispensatioun of 
the principaU maisterys of the said craft, and specialye in fauours of the sonys of the said craft, 
and ilk prentis till pay at his entry to the reparationis and wphald of dyuyne sendee at thair 
said altar, or ony prentis be sett apoun the tailyeor burd, ten shillingis. Item, that na maister 
reeaif ane seruand that hes nocht bene prentis within this Buigh with ane free maister of the 
said craft, without he pay ten shillingis to the said altar, and that he [be] bund prentis to the 
maister that resaiifis hym for ane certane of yeris, as the sayd maister and he can aggre. Item, 
that uane of thir saidys prentissis be ressauit, without the dekyn, the four kyrk maisterys and 
the chaplane that says prayers, till be for the tyme, be present for till put the saidys prentissifl 
in thair prentis buk, and mak the indenturis of thair conditiouns amangys thame, under the 
payne of twenty schillingys, till be payt till Sanct Gelys werk, and twenty to the reparatioun 
of the said altar of Sanct An vnforgevyn als oft as thai brek ony punct of the said act. Item, 
that nowthir thir prentisis, nor nane vther persoun of the said craft, be suiferyt till sett wp 
bnyth within this said Burgh, nor wyrk of the said craft, bot with ane fre maister of the 
samyne, without he be sworn maister, and fund sufficient, habyU and worthy thairto in practik 
and Ythery wayis, and admyttyt thairto first be the sworn maisterys of the said craft principal!, 
and maid fre man and burgess of the said Burgh, and than for his wpset till pay fyf pundys to 
the reparatiouns and wphald of dyuyne seruice at thair said aJtar with an honest dennar to the 
swome maisteryis thairof. Item, that na fre maister of the sud tailyeor craft fie ane vther 
craf tis man of ane vther craft to w^Tk in his buyth, under pain of ten schillingys till be payit 
to Santt Gelys werk, and ten schillingys to Santt Annys altar, als oft as ony maister wses the 
samyne. Item, that na vnfreman of the said craft cum within the fredome of this towne that 
has ane buyth without the fredome of the samyne, till tak ony werk or stuff furth of the 
samyne till wyrk it, owder schappin or wnschappin, it sail be lesum till the dekyn and 
maisterys of the said craft for the tyme till tak the samyne werk fra thame, and gyf it be 
made werk, the price thairof till cum to the reparatioun of thair said altar of Sanct An, and 
gyf it be not maid, na fre maister of the said craft till mak the samyne to the persouns that the 
said stuf pertenys to, and take his price thairof, because the saidis vnfremen nowthir scottis, 
lottis, waJkis nor wardis within our said fredome. Item, that na burgess, na fre man within 
this burgh, lord na lard, resaif ane vnfreman of the said craft in thair houses nor lugenys till 
wyrk quyetly or oppynly, in defraude of the said craft, without the pricys thairof be payit to 
the said dekyn and maisterys, to the reparatiouns of thair said altar, and quhay doys in the 
contrar, that officiarLs of this gud tovne pas with the saidis dekyn and maisterys, and mak 
thame oppyne durris, and deliver the stuf that they fynd wrocht and vnwrought, being in the 
saidis vnfremens handys for the tyme, to the saidis dekyn and maisterys, and till remayne 
with thame quhill the pricys thairof be payit to the reparatioun of thair said altar, and gyf ony 
burgesses, lordis, lardis, or vthir fremen, induellars, or vnfremen within this burgh, uses the 
resett of sic vnfremen of the said craft in tyme cummyn, thai sail pay vnforgevyn twenty 
schillingys to Santt Gelys Werk, for ilk tyme thai be fund in thair forsaidys houses and 
lugenys, fra the first charge be gevyn be ane ofiycyar of this gud tovne, and to pay the ofliciaris 
for thair lawbouris, and ten schiUingys to the said altar, for the costys and skayth it sustenya 
thairupon. Item, that [na] maister of the tally eour craft ressaif nor resset ane vther maisterys 
servand nor prentis of the said craft within this buigh, without he haue maid compt and raknyn 
with the maister he cumys fra, and that he be contentyt thairof, vnder the payne of ten 
schillingys to be payit to the said altar quha dois the contrar vnforgevyn. Item, gyf ony 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BXTRGH RECORDS. 349 

fremaister of the said craft within this burgh brekis ony manys stuf vnordourly, or womanis, 
and spillis the samyne in his defalt of werkmanshype, the persoun that aw it sail cum to the 
dekyn and maiBterys of the said craft for the tyme, and plenye thairupon, it beand seyn be ane 
certane of the said swome maiateryB, that the workman thairof has falyeit in ony punct, the 
said dekyn and maisterys sail cause the said man till recompens the complenyear thairof, of 
the skayth he has sustenyt thairthrow, and that thair be certane maisterys of the said craft be 
sworn apon all sic caissis, or thai deceme in the samyne, that thai sail lelely and treuly, 
without feid, fawour, or prejudice of pai-ty, depone and deliuer in the samyne, and cause the 
complenyear till be payit of his skayth. Item, that na maister sail haue forman in his buyth 
till wyrk, hot ane allanerly within this fredome. Item, that na maister sail dissobey the dekyn 
and maisterys for the tyme, in the gatheryn in of the dewteis to thair said altar, vnder the 
payne of twa punddis of walz till be payt to the said aJtar als oft as thai dissobey vnforgevyn. 
Item, gyf thair be ony fremaister of the said craft that bydis away fra the quartar coipptis, thai 
being lawfully wamyt be the seruand of the said craft, he sail pay ane pund of walx vnforgevyn, 
without he hane ane releuand* ezcusatione, and that it be oppynly knawn. Item, gyf ony 
maister of the said craft dissobeys the dekyn and the maisterys in ony thing that is for the 
commone weill of the samyne, quhairthrow they will not obey, without an officiar of this gud 
tovne be brocht to thame till pund for the samyne, thai sail pay twa schillingys to the officiar 
for his feys, and ane pund of walx with the dewteis that are awyn. Item, that ilk maister 
haldand butht within this burgh of the said craft, sail pay his wkly penny to the reparationis 
of the enhomamentys of the said altar, and susteyne the prestis meit thairof, as it cummys 
about, and that the said kyrk-maister, and ane certane of the principall maisterys of the said 
craft that sail happyn till be for the tyme, saU haue fulfeture, leif and preuilige, with ane 
officiar of the tovne till pas with tham for till pund and distrenye, gyf neid be, for the takyn, 
rasing, and inbringyn of the forsaids dewteis to the sustentatione and nphald of Godis seruice, 
as said is, but danger, stop, or impedyment. And attour, gyf it sail happyn ony mabter or 
freman of the said craft, efter that he be maid maister to the samyne, abstrak him and disuse 
his said craft, and thairefter retume agane to the occupying of the sam^ni craft, that he sail pay 
ail manor of dewteis bypast, sa he be thollyt till wyrk at the said craft, or ellis till pay his new 
upsett agane. Quhilkys statutis, articulis and reulis, with preuilygys aboue writtyn, we the 
saidis prouest, baleis and counsall for ws and our successors, gyffys and grantis to the saidis 
dekyn and maisterys, and affirmys, ratifys, approvis and confirmys the samyne, in all punctis 
and articulis to the saidis dekyn and maisterys, to be brukyt and josyt be thame and thair 
successors of the said craft, in perpetual memoriall in tyme cummyn for euer mayr. And this 
till all quhom it efferys we mak knawyn be the tenor of thir oure letteris. In witnessing of the 
quhilk thing to thir our present letteris, oure commone seill of cause of our said burgh we haue 
gert append, at Edinburgh, the twenty day of the moneth of October the yeir of God ane 
thousand fy ve hundreth and thretty ane zeris. 

12 September 1532.— The quhUk day, in the presens of the prouest baillies and counsale, 
Gilbert Lauder, procuratour and in the name and behalf of Sir Gilbert Lauder, renuncit and 
• purelie and simplie resignit the alterage and seruice of Sanct Nicholace alter, scituat within the 
College Kirk of Sanct Geyll, in the handis of the prouest baillies and counsale as patronis to the 
samyn, and incontinent the said prouest baillies and counsale gaif the said alterage to Sir Dauid 
Purdome, be the deliuering of ane bouet as vse is, efter the foundatioun. 

25 September 1532.— The quhilk day, the prouest baillies counsale and communitie granttia 
till Gilbert Lauder the landis of Petravye in Fyfe in few, as thay that ar patronis to the samyn 
quhilk now Sir Gilbert Lauder chaiplane of Sanct Nycholace alter, in augmentatioun of iJie 
rentale of the said chaiplanrie, viz. for xxvj merkis, that is vj merkis mair nor it wes wont till 
gyf, to be brukit and joysit be the said Gilbert and his airis, induellaris within the toun of 
Edinburgh, and granttis till his charter thairof thair commoun seill in the best forme can be 
maid. 

12 February 1532-3. — The quhilk day, the prouest baillies and counsale decemis and 
ordanis the brether of Candilmakaris till extent and beyr all portable charges with the breder 
of the Fleschouris that salhappin within this burgh in tyme to cum, ay and quhill the saidis 
Candilmakaris obtene sufficient discharge be sentence that thay sould nocht stent with thame. 



350 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

and that witlioat preiudice of onye Tycht of the saidis Candylxnakaris ; and ordaniB thame to 
pay to the Flescheouris for thir twa last ext^nttis xb. 

22 August 1533. —Till all and Bin dry qnhais knauledge thir present letteres saltocum, the 
pro vest haillies and counsale of the Burgh of Edinburgh greting : Witt youre vniuersitelB that 
the day of the dait of thir present letteres coniperit before ws sittand in iugement the kirk- 
maisteris and the laif of the maistcris and brother of the Skynnar craft and Furrour craft of the 
said burgh, and present till ws counsaly gaderit thair bill of supplicatioun of the quhilk the 
tenour followis : — My lordis provest haillies and worthy counsale of this guid toun, vnto your 
richt honorabill discretionis humlie menis and schewis the kirkmaisteris and the laif of the 
maisteris of the Skynnar craft and the Furrour craft within this burgh viz., William Akinheid 
kirkmaister, Stevin Bell, Henry Cranstoun, Robert Huchesoun, Henry Lille, Johnne Gibsoun, 
William Loch, Thomas Bischop, Johnne Huchesoun, William Scott, Robert Haithwy, James 
Ramsay, ThomajB Clerksoun, George Hammiltoun, Johnne Park, Andro Romannos, Johne 
Watsoun, William Coldane, William Watsoun, William Wallange, Adam Wricht, Thomas 
Quhite, James M'Lellane, Thomas Hervy, James Andersoun, Johnne Auld, Johne Fairlie, 
Thomas Wischart, James Forat, James Huchesoun, skynnaris; the names of the furrouris, 
Robert Bischop dekin, Dauid Ferry, Johnne Craig, Archibald Loiche, Alexander Duncaue, 
William Duncane, Adam Makcalyeane, ThomajB Singiltoun, William Camys, Dauid Younger, 
Walter Somervell, Thomas Andersoun, Matho Cant, and Richart Henrisoun, that quhare, first, 
for the loving of Almichty God, the honour of the realme, the worscMp and proffit of this gude 
toune and all oui« Souerane Lordis lieges and vtheris reparand thairto, and in exempill of 
vtheris and for the augmentatioun of divyne semioe at the altare of Sanct Cristofer our patrone 
of the samyn altare situate within youre College Kirk of Sanct Geill of the said bui^h, we 
desire that we micht haue thir statutis, articulis, and rewlis eftir following grantit and gevin 
till YB be youre antorite qnhairthrow gude rewle and giding may be had amangis ws of the 
sadis craftis, baith maisteris and seruandis, and oure successouris thairof in all tymes tocum, 
becaus it is said be commoun autorite that multitude but rewlis makes confusioun, and for till 
eschew the vice thairof, and to be eschewit in tyme tocum, we desir thir rewlis eftir foUowand : 
In the first, that sen all incresment of vertew practikis and knaulege standis in gude begynning 
and foundment, and fra thinfurth to continew in vertew and perseuerance to finale end, that fra 
thynefurth na manor of personis of the saidis craftis of skynnaris and furroris be sufferit to set 
vp buth nor pull skynniB within this burgh without he be first freman and burges of tiie samyn, 
fundin sufficient and abill in werkmanschip and vthirwayis, and admittit thairto be the provest 
haillies and counsale and swome maisteris of the craftis, and than for his vpsett to pay, gif he 
be ane skynneris son burges within this burgh ten schillingis, and gif he be ane vthir mannis 
son to pay for thair vpsett the sowme of fyve pundis vsuall money of Scotland, to the 
reparatioun and vphalding of divyne sendee at oure said altare ; and at na maner of maisteris 
of the saidis craftis tyest hons [or] berbery any vtheiis maisteris prentice or servand ; and gif 
ony dois in the contrar he sail pay ane pund candill of walx, and thaireftir als oft as the fait 
happennis at the discretioun of the provest haillies and counsale the persoun falctand to be 
pvnist ; and at ilk maister haldin buth within this said burgh of the saidis craftis sail pay lus 
oulklie penny to the reparatioon of the omamentis of oure said altare and sustene the preistis 
meit thairof bjb it cumis about : Item, that na fals stuf be sauld till our Souerane Lordis liegis 
vnder the pane of half ane pund candill of walx to oure said altare als oft as it beis ouiietane ; 
and at the fals stufi* be present to the provest haillies and counsale, and thai to remeid and 
reforme the samyn as thai sail think expedient for the tyme ; and gif ony personis of the saidis 
craftis intromettis or withhaldis the gudis of the said altare or craftis, and sustenis pley 
thairintill, he to pay and deliuer the samyn with the expensis of his proper gudis gif he be 
fundin in the fait ; and at the saidis kirkmaisteris and prindpall maisteris of the saidis craftis 
that sail happin to be for the tyme may haif full faculte lelf and preuilege, with ane officar of 
the tovne to pas with thame for to poynd and distrenye gif neid be for the taking rasing and 
inbringing of thir dewiteis forsaid to the sustentatioun and vphalding of Goddis seruice as said 
is, but danger stop or impediment, and that all the maisteris of the sadis craftis that takkis 
ony persoun in prenteis with thame sail pay to the reparatioun of the said altare the sowme of 
twenty schillings : Quharfore we humlie beseik youre lordschip and wisdomes, sen we ar twa 



NOTICES OP ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 351 

craftis and vnite onre self in cherite togiddir to the vphalding of Goddis seraice and for the 
honour of this gude toune and proffit of all onre Souerane Lordis liegis, and sen thir onre sempill 
desiris and petitionis ar resonahle and confomie to equite and are consonant to the gude reule 
honour and polecy according to the Tsis and consuetudis of grete townis of honour of vthir 
realmes and provinces, that ye wald grant to ys thame ratifyit approvit and confennit he yow 
vnder your commoun sele of caus, in perpetuall memoriall of gude reule to he had in tyme 
tocam, with yonre ansuer heirapoun we humilie heseik : The quhilk supplicationn and desiris 
before expremit heand red in iugement, and we thairwith heand ripelie avisit, we thocht the 
samyn consonant to ressoun, and thairfore ratifyis approvis and confermes the samyn for ws and 
our successouris als lang as thai salbe sene expedient speidfull and proffitabill for the commoun 
proffit to the provest haillies and counsale of this burgh that sail happin to be for the tyme ; 
and this till all and sundry quham it efferis we mak it knawn be thir onre letters. In witnes 
of tlie quhUk thing we have gart append to thir presentis our commoun seall of caus. At 
Edinburgli, the twenty-twa day of the moneth of August, the yeir of God ane thousand fyve 
hondreth threty and thre yeris. 

Hec est vera et indubitata copia principalis litere, statutorum communitati Pellipariorum et 
Foderatorum burgi de Edinburgh per prepositum ballinos et communitatem eiusdem eiis 
concessis, et per eosdem roborate et confirmate sub eorum communi sigUlo, fideliter 
copiate et collationate per me notarium publicum subsciiptum nil addito vel remoto 
quod facti substandam mutaret aut intellectum variaret, sub meis signo et subscriptione 
manualibus. 

Ita est, Andreas Richartsonn notarins publicus mann propria premissa 
asseruit. 
[This is a true and undoubted copy of the principal letter of statutes to the community of 
Skinners and Furriers of the burgh of Edinburgh, granted to them by the Provost, 
Bailies, and Community of the same, and by them ratified and confirmed under their 
common seal, faitlifully copied and collated by me, notary-public subscribing, under my 
sign and subscription manual, nothing being added or taken away which could change 
the substance of the deed or vary its meaning. So it is. Andrew Richartsoun, notary 
public, certifies the premises with his own hands]. 
21 March 1533-4.— The quhilk day, the prouest baillies counsale and communitie gevis 
and granttis [to] chaiplane, the chapellanrie of Sanct Eloyis alter within Sanct Gelys kirk, 
vacand now in thair handis bjb patronis to the samyn be the deces of vmquhile Sir Dauid Frissell, 
with all and sindry landis annuell renttis and proffittis pertenand thairto. 

26 May 1535.— Gevis till Sir William Cady the prebend of St Androis altare in Sanct GeiUis 
kirk as vacand, becaus Mr Andro Jhonestoun last prebendar left the land for heresy. 

The same tyme, disponit to Sir Jhone Wilsoun the prebend at St Eloys alter in St Geillis 
Kirk. — (In ane lowse leiff. — Tr,) 

28 July 1635. — The quhilk day, in presence of the prouest baillies and counsale sittand in 
jugement. Sir James Barroun chaiplane of St Dyoneis altare situat within the College Kirk of 
St Gelll resignit his said chaipleniy in the said prouest and baillies hands as patrones to the 
samyn, quhilk gaif the said chaiplenry with all proffitts thairof to Sir Jhone Ker chaiplane, 
after the forme of thair f undatioun. 

The sam tyme, the seruice and chaiplenry of our Lady altare gevin be thame to Sir James 
Barroun. This in St Pawls wark.— (In ane lowse leiff.— Tr.) 

14 July 1540. — The quhilk day, in the presens of the prouest baillies counsale and com- 
munitie sittand in jugement, comperit James Prestoun and consentit and wes contentit to 
resaue the sowme of zvij" merkis for his hous and land at the eist entres of thair College Kirk 
of Sanct Geill, and to resing the samyn in the townis handis ad remanentiam, and warrand the 
samyn land to thame annueU fre at all handis, except for ane annuell rent awand thairof yeirlie 
of sex merkis to the kirk, and viij merkis annuell rent awand thairof yeirlie to Jhonne 
Malcome, as thay pleis devise best thairintill. 

16 July 1540. — ^The prouest baillies and counsale, sittand in jugement, ordanis ane of the 
baillies and offidans pas to the nychtbouris occupearis of the commoun buthis pertenyng to 
the gude tonn, and wame and charge ilk ane of the nychtbouris aUegeand thame to haue the 
2U 



352 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

Bamyn in rentale to deliaer content and pay of fore male of thair buthia to the avale of fyve 
yeriB to cum, to the effect that with the sarayn James Prestonis land at the eist end of the kirk 
may be bocht, and mak ane entres to the kirk for the honour of God and policie of the gnde 
toun ; certefeing enery ane of the saidia personis that hes the saidia buthis and thay refose till 
do the aamyn, thair buitlm salbe rowpit and set at Mertymes nizt to cum to thame that will 
gyf maist male be yeir thairfor ; and aJsua gyf thay refuse to wame thame to flyt at Mertymes 
nizt to cum, sua that the gude toun may dispone vpoun thair buthis to the maist avale of thair 
commoun gude. 

April 1643. — (In the lowse leiff dattit at Aprile 1543 is contenit quhair the towne gaif the 
alterage and chaplenry of Sanct James altare in St Geillis kirk to Sir Jhone Wikoun. — 7r.) 

2 October 1543. — The prouest baillies and counsall hes gevin and grantit to Ry chart Plumbar 
the sowm of fyve merk fie for the yeir to cum, to awaitt daylie in thair kirk and to ordour the 
pure folk, and for clengeing of the paythment and doand sic vther sendee for the honour of the 
towne as pleisis the prouest and dene of gild to devyse, and ordanis the dene of gild to ansuer 
him of the said fie. ( In the convict bulk end.— Tr.) 

27 October 1543. — Thomas Wateoun, glasin wrycht, is feyit be the provest baillies and 
counsall, with avyse of the dene of gild, to vphald the haill glas and wyndois of thair kirk of 
St Geill yeirlie, and to fumeis glas leid and tyn during his lyfetyme, and the said dene and liia 
successouris to fumeis ime and skalfatting and support of leiding and conve^dng of ledderis, 
for the quhilk the said dene and his successouris sail pay to the said Thomas vj merkis yeirlie 
for all the dayis of the said Thomas ly vetyme. 

27 February 1545-6. — ^It is statute and ordanit be, etc, that na manor of persoun hald oppin 
taveme within this burgh in tyme cuming bot thai that ar burgessis and gild-brether and payis 
dewty to St Anthonis altare ; and als that nane of thame haif fals mesures to sell thair wyne 
with, vnder the pane of Wt. to be taikin of thame that beis apprehendit havand the said fals 
mesouris, and als of breking of the samyn. 

21 November 1548. — That na maner of persoun hald oppin tavern bot thai tliat ar burgessis 
and gUd brethor and payis thair dewty to St Anthones altare, and for obseruing heirof ordanis 
aU the baillies, or ony twa thairof, to pas and dischairge vtheris to vent wyne and to steik vp 
thair durris quhill thai be burges and gild brether. — (Counsale buik.) 

23 November 1548. — The maltmen for breking warde adiugeit be avyse of the assessoris to 
pay ilk ane iij7»., to remayne in warde quhill mess, and thai to offer to the hie altare ilk ane 
ane walx candill of ane quarter wecht to St Geill, to ask the provest baillies and counsale 
forgifenes, to pay the vnlaw or thai cum furth with the lv«. vnlaw contenit in the statutes 
or fynd souerty actit. 

30 August 1549.— The quhilk day, in presens of the provest, William Lausoun baillie, 
thesaurer, dene of gild, ane pairt of the cotmsale and deykinnis, sittand in jugement, comperit 
Maister Archibald Barrie, chaplane of the chaplanrie and seruice fundit at the Me alter 
dtuat within the College Kirk of Feild, and thair declairit that thair wes ane land 
caUit Cliddisdaillandis lyand in the Kirk of Feild Wynd on the eist side of the trans thairof, 
pertening to the said chaplanrie, quhilk gaif yeirlie to him the sowme of ten merkis of male 
allanerUe but ony vther gratitude, quhilk land wes now sua ruinous that it wes able to decay 
and fall doun without remeid wer fund thairintill, and that he thoght maist expedient to sett 
the saidis landis in few for the said yeirlie maill of ten merkes with augmentatioun, and with 
consent and assent of the said proveist baillies counsale and communitie, patrones to the said 
chaplanrie and seruice, and thairfoir menit him afoir to thame thairanent, quha causit the hand 
bell to pass through the toun and wame all and sundre the nighbouris and inhabitaris of this 
burgh that sic ane land wes to be sett in few, and thay that wald bid maist thairfoir wald gett 
the samin at ane certane day bypast with certificatioun as effeirit ; at the quhilk day thair 
comperit na persone ezceptand Merioun Craig the relictt of vmquhile Jhon Foulcutoun, quha 
desyret the saidis landis in few and offerit the said ten merkes of few maill yeirlie thairfoir, 
togidder -with xiij«. m]d. yeirlie in augmentatioun, as at mair lenth is contenit in the said Mr 
Archibaldis supplicatioun gevin in thairupoun ; and thairefter the said provest baillie thesaurer 
dene of gild counsale and ane pairt of the deykinnis declairit that thai had sene the said land, 
vesiit the samyn, and fand that it wes ruinous, and als causit reid in jugement the said 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 353 

Merioons chartonr maid be the said Mr Archil>ald with consent of thame vpoun the saidis 
landis and lyplie awysit thairwith, consentit all in ane voce as patrones to the said chaplanrie, 
that the saidis landis wer sett in few to the said Merionn for the said yeirlie few maill and 
angmentatioun foirsaid, and ordanit and grantit thair commonn seale to be hungin to the said 
eliartonr in takin of thair consent foirsaid ; and thairuponn the said Maister Archibald and 
Merionn askit actis of court and instmmentis, and ordanis ane bailie, the said thesanrer or dene 
of gild, to pas to the groond of the said land the tyme of the resignatioun thairof to be maid be 
the said Maiater Archibald in fauouris of the said Merionn for hir heretable seasing thairof, and 
thair consent in thair names to the said resignationn and seasing to be gevin to the said 
Merionn of the saidis landis, efter the tenonr of the said chartonr. — (In the lowse leiffis.— Tr.) 

27 May 1552.— The qnliilk day, the pronest baillies and counsale ordanis the eistar stan dik 
of the kirk yard to be tane downe and the proppis tane away vpoun the ezpens of the choppis 
malis at the kirk yard fute. 

9 December 1552.— The qululk day, the pronest baillies and counsale oblissis tham and thair 
snccessouris to releif James Carmichaell dene of gild anent the sowme contenit in the iadentour 
maid betuix him and Andro Mansioun anent the bigging of the south syde of the queir, conform 
to the indentour maid betuix them the v day of Nouember last bypast. 

26 January 155^-3.— The quhUk day, the pronest baillies counsale and dekynnis sittand in 
jugement, anent the supplicatioun gevin in be James Lawder prebender of thair queir, grantis 
licence to the said James to pas furth of the realme to the pairtis of Ingland, [and] France, 
thair to remane for the space of ane yeir nixt efter the dait heirof , to the effect that he may 
bane and get better eruditioun in mvsik and playing nor he hes ; providing alwys that the said 
James cans ane chaiplane to keip his fundatioun of Sanct Kathyranis alter be ane proist quhill 
the said yeir be done; and in cais the said James return nocht within ane yeir his said 
prebendarie to waik, and the saidis proueet baillies counsale and commvnite to haue power to 
dispone thairuponn, quhairof the said James consentit. 

June 1553. — The quhilk day, the pronest baillies counsale and dekynnis ordanis the 
thesauror Alexander Park to content and pay to Alexander Stewinsoun the sowme of yIu iot 
his Witsonday fe bygane of his seruice maid in the queir, quhilk beand payit, etc ; and 
discliargis him in tyme cumyng. 

11 October 1553. — The quhilk day, the pronest baillies and counsale hes statute and ordanit 
for stancheing of the grote wrangis and hurtis done and to be done be the nychtbouria of the 
burgh and vtheris biggand or reperelland landis within the samyn that gif it salhappin ony 
persone to big or roparelland his landis in tymes cummyng and thairby hurtis ony of his nycht- 
bouria landis in the doing thairof and wrangis his nychtbour thairby, coguitioun being tane 
thaimpon on the land be the dene of gild and the counsale, and decreit gevin, that the pairty 
being fund to haif done the wrang to reform the samyn and als to pay xx«. to Sanct Gelis werk 
by the vther dewiteis aucht, and that the officeris of the buigh iacontinent efter the decroit 
geving poynd thairfor. 

27 April 1554. — ^The bailies and counsale sittand in jugement ordanis the dene of gild to 
repair and vpbig the Sang Scule in the kirk yard as it wes of befoir sua that the bamis may 
enter thairto and inhabit the samyn. 

20 Jtdy 1554.— The pronest baillies and counsale findis be the fundatioun and als be consent 
of Sir Henry Loch sacristane of Sanct Gelis queir that the said Sir aucht to find and seme the 
said kirk at all tymes neidfull lycht of fyro and watter to seme all the chaplanis of the kirk and 
als to find stringis to all the bellis inwith the stepill, and siclik to watter and sowp the queir 
euery vlk anis ; and als anent the ringing of the bellis decemis, with consent of the said Sir 
Henry, that in all tymes cummyng the grete bellis be nocht roung fra ten houris at evin quliill 
y houris in the morayng ; and that he haif alanerlie for the xxiiij houris ringing vj«. viijd 
without ony vther dewite and that the dewite of the thro belHs and deid bell be vsit of the 
auldvs. 

The quhilk day, in presens of the pronest baillies and counsale, Johne Young askit 
instmmentis that Sir Henry Loch consentit and wes content to tyne his benefice of sacristane 
in Sanct Gelis Kirk in cais ony dosane of chaplanis of Sanct Gelis Kirk waJd preif the kirk 
wantit fyre and watter in his defalt. 



354 NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 

The provest l>aillie8 and connsale and dekjoinis of craftis, vndeiBtandand that Andro 
Mansioun quha wes wrycht to the bigging of the stallis of the queir bee done his vtir devore 
and deligence thairin and hes completit the 8am}ii honestlie and Bubetantiouslie and thair wes 
ane honest reward pi-omifit to him for his bontath and reward thairof ; thairfor the saidis 
prouest baillies counsale and dekynnis hes gevin and grantit and be the tenour heirof gevis and 
grantis to the said Andro and his assignais ane or ma ane yeirlie pensionn of ten merkis vsnall 
money of this realm tobe payit to him and tham be the dene of gild of this buiigh for the tyme 
as vs is for the space of ten yeris nixt heirefter begynnand the nixt termes payment at 
Mertymes nixt tocum, or ay and quhill the saidis pronest baillies counsale and dekynnis within 
the saidis ten yeris gif freilie to ane of the said Androis sonis or ony vther qnhome to he sail 
pleis the samyu be gevin to ane benefice of ane lawit patronage of the yeirlie rent of ten pundis 
at the leist, or gif it salhappin sic ane benefice to vaik within the saidis x yeiris and thairefter 
tobe ofierit to the said Androis sone or to himself tobe gevin to ane vther of his chesing and 
refus the samyn he and his assignais foirsaidis to tyne his said pensionn and the samyn to 
expyre in the self ; and gif it salhappin the said Andro and his assignais tobe ansuerit of the 
said pensionn for the said space of x yeris he and thai than to renunce the samyn and frathin- 
fnrth nocht tobe ansuerit thairof nor yit na benefice to be gevin to his sone nor ony vtheris as 
said is, and als the said Andro acceptand the premissis for his reward and bontath as said is 
oblist him to seme the towne of Edinburgh in all thair commoun effaris and commoun werkis 
bayth in the towne kirk and vther placis on the townis expens, and gif ony small fait happynnis 
tobe in the werk of the said queir he to mend the samyn on his expens. 

14 June 1555.— The prouest baillies and counsale hes conducit and hyiit Alexander 
Stevinsoun to signe in thair queir euery sestrae day for ane yeir heirefter and at the messis 
of oiir Lady and the Haly Bind as thai salhappin to be, and hes ordanit thair thesaurar to 
pay to him thairfor xx merkis, quarterlie v merkis, and incais he mak nocht seruice as said 
is he nocht to vplift his said pensioun. 

12 AuguH 1555. — In presens of the prouest baillies and counsale, James Carmichael dene of gild 
declarit that he haddiurs and syndry tymes aduertist tham that the eist gaviU windok ef Sanct Gelis 
kirk wes abill to fall downe and destroy Sanct Diones alter and that litill expens in tyme wald re- 
meid the samyn and that he had desyrit tham to avis gif he suld reperrell and mend the samyn 
and in quhat maner, that thairfor quhat skayth or danger cum to the said kirk and alter throw 
the oocasioun forrsaid that the samyn be nocht input to him, and thairupoun askit instrumentiB. 

6 September 1555. —The baillies and counsale ordanis the thesaurar Maister Johne Prestoun 
to content and pay to James Dromond and his marrowis quha playit befoir Sanct Geill on Sanct 
Geillis day on the schammes the sowme of xl«. 

8 November 1555. — The prouest baillies and counsale ordanis Sir Ednard Henrisoun ane of 
the prebendaris of tlie queir callit minister core, and maister of the sang skule to keip his 
fnndatioun and to fumeis walx to the hie altar and lamp as he aucht to do and nocht to procur 
with the Lady bred in the kirk be him self at na tyme vnto the tyme that he ressone and caoa 
the counsale considder quhairfor he aucht nocht to do the samin. 

31 January 1555-6.— The prouest baillies and ane pairt of the counsale grantis and gevis to 
Alexander Scott ane pensioun of ten pundis furth of thair commoun gude for the yeir to cum 
alanerlie, and ordanis the thesaurar to pay him thairof, and that for his avating and sing^g in 
thair queir during the said tyme all the haly and festiuall dayis and playing on the oi^ganis 
quhen he saJbe requirit be the towne tbairto. 

10 AprU 1556. — The qubilk day, Alexander Home, Richard Carmichael, baillies, and the 
maist pairt of the counsale, findis that Hector Blacader hes falit in the refusing and dissobeying 
to pas with the pece to the procuratioun to Sanct Gelis werk on Palm Sonday last bypast, he 
beand chairgit thairto as he confessit be the gild seriandis, nochtrntlistanding his excuse maid 
in the contrar, and thairfor ordanis him to pay alsmekil as Johne Wicht quha procurit that day 
gat viz., xxiij«., and to be poyndit thairfor. 

30 May 1556. — The prouest baillies and the maist pairt of the counsale, ordanis the 
thesaurer, Maister Archibald Grahame to pay to James Barroun and Robert Flemyng the 
sowme of xxs, for x half pund wecht candill fumist be tham to the pane on the hie altar, and 
that to be allowit of the first of Sir Eduard Henrisoun's scule fee. 



NOTICES OF ST GILES IN BURGH RECORDS. 355 

22 September 1556.— In presens of the prouest baillies and ane [pairt] of the counsale, oom- 
perit Maister Thomas Makcakeane and presentit ane \iTyting of my Lord Archbischop of 
Sanctandrois, and eftir the reding thairof the eaid prouest baillies and counsale thocht 
expedient and als ordanit for tryell of the cans specifiit thairin, viz. , for the getting knawlege 
of the personiB that tnke downe the images of the Trinite, Our Lady and Sanct Francis, laitlie, 
that euery baillie with twa honest men of his quarter and ane seruand of my Lord of Sanct- 
androis gif thai plesit tocum, and ane chaplane of the kirk, viz., the curat, his substitute, Sir 
Henry Loch and Sir Andro Bartraham, ane to ilk baillie, pas throw thair haill quarteris and 
take cognitioun anent the said dountaking of the images as salbe put to tham in ane article to 
be gevin in be the said Maister Thomas Makcalzeane thaimpoun. 

23 September 1556. — In presens of the prouest baillies and counsale, Maister Alexander 
Forrest prouest of the Kirk of FeUd, in name of my Archibischop of Sanctandrois, presentit 
ane wryting of the Quenis Grace subecriuit with hir Gracis hand and vnder hir Gracis signet, 
and desyrit the samyn to be registrat and the effect thairof to be obeyit, of the quhilk the 
tenour foUowis : Prouest baillies and counsale of Edinbui^h, we greit you weill : Forsamekle as 
we ar infoimit that thair